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On the 26th of January 1857, the Master of the Rolls 
submitted to the Treasmy a proposai for the publication 
of materials for the History of this Country from the 
Invasion of the Eomans to the Eeign of Henry VIII. 

The Master of the HoUs suggested that thèse materials 
should be selected for publication under compétent editors 
without référence to periodical or chronological arrange- 
ment, without mutilation or abridgment, préférence being 
given, in the first instance, to such materials as were môst 
scarce and yaluable. 

He proposed that each chronicle or historical document 
to be edited should be treated in the same way as if the 
éditer were engaged on an Editio Princeps ; and for this 
pm^pose the most correct text should be formed from an 
accurate collation of the best MSS. 

To render the work more generally useful, the Master 
of the Rolls suggested that the éditer should giye an 
account of the MSS. employed by him. of their âge and 
their peculiarities ; that he should add to the work a brief 
account of the life and times of the author, and any 
remarks necessary to explain the chronology ; but no other 
note or comment was to be allowed, except what might 
be necessary to establish the correctness of the text. 

a 2 

The Works to be publislied in octavo, separately, as 
they were finishecl ; tlie wliole responsibility of tlie task 
resting npon tlie editors, wlio Trere to be chosen by the 
Master of the EoUs with the sanction of the Ti^easury. 

The Lords of Her Majesty's Treasury, after a careful 
considération of the subject, expressed their opinion in a 
Treasury Minute, dated Pebruary 9, 1857, that the plan 
recommended by the Master of the Ptolls "was well 
calculated for the accomplishment of this important 
national object, in an effectuai and satisfactory manner, 
within a reasonable time, and pro\T.ded proper attention be 
paid to economy, in making the detailed arrangements, 
without unnecessary expense." 

They expressed their approbation of the proposai that 
each chronicle and historical document should be edited 
in such a manner as to represent T^-ith ail possible correct- 
ness the text of each writer, derived from a collation of the 
best MSS., and that no notes should be added, except 
such as were illustrative of the Tarions readings. They 
suggested, however, that the préface to each work should 
contain, in addition to the particulars proposed by the 
Master of the Rolls, a biographical account of the author, 
so far as authentic materials existed for that purpose, 
and an estimate of his liistorical credibility and value. 

Rolls House, 

Decemher 1857. 










THOMAS WRIGHT, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., kc,., 






JAN 1 2 1950 

Printed by 

Etee and Spottiswoode, Her Majestj's Printers. 

Por Her Majesty's Stationery OflBcc. 


Préface - - - » - . = vii 

The Chronicle of Pierre de Langtoft - - 1 

Appendices ---.„„ 335 

Index ----.-»_ 471 




I HAVE a few remarks to add to what has been said in The manu 
the Préface to the first volume of this book, chiefly on p^^^*^ f^ 
the subject of différent manuscripts containing copies Langtoft. 
of the text of the Chronicle of Pierre de Langtoft. The 
nmnber of them still existing prove that this work was 
extremely popular during the first half of the fourteenth 
century. How far this popularity extended beyond the 
northern counties it would be difficult to say, as we 
can trace none of thèse manuscripts back to the places 
where they were written. Of one of them, the second 
manuscript in the Collège of Arms, which I hâve called 
E., I wish especially to speak. 

This fine manuscript was evidently made for some The manu- 
man of wealth, who wished to hâve a consécutive séries lo^gj^^^^tQ 
of what were considered to be the best Chronicles of theHerald's 
Engiish history in French or Angio- Norman verse, and ^ ^^^" 
the choice is not an injudicious one. First, we hâve the 
Brut, or translation of Geofîrey of Monmouth's history 
into Anglo-Norman verse, by the trouvère Wace, Next, 
we hâve Gaimar's history of the Anglo-Saxon kings ; 
foUowed by the Lai of Haveloc, one of the incidents told 
more briefly in Gaimar's work. Thèse are foUowed by 
Pierre de Langtoft's history of the reign of Edward I., 
which forms the fourth article in the volume. It was 
only when I came to collate with it the text of this part 
of the work for the présent volume, that I found this 


not to be a copy of Pierre de Langtoft's text, but Pierre 
de Langtoft very mucli altered by another hand. Some 
writer, probably of the earlier part of tlie reign of 
Edward III., liad found tliat Langtoft waiited improving, 
botli in substance, and somewhat also in style, and he 
liad undertaken the task, and the resuit is a revision or 
new édition so différent from the first, that I found it 
was useless to go on giving the varions readings, and 
that the only way to treat this new text would be to 
print it entire as a separate work. For examples of 
thèse readings I need only refer the reader to the notes 
to the présent volume, pp. 162-170, and add that the 
variation between the two texts increases as we go 
on. I hâve, therefore, thought it advisable to abstain 
from coUating it any further than the mère introductory 
A manu- I have omitted in my former préface to mention 
th"unS among the existing manuscripts a good copy found in 
sity Li- the University Library, Cambridge, bearing the press- 
Cambridge. 111^1"^ Gg. I. i. I edited from this manuscript so far 
back as 1839, at the end of a volume of " Political 
" Songs " printed by the Camden Society, that part of 
the text of the history of the reign of Edward I. which 
contains so many fragments of what appear to have 
The popii- been popular songs on the events of the day, and 
introdiSd ^specially on those of the Scottish wars. The exact 
by Laug- character of thèse fragments is a rather curions question 
which might perhaps admit of some discussion. They 
are ail composed in the same form of mètre, which seems 
to have been very fashionable at that time, and which was 
called ryme coiuée, meaning literally, tailed rhyme. It 
consists of two lines rhyming together, and then a shorter 
Une with a différent rhyme, then two lines rhyming 
together again, followed by another short line which 
rhymes with the preceding short line. Thèse short 
lines were the tails ; they most comraonly rhymed in 
pairs, so as to form a séries of verses formed of stanzas of 


six lines each, resembling soine of our old ballad poetry ; 
but we find sometimes in tliis form of verse several tail- 
lines rliymiiîg together. As this is invariably the form of 
the fragments of Engiish song found in Pierre de Lang- 
toft, and as the author not unfreqiiently in introducing 
them changes his own long lines into the same form 
of verse, we might be led to suspect that they are 
ail part of his own composition, and not old songs 
taken from popular recitation. But the words with Character 
which some of them are introduced leave little doubt soi-,<ts, 
as to tlieir real character. TJius, in one place, we are 
told that Edward fortifîed Berwick, " in reproval of 
" the Scot, who had sung of him and in mockery made 
'' rliymes iipon him in Engiish," ^ and immediately 
follows the Engiish song in ryme cowée. A similar frag- 
ment on the battle of Dunbar is introduced by a line 
evidently intimating that it was a popular song of a 
satirical description : — " Their deed has turned them to 
" mockery as long as the world shall last." ^ The Cam- 
bridge manuscript of which I am speaking gives some 
additional lines of the Engiish fragments, which are not 
found in the other manuscripts which I hâve examined, 
and which ^ seem to leave no doubt of their true cha- 
racter. Thus, at the end of the six lines of Enoflish 
verse given in the présent volume, p. 258, the Cam- 
bridge adds the folio wing : — 

'^ He loghe wil him liked, 
" His paclir es thurck piked, 

" He wende e were liale ; 
" Begkot an bride, 
^' Rede him at ride 

" In the dismale." 

Again, at p. 278, 1. 10, of the présent volume, the 
scribe who wrote the manuscript apparently, has changed 

^ See p, 234 of the présent vo- | ^ g^^ ^j^g présent volume, p. 252. 


the wording of the line, in order to in sert some verses 
of an Englisli song. 

*' Cum avaunt estaint, Dunbar les achascait. 
'^ For thar wer thai brend, 
'• Ile kauged ham thidre kend, 

" Ant dreved to dote. 
" For Scottes at Dunbar 
" Haved at thayre gau char 

" Schame of thar note. 
" Wer never dogges there 
^' Hurled ont of lierne 
" Fro co3^1the ne cotte." 
In this case we can hardly doubt that the altération 
in the French line was made merely for the purpose of 
introducing thèse English verses, which are very obscure, 
and probably corrupt. 
Manu- Since writing the préface to the fîrst volume, I hâve 

scripts of i^Q^^ jT^Q opportunity of examining hastily the manu- 
Langtoft script of Pierre de Langtoft preserved in the Impérial 
Library in Paris, and I am now able, through the kind- 
ness of my excellent friend M. Paulin Paris, so well 
known for his valuable labours on the literature of the 
middle âges, to give a more particular description of 
it. It would be more correct to call it two manu- 
scripts bound in one volume, for there are two copies 
of part of the text of Langtoft written by différent 
hands, and of différent dates. The handwriting of both 
is English, and, as the French Library came into posses- 
sion of them at the time of the suppression of the 
relio'ious orders in France and the confiscation of the 
goods of the emigrants, M. Paulin Paris supposes them 
to hâve been brought from some one of the abbeys in 
Normandy. The volume was formerly known as Supplé- 
ment Français, No. 262, but now, since ail the différent 
collections hâve been combined into one, it is numbered 
as Fonds Français, No. 12,154. 

The text begins as follows, on the fîrst page of the 
manuscript ; it will be seen at once that it is the second 

at Paris. 


part of the Chronicle of Pierre de Langtoft, and that the 
first part, the translation of the Brut, is hère wanting. 
En les livers Bede des Antiquités, 
Sis cens et iiii. vinz et iii. auns sunt comptez 
Après ke de la Virge Jhesu Crist fu neez, 
Quant le rey Kadvaldrus lessa ses régnez 
De la Grant Bretayne, dount feust engetez 
Par les Saxonays, ke sunt enheritez. 
Vers Bretayne la Mayndre en (sic) Cadvaldrus passez, 
Al riche rays Alaun et à ses parentez; 
De ilokes alait ad Rome cum il fust consaillez. 
Sergius la pape le assout de ses péchez, 
Cadvardrus en la curt à Deu est comandez. 
Le an secund après à le my estez, 
Ivor et Hinny, ke furent s eu s neez, 
Sunt venus de Irlande, en Gales arivet," etc. 
In this manuscript each new set of monorimes is 
headed by a title in Latin, as De rege Adelelpho, on fol. 8, 
or by a date, as at fol. 4, Anno Bomini ccccc. I pré- 
sume, from the description of M. Paulin Paris, that this 
manuscript does not contain ail the fragments of English English 
verse. At fol. 35, the song of the Scots at the siège \^g^^'^^'' 
of Berwick is given as follows : — French 

"■ Li Balyole ad perdu le issue et le entré 
'' De la plus noble vile ke feust en sa poesté. 
'' Le rays Eduard le tent conquise par l'espé, 
" La fet environner de fosse large et lé, 
" En reprovant l'Escoce, k'ad de ly chaunté, 
" Et par moquerye en Englays rymayé : 
" Pyket him, 
" And dyket him, 

*' In scoren sayden he ; 
'' He dykes hit, 
" He pikes hit, 

^' His sal hit be, 
" Scatered hère the Scotes, 
" Hodred in hoytes, 
" Never thay ne the. 



'' Rytht if T rede, 
" Thay toumble in Twede, 
" That woned by the se. " 

This part of the manuscript ends, on fol. 88, witli 
the line which represents line 10 on page 278 of the 
présent volume, — 

" Ciim avaunt estaynt ; escotës ke ceo dait." 

Fol. 89 begins, in a hand which M. Paulin Paris considers 
to be a quarter of a century more modem than the other, 
with the prophecies of ^Eerlin in French, and on the 
verso of fol. 40 commences (in this same hand) the first 
division of the work, the translation of the Brut, begin- 
ning with the Latin couplet which is found at the 
end of the poem attributed to Langtoft in MS. A.,^ 
written in red : — 

" Sermo de Bruto fit suh clictamine tuto^ 
^' Culjoa datiir Petro déficiente métro." 

" Deu le tut jouisseant, ke cel e tare creayt, 

" Adam nostre père que homme de terre formayt, 

'' Naturement porveust quant il ordinayt 

" Qe home de tere venuz à tere renterayt, 

" Cil Deu le beny qe bien escoter dayt 

" Coment Engletere primes comencayt, 

" Et pur quoy primes Bretaygne home l'appellayt.'' 

This part ends with the verso of fol. 68, with the same 
séries of monorimes as given in our text.^ 

" Puis le houre que Brettan Albyon conquist, 

" E la terre avayt, et les giauns occist, 

" Et Bretaygne l'apellayt, e habiter le fit, 

'' Jeskes à cel houre que Cadwallain perdist 

" Le honur de Bretaygne, e nul Bretton remist, 

" Piers de Langetost trove nient plus par dit 

^ See the Appendix in the pré- 
sent volume, p. 446. 

- See p. 2 G of the présent to- 


" K'il n'cid coplye et mys en cel escrit. 
" Les trofles ad lessé, à vérité seprisb. 
^' Nul autre trovera home que le list, 
" Si noun il latiners en son fet mentist/' 

This is followed by the Latin verses, given in the note 
to page 264 of our first vol., beginning, — 

" Finito Bruto, Britones fugiunt religati." 

Cl A 

On fol. 69, ro, begins another copy of the second di- j^rench 
vision of Langtoft's Chronicle, which had been given copy of 

. Pierre de 

before in a différent hand on the first page of the Langtoft. 
manuscripb ; and affcer this, at fol. 100, r^, the third part 
of Langtoft, or the history of the reign of Edwa.rd I., 
is continued, and ends on fol. 108, with the same 
Unes which conclude the text in the présent volume 
(p. 382) :— 

*' Ly roys sire Edward resceyve en sa mercye, 

" Relesse face de forfez en sa vye, 

" En régal mansion la mené à compaygnie, 

" Où servise n'y ad fors joye et mélodie. Amen/' 

It will be well to remark that the Cottonian manu- j^ H^^ ^^ 
script, from which my text is taken, is not ail written writing of 
by one uniform hand. With the line, — 

'^ Après la batayle ly rays retornait," 

on fol. 159, vo, (p. 316 of the présent volume), the colour 
of the ink changes, but the hand seems still to be the 
same, until we corne to fol. 161, v^. (p. 328 of the 
présent volume), when, with the line, — 

'' La Pasche après li reys fist assembler," 

the hand changes altogether, and there is at the same 
time an évident change in the orthography also. The 
original hand seems to hâve returned to it again at the 
beginning of folio 165, r», (p. 346), with the line — 

" Les meyns luy cospeit," 
VOL. II. b 


and it continues to fche beginning of folio 171.. when 
it changes again, and continues clianged to tbe end. 

dices to When we compare together the contents of the différent 

the présent mauuscripts in which we fînd the Chronicle of Pierre 
volume. . , , . .11 

de Lano'toft, we cannot avoid beinçr convinced that most 

of them were written more or less uuder political feel- 

ings, — that they were made for men who were interested 

in the great agitation of the Scotttsh claims and Scot- 

tish wars of the first half of the fourteenth centur}^ 

Hence, several of the manuscripts contain, at the end, 

after the chronicle. documents of a rather miscellaneous 

character connected with this agitation. As some of 

thèse are very curions, I hâve thought it désirable to 

print a sélection of snch of them as are written in verse 

by way of appeudix in the présent volume. I hâve 

arranged thèse documents in the for m of four sépara te 

appendices, according to their différent characters and 


Appendix*! Appeiidix T. — The lirst of thèse appendices relates to 
ments re- a curious phase in the Scottish wars under the reign 

latingto Qf Edward I. In the year 1300, when king Edward 
the inter- V . 

ference of had invaded Scotland with a formidable army, the Scots 
the pope in r^ttempted to ward off the danger by obtaining the pro- 
of Scot- tection of the pope, Boniface VIII., and they set up the 
plea that sovereignty of Scotland belonged absolutely to 
the Holy see, having been given to it by St. Andrew 
himself Tlie pope at first tooh up the question with 
warmth ; he is pretended to hâve been influenced in 
some degree by a considérable advance of Scottish 
money ; he wrote an expostulatory letter to Edward I., 
setting forth at length his own claims to the sovereignty 
. of Scotland, accused him of setting tliem at défiance, 
and admonishing him to desist. Edward called a par- 
liaraent, which met at Lincoln on the 31st of January 
1301, at which the nobles joined in an expostulatory 
reply to pope Boniface, in which they declared the 



justice of king Edward's claims and their unanimons 
resolution to défend thera. The king himself wrote a 
letter to the pope, in which lie gave a long string 
of historical évidence to show the antiquity and justice 
of his own claims. The resuit was that the pope inter- 
fered no further in the niatter, under the influence, 
probably, of other political interests. The Latin texts 
of thèse documents are given, perhaps somewhat abridged, 
in the Chronicle of Matthew of Westminster ; and some 
contemporary or near contemporary of the e vents to 
which they relate turned them into French verse in a 
measure and style similar to those of Pierre de Langtoft. 
The scribe of the manuscript which I call B. (MS. Reg. 
20 A. xi.) has inserted it at the end of Langtoft's work as 
a continuation of it, and from this, as the only copy with 
which I am acquainted, I hâve printed it as the fîrst 
appendix. Unfortunately this scribe was a very care- 
less one, and l^esides corruptions of the text which 
cause obscurity, a line or two are evidently omitted in 
several places. 

Ajipendix II. — The two ])oems given in my second Appendix 
appendix are of a somewhat différent character, and asciibed to 
are inserted hère merely because they are the only two Langtoft. 
other compositions which there appears to be any reason 
for ascribing to the author of the chronicle, which they 
immediately foUow in MS. A. They hâve at the end 
the Latin v^erses relatin g to tlie literary labours of 
Pierre de Langtoft, so that it is évident that the scribe 
of this manuscript, which is one of very good authority, 
believed him to be the author of them. An account of 
them will be found in the préface to my first volume, 
p. xiv. I need say no more than that they are very 
curions examples of a class of literature which was very 
popular in the middle âges. 

Appendix III. — Every man who has studied diligently Appendix 
and minutely the history of the period to which this phedês.^^" 



JV.— En- 
glish pro- 

chronicle belongs is aware of the im]:>ortant rôle wliich 
pretended prophecies, put forth under the naines of 
Merlin, the Sibyls, &c., played in the political struggle. 
Pierre de Langtoft lias inserted the Latin text of 
the prophecies of Merlin between the first and second 
divisions of his chronicle, and in most of the manu- 
scripts the work is preceded or folio wed by a French 
version of it. Besides this, single prophecies, miich 
more brief in extent, and generally written in a metrical 
form in order to be more easily carried in the niemory, 
are found scattered not only through thèse manuscripts, 
but through many others. They were no doubt used 
for political purposes. Those which I hâve printed in 
this appendix, taken from MS. B., are very curions 
examples of such prophecies and political verses, but 
accompanied witli translations into French. Tlieir ori- 
ginal composition in Latin shows tliat they were 
primarily contrived and used by the clergy, and the 
French translations were intended to focilitate tlieir 
circulation among the higher classes of the laity. 

A'ppendix IV. — The longer and more elaborately 
designed poem in English which forms the last of thèse 
appendices belongs to the same class as the scraps 
given in that which précèdes. It was intended of course 
to be sung by the wandering minstrels, so as to spread 
the influence of thèse prophecies among the middle and 
somewhat lower classes of contemporary society. It is 
composed in a north country dialect, and is in some 
places so difficult and obscure that I hâve not been 
able to translate tliem with any confidence. 




. sj 



tion of 
Henrv II. 

of his 

Anno Domini mp. c^. qicinquagesimo quinto. 

Henry fiz Temperyce à Loundres est venu, 
De trestut le pople curtaysement resceu, 
Le joui- saint Leogere^ Henry est rays conu. 
De la terre tute cel houre primat fu 
[Thebaud de Canterbire ercevesque tenu ;] - 
Ad^ Henry la coroune et le anel est rendu.* 

Henry fiz l'emperyce, duk de Aquitayne, 
Quatre ûz avayt, deus fylles ^ en demayne, 
Henry, Richard, et Geffray counte de Brettayne, 
Jon^ fust sun ûz pusnez, sovent jolis en bayne ; '' 
Alyenore sa fiilye fu rayne de Yspayne ; 
Rayne de Cecylle Jobanna la fiilye darayne. 
Icesty^ ray Henry fu tuz jours en wayne ; ^ 
Plus riche prince n'estayt-^^ deça^^ la mountayne. 

Henry le seconde est cesty ray nomez, 
Ke tu[te]^^ Engleterre tent ^^ en ses poustez ; 
Angou et Normendye sunt à ly liverez, 
De Aquitayne est duk, dount est enheritez ; 

^ sein Léger, B. saynt Legger, 
C. The day of St. Ledger (Leod- 
garius) was the 2nd of October. 

- This line, given hère from B., 
is omitted in A. C. and D. 

3 Q'à Henri, B. 

^ ad rendu, B. 

° dousfitz, B. 

^ Johan, B. 

^ baigne, B. D. 

^ E cesti, B. 

•^ en vayne, C. en waygne, D. 

^° prince estait, C. 

1- de cy à îa,D. 

12 tote, B. trestut, D. 

13 tint, B. teent, C. 


Anno Domini 1155. 

Henry son of the empress is corne to London 

And courteously received by ail the people ; 

On the day of St. Ledger Henry is acknowledged 

At that time of ail the land was primate 
Held Theobald archbishop of Canterbury ; 
To Henry is given the crown and the ring. 

Henry son of the empress, duke of Aquitaine, 
Had fonr sons and two daughters in his family, 
Henry, Richard, and Geoffroy count of Britany, 
John was his youngest son, often gay in his living; 
Eleanor his daughter was queen of Spain ; 
Joan, his youngest daughter, queen of Sicily. 
This king Henry was always gaining ; 
There was not a richer prince on this side the mountain. 

This king is named Henry the Second, 
Who holds ail England under his authority ; 
Anjou and ISTormandy are delivered to him, 
He is duke of Aquitaine, which is his inheritance ; 

A 2 








witli the 


Cliuvalers et clers sunt à ly jorez. 
Sun cliaimceler cel lioure fu Thomas appelez, 
Erceden ^ de Kaunterbyre, et de Loundres neez ; 
Fiz fu Thomas Beket, estvet des melz valiez 
De la cyté de Loundres, et riche home assez. 
En chascune cause enquyst les veritez. 
L'erceveske pur veir^ à Deu est comaundez ; 
Del digneté Thomas est en sun lu sacrez f 
Ben sustynt sa}mt Eglyse et ses dignetez ; 
Par drait * lay escryt mayntint les ordynez. 
Mes ke par layes estaynt attaynt des^ malvestez, 
Ne suffry pas k'il fussent par alliours jugez 
Fors en court de clerk ; le ray, cum ws orrez, 
Vers Thomas se corouce, la cause ore escotez. 

Clers sunt sovent hastifs, les uns^ fount volentez, 
Passent drait sovent/ n'esparnent [en] lay fez ; ^ 
Ke sentent la grevaunce al ray sunt alez, 
Et de cel outrage^ amendes ount priez. 
Le ray parmy sa terre ses lettres ad maundez, 
Ke entre clers et lays sa pes sait gardez ; 
Et si clerk mespreygne en ses regaltez 
Par homycyde ou playe, de larcyne arettez, 
En la court le ray ly sayt agardez 
A porter jugement de ses iniquytez. 
Ly erceveske Thomas al ray ad moustrez^^ 

^ Ercediaken, B. 

- pnj' volrs, B. 

^ V ercediaucn Thomas Beket est 
en son see sacrez, B. Le erceden 
Thomas est en son see sacrez, C. 
L'crceden Thomas est en su7i se 
sacrez, 1), 

^ Par droite, Jj. Eobertof Brunne 
translates this line, " With the lave 
'* to wirke mayntend the ordiné." 

^ par heez estoient attenuz de, B. 
par hoes, C. Mes qe par hoes es- 
ta y eiit ataynt de malveytez. D. 

" et les uns, C. e forint volentez, D. 
Robert of Brunne translates this as 
follows : — 
" Clerk es ofteu tide raisdo blithely, 

" For deynoushede and pride, and 
" for ther state is hy ;" 
and adds some further remarks upon 
the conduct of the clergy. 

<" sovent droit, B. C. 

s en laifeez, B. C. D. 

^ de tel utragc, C. de tele, D. 

^° est moustrez, C. 


Knights and clergy are sworn to liim. 
His chancellor at tliat time was called Thomas, 
Archdeacoii of Canterbury, and a native of London ; 
He was son of Thomas Beket, descended of the most 

Of the city of London, and ricli man enough. 
In every case which came before him he sought the 

The archbishop in truth is despatched to God ; 
Thomas is consecrated in his place to the dignity. 
Well he sustained Holy Church and her dignities ; 
Maintained the clergy by right written law. 
But those who were accused by laymen of offences, 
He did not suffer that they should be judged else- 

But in ecclesiastical court ; the king, as y ou will 

Takes anger against Thomas ; now hearken to the cause. 

Ecclesiastics are often hasty, some of them act 
Often exceed justice, spare not in lay fiefs ; 
Those who feel aggrieved are gone to the king, 
And hâve prayed for amends for that injury. 
The king has sent his letters through his land, 
That his peace be kept between ecclesiastics and 

laymen ; 
And if a clergyman commit an offence in his regalities 
By manslaughter or wound, being accused of theft, 
That it be appointed to him in the king's court 
To receive judgment of his iniquities. 
The archbishop Thomas has l'epresented to the king 


tioîi of 

Cause of 




Quel serement il fîst kant il lu coronez ; 

Par Deu ly défend ke klerk sait chalangez, 

Si noun par saint egiyse, dount membre est clamez. 

Co fu à Claringdoun où Thomas ad parlez. 

Et ad Norhauntoun vjmt-il altre fez, 

Deliverer ses clers, mes rens ly fu grauntez.^ 

A la court de Rome ad Thomas appelez. 

Thomas devers la court va la mer passer ; 
Et le ray Henry fet mayntenaunt maunder 
Le erceveske de Everwyk, sun^ [noun] fu Roger, 
Et sun fiz Henry le fyst^ corouner 
Et oynder en rays le règne governer.^ 
Tort fist à Thomas, ke fust outre mer, 
Ke pur veir ^ à ly appent cel ^ myster. 
Kaunt Thomas le seet, fet escomenger 
Le ercevesk par noun, ke ne put ministrer,^ 
Et tuz ke oveske ly dayvent communer, 
Forspriz le rays Henry, ses ûz, et sa mulier.^ 
Sachez Thomas ne volt à sun repairer 
Le ercevesk assoldre pur nuly prier.^ 
Les causes ws ay dit, ws les devez saver, 
Pur quai ^^ le ray Henry fist Thomas exyller ;^^ 
Al ray ne devez pas sa mort aretter. 
Nent plus dist^^ le ray à sun chuvaler, 
" Ay-jo ^^ nule gent ke me pount ^^ venger 
" Sur un tel clergoun, ke fu moun chaunceler ?" 
Quatre chuvalers, saunz plus comaunder, 
Sunt alez en l' egiyse saynt Thomas tuer. 

^ II/ est grauntez, C. D. 

- son noun, B. C. 

3 se fist, C. 

■* le règne pur g., D. 

^ Qar ptir voir, B. C. 

f' tel, B. 

'' qil ne peut mnstrer, B 

^ se fiz sa muhjer, D. 

^ pur nul prier, B. 

^" Par quel, B. 

^^ exilh/er, D. 

^'- Qar nient plus dit, B. 

^3 Fors a ge nule, B. ,. 

^^ porrunt. B. qe me peut, C. 


What oath he took when he was crowned ; 

On God's part he forbids him that an ecclesiastic be 

brought to trial 
Except by Holy Cliurch, by which he is claimed as a 

It was at Clarendon that Thomas has spoken. 
And at Northampton he came another time 
To deliver his clergy, but nothing was yielded to him. 
Thomas has appealed to the court of Rome. 

Thomas proceeds to cross the sea on his way to the 
court ; 
And king Henry now causes to be summoned 
The archbishop of York, his name was Roger, 
And his son Henry he caused him to crown 
And anoint, as king to govern the kingdom. 
He did wrong to Thomas, who was beyond sea 
For in truth to him belongs this duty. 
Wlien Thomas knows it, he excommunicates 
The archbishop by name, who has no power to admi- 

And ail who may hold communication with him, 
Except king Henry, his sons, and his wife. 
Know that Thomas will not, on his return, 
Absolve the bishop for anybody's prayer. 
The causes I hâve told you, you ought to know them, 
Why king Henry banished Thomas ; 
You must not ascribe his death to king Henry. 
The king said no more to his knight but, 
" Hâve I no people who can avenge me 
'' Of sucli an ecclesiastic, who was my chancellor ? " 
Four knights, without further command, 
Are gone into the church to slay saint Thomas. 



Tneiifeof Ki volt saver cornent saint Thomas vesqiiifc, 


referred to. Coment le ray de Fraunce honurer ly fist ; 

Cornent le apostoylle par bulle ly transmyst^ . 

Légat en Engleterre, cornent se ^ entremyst, 

Cornent à Pountyné ^ le aungel à ly dist, 

Cornent sun lynage hors de terre fuist, 

Cornent l'aposfcoyle la payne à cels purv^^st 

Pur quels* en sainte eglyse playe et mort sufFryst, 

Saunz agarde de court/ coment il parfist 

Par sa passioun ke pur Deu emprist, 

Et coment Deu pur ly ovre où il gist ; 

Regarde [ben] sun lyvre,^ ke n'est pas petyt, 

Et là la vérité trovera tut escryt. 

Mort est le erceveske, et nostre'' joven rays 
Est la mer passé, et sur ly quens^ curtays, 
Sir WilHam de Albemarle,^ par aide des Englays, 
Pris ad deus chastels, engettez les Fraunçays.^'^ 
[A] le chastel de Albemarle^^ barouns prist-il trays, 
En Engie terre les meyne ; cels sunt -^^ les deus Flan- 

Ke morent en prisoun pur lur fez malvays. 

Pur la mort^^ Thomas le ray avaunt nomé, 
Henry fiz ^* l'emperyce, est molt angussé. 

grief for 

^ tramist, B. 

" s'en, C. D. Robert of Brunne 
translates this, " And ho-vr, or he 
" -went, he serched aile the state." 

3 Pounteneye,^. D. al Pontent/e, 

•* Par quels, B. C. 

^ du court, B. 

^ Regardez bien smi livere, B, C. 
Begarde bien son livere, D. 

" à nostre, C. 

^ U qiœnt, B. 

=^ Aumarle, B. de Almemark, 

^" le Fraunceys, B, 

^^ Al chastel d' Aumarle, B. C. Al 
chastel de Albemarle, D. 

^■^ ses sunt, B. This passage is 
translated by Robert of Brunne, 
in language not very intelligible, by 
the foliowing Unes : — 
'• Of Almarle in the castelle thre 

" lordes he toke, 
*' Of messengers fuUe snelle he sent 

*' hider to loke, 
" Untjlle Inglond, of Flanders men 

" fulle ille, 
" In warde or in bond in prison levé 

" thei stille." 

'•^ Puis la mort, B. 

i< lefitz, C. 


Who desires to know the life St. Thomas led, 
How the king of France caused him to be honoured ; 
How the pope by bull sent to him 
A legate in England, how he interfered, 
How at Pontigny the angel spoke to him, 
How his kindred fled ont of the land, 
How the pope provided punishment for those 
Through whom he sufFered in holy church wound and 

Without judgment of court, how he completed, 
By his passion, that which he undertook for God's sake, 
And how God perforais miracles for him where he lies, 
Look well into his book, which is not small, 
And there y ou will find the truth ail written. 

Dead is the archbishop, and our young king 
Has crossed the sea, and from the courteous count, 
Sir William de Albemarle, with the aid of the English, 
Has taken two castles, and expelled the French. 
In the castle of Albemarle he captured three barons, 
He brings them into England ; thèse are the two 

Who remain in prison for their evil deeds. 

For the death of Thomas the kino* before named, 
Henry son of the empress, was much chagrine d. 



War witli 

The king 
of Scotland 


The y 

kiug r 


against his 

William ray de Escoce de plus est conforté, 

Et sur le ray Henry guère ad comencé. 

Le chastel de Burge ad pris en sa pousté. 

Malgarde fu par ly perduz, Prudliowe^ salve. 

S'en va vers Alnewyk, oii pris est et mené 

Tut dirait à Richemund, où il est gardé. 

Richard de Morvyle, cliuvaler renomé, 

Et Richard Comyn, of ly sunt herbe[r]gë.^ 

De bons fez des Norays ^ le rays Henry est lé ; 

Des riches douns les ad si ben rewerdoné, 

Ke trestuz ly altres parmy sun régné 

Sunt al rays venuz"* à sa volunté. 

Contek entre countes de tôt est relessé, 

Barayt des barouns par tut^ oblyé. 

Ore est Engleterre en pees et charyté ; 

Ço iîst le ray Henry par sa [grant] bounté.^ 

Le xix. an le ray Henry ^ regnayt, 
Henry le joven rays, ke sun fiz estayt, 
La s ore le ray de France esposé avait. 
Phelippe counte de Flaundres, ke durement amait 
Henry le joven rays, sovent ly consaillait, 
Et Thebald de Blesence,^ ke Henry molt créait,^ 
Et le ray de France sun poer douait 
A Henry le joven, dount il començait 
Suspendre sun père, oii il ne avayt^^ drsijt. 
Kaunt su;i père le seet, tost maunder fesayt 
William ray d'Escoce, ke vynt of graunt^^ esplayt, 
Et David sun frère William of ly^- menayt. 
Le counte de Leycestre cel hom-e ^^ ben guyait. 

^ ProudIioice,C. Robert ofBninne 
says, "Mulgard thorgh him -vras 
" lom, Prudhow savcd welle." 

- od li su/H lierbergé, B. 

3 les Norays, C Des bons f et ~ 
de Norays, D. 

^ à li venuz, B. 

^ de tote, D. 

grant is omitted in A. 

"* Le dise neefsme an qe Henri, 

B. C. Ze dys et le noefyme an ke 
Henry, D. 

^ Ethelmud de Plesence, B. Ke 
Thebald, C. 

9 croit, B. crait, C. D. 

^^ où n^avoit, B. 

^^ od grant, B. oue grant, D. 

^- od le, B. oue ly, T>. 

^^ cel ost,'B. celkostyC. Le count 
de Gloucestre cel host, D. 


William king of Scotland is tlie more encouraged, 

And lias commenced war against king Henry. 

He bas taken into his power the castle of Burgh ; 

Mnlgarde was lost tlirough liim, Prudlioe saved. 

He proceeds towards Alnwick, where he is captured 

and carried 
Straight to Richmond, where lie is kept in guard. 
Richard de Morville, a knight of renown, 
And Richard Comyn, are lodged witli him. 
King Henry is glad of the good deeds of the men of 

the North; 
He lias so well rewarded them with rich gifts, 
That ail the others throughout his kingdom 
Are come to the king to be at his will. 
Strife among eaiis is entirely appeased, 
Discord of the barons everywhere forgotten. 
Now is England in peace and charity ; 
King Henry effected that tlirough his great goodness. 

In the nineteentli year that king Henry reigned, 
Henry the young king, who was his son, 
Had espoused the sister of the king of France. 
Philip count of Flanders, who loved extremely 
Henry the young king, often counselled him, 
And Theobald of Blois, in whom Henry had great 

And the king of France gave his power 
To Henry the young, with which he begau 
To supersede his father, where lie had not right. 
When his father knew it, he immediately sent for 
William king of Scotland, who came with great retinue, 
And William brought with him David his brother. 
The eaii of Leicester commanded well that army. 


The siège Henry of celé gent en Normendye alayt, 
raiSd^^^ La cytë de Koanne - assegë trovayt ; 
Henry par poer sun fiz enchascayt, 
Et le ray de Fraunce ses tentes i lessayt ; 
Phelippe quens de Flaundres le dos ly tornayt ; 
La cytë de Eoan ^ Henry par là salvayt. 

Le primer mays^ de May le ray volt repairer 
Of sa compaygnye en Engleterre arer. 
Sun fiz Henry le joven, le diik de Payter, 
The king Richard fiz Alayn, vayllaun[t] chevaler, 
reconciled^ Le counte de Brettayne Gefii-ay, lur counsailler, 
Sunt venuz à Loundres et fount messager 
Le counte de Brettayne,* ke va le ray prier 
Ke sun fiz à ly se peuse ^ affayter, 
Et ad sa volunté sun trespas amender. 
Ataunt le joven ra3^s ly vent*" mercy cryer. 
Le père le fiz rescayt de molt gentil quer, 
Et sun maltalent le volt pardoner ; 
Par serement, par escryt, le fet ^ obliger, 
Ke jamès après fra guère sur ly mover, 
Submission Ne sa pes enfrayndre par terre ne par mer. 
of Scoi- Kaunt sunt accordez ly fiz et ly per, 
land. Vent le ray d'Escoce grâce demaunder ; 

Et ly ray Henry ses chas tels fet liverer, 
Et fraunchement li soôre Escoce governer. 
Al ray Henry est ut en Fraunce reth orner, 
Et parmy Normendye ses terres visiter ; 
Of le ray de Fraunce ad ^ à Parys parlementer ; 

^ de Berne, B. C. D. Of course \ "* AU that précèdes, from Geffray 
the writer means the city of in the second line before, is omitted 
Eouen, but Robert of Erunno in B. 

translates it, rather naively, " That ! ^ se puisse, B. se puis, C. se 
" reame was biseged "with the i peusse, D. 
" power of France," \ ^ reys veent, C. 

■^ Renie, B. CD. " Par serment e cscrit li Jet, B. 

•* Je primer jour, B. ^ ad omitted in B. C. D. 


Henry with that people went into Normandy, 

He found tbe city of Rouen besieged ; 

Henry by force put his son to flight, 

And the king of France leffc his tents there ; 

Philip counfc of Fianders turned his back upon him ; 

Heniy thereby saved the city of Rouen. 

The fîrst day of May the king would repair 
Back to England with his company. 
His son Henry the young, the duke of Poitiers, 
Richard- fîtz Alan, a knight of worth, 
Geoflfrey count of Britany, their counsellor, 
Are come to London, and make their messenger 
The count of Britany, who goes to soiicit the king 
That his son may be reconciled to him. 
And make amends for his trespass at his will 
And then the young king comes to soiicit forgiveness 

of him. 
The father receives the son with very gentle heart, 
And is willing to pardon his perverse conduct ; 
He makes him enter into obligation by oath and 

That he will* never afterwards cause war to be moved 

against him, 
Nor his peace to be broken, by land or water. 
When the son and the father are reconciled, 
The king of Scotland comes to demand grâce ; 
And king Henry causes his castles to be restored to 

And suffers him freely to govern Scotland. 
It was necessary for king Henry to return into France, 
And visit his lands throughout Normandy ; 
He has to hold a conférence at Paris with the kinir 


of France ; 



Ne seet si il dait par la guère comencer, 
Ou par les xij. pères du tut amourer.^ 
Ben set ke il ne poet - ray tuz jours régner ; 
Pur quai sun trésor comence diviser,^ 
Saver put la summe ky volt^ escoter. 

Cessaunt myP mars de blauns esterl}Tis 
Maunda le rays en Acre par marchauns de Provyns,^ 
Encountre sa venue sur les Sarazyns ; 
Cynkaunte mil mars, dount payn ^ aver et vyns, 
Prestayt as abbays ke furent en ruyns ; ^ 
De l'avoyr ke demort en cofres et coffyns 
Fist sunt testament, cum funt les pelryns. 

Henry 's 

Cet si est le testamient h rays Henry secounde. 

A Waltbam va le rays fere sun testament ; 
Parfcye de sun aver devysa bonement : 
Al Temples en Acre v. mil mars d'argent ; 
Autaunt à THospital al sustenement. 
As genz ke demorent Acre à défendre, 
Cynk mil mars lour donne ^ en ayde à despendre ; 
Al mesouns de la terre de altre religyoun, 
As hermytes et malades, v. mil mars de doun ; 
As moynes et clianoynes,-'^^ et altre compaynye ^^ 
Ke sunt en Engieterre en habite de sainte vye, 
Y. mil mars dona de sa tresorye; 
Et ad tuz cels ke en Normendye estaynt, 
Del testament le rays iij. mil mars avaynt ; ^^ 

^ de tut en amourer, B. de tut 
amourer, C. D. 

- ne put, D. 

^ devyser, D. 

■* qe veut, C. 

^ Sexsaunte mil marz, B. C. D. 
Robert of Bninne makes it only 
** Sex thousand marke." A reads 
rriT/l mil. 

^ par marchaundys de Province, 
C. par marchaunz de Provynce, D. 

" payns, D. 

^ enruinez, C. 

^ en aide lour donne, B. C. D. 

^^ Al moignes et al chanoygnes, C. 

^^ Robert of Bninne translates ci 
altre compaynye by '* and other of 
" suilk raf." 

^- V. mil mars aveit, B. Robert of 
Brunne follows tbis reading, " Five 
" tbousand mark unto tber tre- 
" sorie." 


Does not know if he ought to begin with war, 
Or by making love altogether to tlie twelve peers. 
He knows well that he cannot reign king for ever, 
Wherefore he begins to dispose of his treasure, 
Who will listen, may know the sum. 

Sixty thousand marks in white sterhngs 
The king sent into Acre by merchants of Provyns, 
Against his coming to war upon the Saracens ; 
Fiffcy thousand marks, with which to hâve bread and 

He lent to the abbeys which were in ruin ; 
Of the property which remains in chests and baskets 
He makes his will, as the pilgrims do. 

This is the will of Jdng Henry the Second. 

To Waltham goes the king to make his will : 
Part of his wealth he disposed of worthily : 
To the Temple in Acre, five thousand marks of money ; 
As much to the Hospital for its support. 
To the people who remain to défend Acre, 
He gives them in aid five thousand marks to spend ; 
To houses in the land of other orders of monks, 
To hermits and sick people, ûve thousand marks of gift ; 
To monks and canons, and other company 
Which are in England in garb of holy life, 
He gave five thousand marks from his treasury ; 
And to ail those who were in Normandy, 
They had three thousand marks by the king's will ; 


^^"» , Al mesuns de meseals^ de mesme le pays 
bequests. Trays cens mars d'esterlyns dona de sun devys; 

As dames de habite ^ de Mortayne et Vilers ^ 

Devysa ij. c. mars d'esterlyns en deners ; 

Et as religiouns ke sunt en Aquitaine^ 

Devisa mil mars, le tenent ben pur ^ gayne ; 

Et ad cels ^ ke Fount Ebrarde à lour mesun ^ delà 

Le ray par sun dev^ys ij. mil mars dona ; 

As dames de Brettayne, de saynt Supplice nomez, 

De mesme le testament ount .c. mars coverez ; 

Les mesouns de Kartouse ^ ij. mil ^ mars en ount ; 

Et iij. mil mars le ordre de Graunt Mount ; 

Le ordre de Cystels^^ij. mil mars avay t ; 

Le ordre de Clunye ^^ mil mars rescayt ; 

Le ordre de Premoustre ij. c. mars d'esterlyns ; 

Les dames de Markayne c. mars ount ^^ à vyns ; 

Al mesouns de Artoys/^ ke sunt delà la mer 

Devisa ij. c. mars, ne failly nul dener ; 

Al femmes^* de Engleterre, de gentil lynage, 

Trays c. mars d'or ^^ à lour maryage ; 

A femmes ^^ gentils et povers ke sunt en Normendye, 

C. mars de fyn or devysait en aye ; 

C. mars d'or al darayn gentil femmes avaynt, 

K'en la terre de Angeou descounsaylés estaynt. 

Tut saunz le testament^' ke le ray fesait, 

Et saunz le graunt avoyr ke en Acres avait, 

1 des mesals, D. ' ^ de Charnise, B. 

- A dames en habit, B. -«45 dames i ^ iij. mil, C. 

en habit, C. D. | ^° Cisteaus, B. 

^ de Mortayn en Vilers, C. ' ^^ Clony, B. 

■* This line and the preceding are ' ^- ount omitted in D. 

transposed in C. Eobert of Brunne ^^ de Arroys, B. C. As mesouns 

translates, " to tho religieuses." de Arroys, D. 

^ le tienent pur gayne, B. ke ^^ As femmes, D. 

tenent, D. ' ^'^ " A hunderth mark of gold," 

6 A cens qe, B. A cels de, C. A '. Robert of Brunne. 

ccis del, D. ! ^'^ As femmes, D. 

'* mesons, B. C. D. j ^^ le grant testament, B. 


To tlie houses of lepers of tlie same countiy 

He gave hy bis will tliree liundred marks sterling ; 

To the ladies of tbe habit of Mortain and Villers 

He leffc two bundred marks sterling in money, 

And to tbe convents wbicb are in Aquitaine 

He left a tbousand marks, tbey bold it well for gain ; 

And to those of Fontevraud, to their bouse bejond sea, 

Tbe king by bis will gave two tbousand marks, 

Tbe ladies of Britany, named of St. Supplice, 

By tbe same will bave received a bundred marks ; 

Tbe bouses of Cbartreux bave a tbousand marks by it ; 

And tbe order of Grandmont tbree tbousand marks ; 

Tbe order of Citeaux bad two tbousand marks ; 

Tbe order of Cluny receives a tbousand marks ; 

Tbe order of Premonstratenses two bundred marks in 

sterlings ; 
Tbe ladies of Markayne bave a bundred marks for 

wines ; 
To tbe houses of Artois, wbicb are beyond tbe sea, 
He left two bundred marks, not a penny was Avanting ; 
To tbe women in England of gentle lineage 
He left tbree bundred marks of gold for their marriage ; 
To tbe women, gentle and poor, wbo are in Normandy 
He left for an aid a bundred marks of fine gold ; 
A bundred marks of gold finally bad gentle women, 
Wbo in the land of Anjou were witbout friands. 
Besides tbe will wbicb the king made. 
And besides tbe great wealth wbicb be bad in Acre, 




visit to 

The king 
of Scotland 
goes to the 
at Oxford. 

ments be- 
tween the 
two coun- 

A les reiigiouns, as quels ^ avaimt prestait, 
Quaraunte mil mars pur Deu pardon ait. 

Kaunt le ray Henry ad fet sun testament, 
Al parlement de Fraunce demaunde amendement.^ 
Tuz les melz vanez de Dovre à Derwent 
Sunt of le ray alez atyrez richement ; 
Dunt parmy Parys est dit communément, 
Ke unkes virent rays of si bêle gent. 
Henry du ray de Fraunce demaunde ^ amendement. 
Les .xij. pers se lèvent,^ et vount parler ent, 
Et ^ entre les .ij. rays fount acordement. 
Le ray Henry revent kaunt fet ad sun talent. 

En l'an suaunt après, à la my este, 
Countes et barouns le ray ad^ maundë, 
Parlement tenir volt à sa cyté, 
Cel lioure en Oxenforde ; par bres ^ Tad nouncyé 
Al ray William d'Escoce, et cyl i vynt de grë ; ^ 
Devaunt le ray Henrj^ ilokes ad joré 
Ke à Everwyk vendrayt, of klers, of barné,*' 
A TAssumpcioun Marye la mère Dé. 
Sun serement ad tenuz de fraunche volunté ; 
Ses clers et sun barnagre^^ à Everwvk ad mené. 
Al rays et ad sun fiz,^^ par lettre confermé, 
Ount els trestuz fet bornage et fealté, 
Et ke le eglyse d'Escoce serrait obKgé 
Al mouster de Engleterre, cum al primalté.^" 
Et si le ray d'Escoce sait jammès trové 
Encountre sim seygnur Henry avaunt nomé, 
Les clers et les barouns d'Escoce ount graunté. 

^ Al religions à quels, C. As re- 
ligiouns as quels, D. 

^ du France son chemin emprent, 
B. C. and D., T\-hich lias de Fraunce- 
The reading of the three MSS. 
probably the correct one. 

•^ maunde, C. 

^ qe lèvent, D. 

^ Et omitted in B. 

6 ad le rei, B. C. D. 

' par bref, B. CD. 

^ e ad barné, B. 

^ of clers et onf barné, C. eue 
clérs, od barné, D. 

'° son barné, B. 

" e sonfitz, B. 

^" de rAvclcterre corn à primalté 


To the abbeys, to which lie before advanced loans, 
He forgave for God's sake a tbousand marks. 

When king Henry bad made bis testament 
He demands amends of tbe parliament of France. 
Ail tbe men of most worth from Dover to Derwent 
Are gone with tbe king, in ricb attire, 
Of wbicb it is commonly said in Paris, 
Tbat tbey never saw a king witb sucb a fair retinue. 
Henry demands amends of tbe king of France. 
Tbe twelve peers rise, and go to confer on it. 
And efFect an agreement between tbe two kings. 
King Henry returns wben be bas done bis will. 

In tbe year following after, at Midsummer, 
Tbe king bas sent for earls and barons, 
He will bold a parliament at bis city, 
Tbis time in Oxford ; be bas announced it by writs 
To king William of Scotland, and be came tbere 

willingly ; 
Tbere before king Henry be bas sworn 
Tbat be would come to York, witb clergy and barons, 
At the Assumption of Mary tbe motber of God. 
He bas kept bis oatb by free will ; 
He bas brougbt bis clergy and bis barons to York. 
To tbe king and bis son, by letter confirmed, 
Tbey bave ail performed bomage and fealty, 
And tbat tbe cburcb of Scotland sbould be subject 
To tbe cburcb of England, as to tbe primacy. 
And if tbe king of Scotland be ever found 
Against bis lord Henry before named, 
Tbe clergy and tbe barons of Scotland bave granted. 

B 2 



The sore- 
reignty of 

The Scot- 
tish king's 

Ke al ray ^ de Engle terre serrount toiiz donë, 

Et le ray d'Escoce serrait ^ defyë ; 

Et ke nul felun Engiays escliapë 

Sait en la terre [le ray] d'Escoce ^ recette ; 

Si, en la court le ray s de Engleterre clamé, 

Ne veygne et preygne agarde, sait-il appelé.* 

Ausint de gent d'Escoce^ est la pes tayllé, 

Ke nul en Engleterre felount sait herbe[r]gé, 

Si al bayllyf du pays ne face seureté, 

Ke al ray d'Escoce, kaunt serra ^ clialengé, 

Irra saunz débat, et là serra jugé. 

Le ray Henry est sage, et doute gylerye, 
Il volt ke ço '^ covenaunt sait ben establye, 
V. cliastels ad resceu par taunt en sa ballye ; 
Quatre countes liostage^ sunt en sa mercye. 
Et xvj. cbuvalers, cliascun ad baronye.^ 
Kaunt Henry est seur de cel seygnurye. 
Et le fet conuz par tut Albanye,-^^ 
Les cliastels, les hostages, rend par curtaysy. 
Par chartre enselé le ray d'Escoce se lye, 
Et ly et ses bairs en successerye, 
A tenir Escoce of la manauntye 
Par hoVnage et servise, taunt cum bomme ad vye, 
Du ray de Engleterre ; or est la pes fynye, 
Et ly joven ray s alez en Normendye. 

Kaunt xxviii. aunz du tut^^ sunt passez 
Ke le ray Henry ad tenu les régnez, 
En Je mays de August^- à Kardoyl est alez; 
Le seygnur de Galwaye, ke Rouland fu nomez,^ 



1 Et al ray, C. 

- ferra, B. 

^ la tere le ray d'Escoce, B. C. 

^ s'il soit appelle, B. C. D. 
5 des genz d^Escoce, C. 
^ serrayt, B. serreit, D. 
'' qe ceste, B. ge cel, D, 

^ ostayers, B. hostagez, C. 
tages, D. 

^ ad haronie, B. 

^° parmy tôt Albanye, C. D. 

11 de tut, C. 

12 de Haust, D. 
1-^ est nomeZy B. 



That to tbe king of England they shall be ali given, 

And the king of Scotland shoukl be defied ; 

And that no fugitive English félon 

Be received into tlie land of tbe king of ScotLand ; 

If, cited in the king of England's court, 

He corne not and take bis judgment, be be appealed. 

Similarly is tbe peace of the people of Scotland shaped, 

That no félon be harboured in England, 

Unless he make surety to the bailiff of the district, 

That to the king of Scotland, when he shall be claimed, 

He shall go without dispute, and there shall be judged. 

King Henry is wise, and fears deceit, 
He wills that this covenant be well established ; 
For this reason he bas received into bis keeping five 

Four earls are in bis hands as hostages, 
And sixteen knights, each bas barony. 
When Henry is assured of that lordship, 
And the fact known through ail Albany, 
He restores by courtesy the castles and the hostages. 
By charter sealed the king of Scotland binds himself, 
Both him and bis beirs who shall succeed, 
To hold Scotland with the, lordship 
By bornage and service, ail their lives, 
Of tbe king of England ; now is the peace completed, 
And the young king gone into Normandy. 

When twenty-eight years are entirely past 
That king Henry bas held the kingdoms. 
In tbe montb of August he is gone to Carlisle ; 
The lord of Galway, who was named Rouland, 


Et David, frère le ray [d'Escoce avant nomez,] ^ 
Sunt venuz à ray^ Henry le senez, 
Galway clayment tenir, cum lur lierytez, 
De ly et de ses hairs par homage^ et fealtez, 
Death of Al ray Henry le fount ; sa pes loure [est] * grauntez. 
younff ^ ^ Henry sun [fitz] ^ cel houre fu mort, et enterrez 
king. A Koanne^ en Normendye, à Nostre Dame de prez. 

Après la riwH Baldeioyn le Mesel, ray de Jérusalem, 
vynt sun successour en Engleterre quere ayde. 

Death of Kaunt le joven ray Henry mort estait, 
Mnglf'' Baldewyn le Mesel, ke une feyUe avait, 
Jérusalem, En Jérusalem noblement régnait, 
tunesof thë Enaynt ^ et coroné, unkes sur ly gaynait 
HolyLand. Sarazyn plain pé de terre k'il guyait. 

>Si or de fu en lèpre à nul ne commun ait ; 
En bataille kaunt il vint, les Sarazyns chascait. 
Chuvaler estraimge of ly demorait, 
William de Aquitayne liome ly appelait ; 
Kant Baldew}Ti fu mort, sa fiUye esposait. 
Et de Jérusalem fu ray s par tel drait. 
Après la mort Baldewyn, la guère començait. 
Et la descomfiture sur Krystyens tornait. 
Le ray William ilokes^ demorer ne poait, 
Mes vent en Engleterre, où aide p.ver quidait ; 
Et al ray Henry pytousement parlayt,^ 
Cornent la Terre Sainte le soldan destruait, 

1 frère le rei cVEscoce avaunt par- \ '" sunjitz, B. C. ù. frère, A. 

lez, B. frère le reys d'Escoce '' ° ^ Rolian, B. A Berne, C. D. 
avant nomez, C. The line is omitted ' Enoynt B. C. D. Quaynt et 

in D. frère le ray Henry le senez, A. coroné, A. 

- al reys, C. D. I ^ de ilhque, B. 

•^ par home, li. ^ pitousement moustreit,B. D. Et 

^ lur est grantez, B. D. lovr ad h rcy Henri pitusemejit priayt, C. 
yrantez, C. 


And David, brother of the king of Scotland before 

Are corne to king Henry tlie wise ; 
They claim to hold Galway, as their inheritance, 
Of him and of his lieirs by homage and fealty ; 
They perform it to king Henry ; his peace is granted 

Henry his son at this time was dead, and buried 
At Eouen in Normandy, in Notre Dame des Prés. 

After the death of Baldwin the Leper, king of Jéru- 
salem, his successor came into England to seek 

When the young king Henry was dead, 
Baldwin the Leper, who had one daughter, 
Reigned nobly in Jérusalem, 
Anointed and crowned, never from him gained 
The Saracen a fuU foot of land which lie ruled. 
So foui was he in leprosy that he held communion 

with nobody ; 
When he came into battle, he put the Saracens to 

A foreign knight dwelt with him, 
People called him William of Aquitaine ; 
When Baldwin was dead, he married hi;s daughter, 
And was king of Jérusalem by that right. 
After the death of Baldwin, war began, 
And defeat turned upon the Christians. 
King William could not remain there. 
But came into England, where he thought' to hâve 

aid ; 
And told king Henry feelingly, 
How the soldan was destroying the Holy Land, 



Henry pro- 
mises to 

kiog's an- 

Henry at 


Ly priast kyl venist/ si noiin Akres serrait 

En main de Sarazyn, ke à l'oure l'assegait.^ 

Le rays ly respount, et du dolur ^ lermait, 

" Moun fiz ayné [est mort],^ à ky ma terre devait^ 

" Après ma mort descendre, coroune pur ço ^ portait, 

" Si jo fus "' hors de terre, la guère se moverait ; 

" Si jo i alasse, mon ^z Richard irraifc, 

" Et sun^ héritage par aventure perdrait ; 

" Mes ayde purveroums ke Akres salve sait/' 

Le ray William repaire of molz riche douns. 
Et vent al rav de Fraunce, et monstre ^ ses resuns ; 
Et ly ra}^ Phelippe ad charge ses barouns, 
Ke al ray William facent le respouns.-^^ 
Les xij. pers^^ ount fet loure discuciouns, 
Dyent al ray Phelippe, " Escotez nos sermouns, 
" Deçà la mère de Grèce -^^ sunt deus regiouns, 
" Engleterre et Fraunce, en divers ^^ baundouns. 
" Henry, rays Englays, tent argent à fusouns ; 
" Ses deus fiz,^* Richard et Jon, sunt forz et feluus ; 
" Si en la Terre Sainte ws et nous^^ fussums, 
" Par cas pussums perdre terre ^^ et mesouns. 
" Mes kaunt le ray Henry, ses fiz, et ses Gascouns 
^^ Irrount celé part, nous seri'oums^^ compaynouns." 
Le ray William retorne à ses possessiouns. 

Henry fiz l'emperyce fet molt graunt honurs 
Al fertre saint Thomas, oii sovent gist en plurs. 
Vj. auns après vesquit-^^ en paynes et dolours ; 
En Normendye s'en va, et chet en langours. 


^ Li pria qHl vcnit, B. D. 
- qe à lower le segait, C. 

2 et de dolour, D. 

"* Mon fitz Clivez est mort, B. C. 

3 douait, C. 

^ cornu pur ceo, C. 

" Si jeo fusse, B. D. 

^ A son, B. 

^ de Fraunce, li/ moustrer, C. D. 






les respouns, C. D. 

Z,es xij. pères, D. 

Dekes al mère de Grèce, C. 

endevers, C. 

Sesjitz, B. 

nous ci vous, C. 

terres, C. 

vus serrunf compaygnouns, B. 

vesquit après, C. 


Prayed him that lie would corne, otherwise Acre would be 
In the hand of the Saracen, who at that time was 

besieging it. 
The king replied to him, and shed tears of grief: 
" My eldest son is dead, to whom my land ought 
" To descend after my death, wherefore he bore crown, 
*' If I were out of the land, war would be stirred up ; 
" If I went there, my son Richard would go, 
" And b}^ chance would lose his héritage ; 
" But we will provide aid that Acre be saved." 

King William returns with very rich gifts, 
And cornes to the king of France, and explains his 

mission ; 
And king Philip has charged his barons 
That they should make the reply to king William. 
The twelve peers hâve concluded their discussions, 
Say to king Philip, '^ Hear our advice, 
" On this side the sea of Greece are two kingdoms, 
" England and France, under différent powers. 
" Henry, the English king, possesses money in abun- 

" dance ; 
" His two sons, Richard and John, are strong and 

'' wicked ; 
" If you and we were in the Holy Land, 
^' Perhaps we might lose land and houses. 
" But when king Henry, his sons, and his Gascons 
" Shall go thither, we will be companions." 
King William returns to his possessions, 

Henry son of the empress does very great honours 
To the shrine of St. Thomas, where he often lies in tears. 
He lived six years after in pains and griefs ; 
He goes into Normandy, and falls into weakness. 



Death of 
Henry II. 

Richard, sun ûz, \j vent -^ pur solaz et soccmirs ; 

Le père ly charge et prie, pur Deu et ses honurs, 

Ke en la Terre Sainte use ses valeurs ; 

Aver ly donne assez dount porra fere le cours." 

Richard dit "Volenters, par saynt Martyn^ de Tours." 

Après xxxiiij. aunz, vj. mays, et xij. jouKi, 

Del regalté ray Henry cessaynt les labours ; 

Il gist al Fount-Ebrarde à l'abbaye* des sorours. 


Aïino DoTYiini M^. centesimo octogesimo nono. 

En le mays^ de Septembre, le dymaynge primer, 
Le primat de Caunterbjrre, Baldwyn, vint corouner 
Le bon ray Richard tut drait à Westmouster. 
Richard I. L'elyt de Everwyk le ray fet maunder,^ 
Vynt à celé feste, Geffray le day nomer,^ 
Sun frère fu par père, et plus ^ le dait amer ; 
Saunt quere l'apostoyle ly fist^ confermer. 
Le pallyoun -^^ de Rome ly vint par messager. 
Yenuz sunt al ra3's ly counte et ly baroun, 
Chuvaler et sergaunt parmy la regioun, 
Cyta^ai et burgaj^s, cum ben fu ^^ resoun ; 
Il prent les homages-^^ les fealtez en soun, 
Establye sa pes, se purvait garnysount 
Devers la Terre Sainte, pur la capcioun 
De Akre, ke fu prise par Sarazyn feloun. 
Engiays et Normaunz, chuvalers en guerdoun, 
Demorent of le ray par convencioun.^^ 

He pré- 
pares his 
journey to 
the Holy 

^ sonjiz, i veent, D. 

2 fere les thours, C. 

^ Martyn, oiiiitted in B. 

* en Vahhay, C. 

^ en mois, B. C. D. Richard I. 
was crowned on Sunday, Sept. 3, 

•> le rei lefetwaundei\ B. C. D. 

'' qe Geffrai doi nomer, B. C. IX 

^ en plus, CD. 

^ Sanz qwere Vaposloylle U fet, C. 
Saunz quere le apostoyle ly fisi, D. 

^'^' Le pallîum, C. 

^^ cum fa bien reson, B. D. 

^^ ses homages, B. Ly prent les 
homages, D. 

^'^ en convencioun, D. 


Kichard, his son, cornes to him tliere for solace and 

succour ; 
The king charges and praj'-s him, for the sake of God 

and his honours, 
That he employ his valour in the Holy Land ; 
He gives him wealth enough, with which he may 

exécute the expédition. 
Eichard says, '* Willingly, by St. Martin of Tours." 
After thirty-three years, six months, and twelve days, 
The labours of the royalty of king Henry ceased ; 
He lies at Fonte vraud in the abbey of the sisters. 

Anno Dormini 1189. 

On the first Sunday in the month of September, 
The primate of Ganter bury, Baldwin, came to crown 
The good king Richard straight at Westminster. 
The kino^ sent for the elect of York, 
He came to that feast, I must name him GeofFrey. 
He was his brother by the father, the more he ought 

to love him ; 
Without going to the pope, he caused him to be con- 

The pallium came to him from Rome by a messenger. 

To the king are come the earls and barons, 
Knights and serjeants throughout the kingdom, 
Citizens and burgesses, as it was quite right. 
He takes ail their homages and their fealties, 
Establishes his peace, and provides forces 
Towards the Holy Land, for the capture 
Of Acre, which was taken by the wicked Saracen. 
English and Normans, knights in pay. 
Remain with the king by agreement. 



Sun père ly lessa deners à fusoun ; 

La aler ly comaunde sur benyçoun.^ 
The suspi- Le ray Phelippe de Fraunce fust à Saynt Dynye ^ 
cionsofthe j^j^ privë parlement, où i] ad oye 

king of 

message to 

[K]e le ray^ Richard of sa chuvalerye 

Bye quere sur Sarazyn la terre de Solye. 

A Parys s'en va, et barnez et clergye 

Fet là venir à ly, dévotement les prie 

De aide et [de] counsail ^ sur la paenerye ; 

Et dist, " Le ray Richard,^ par sa surquider3^e, 

" Volt embler cel vayage saunz ma compaynye." 

Escotez ore cornent le ray ^ Phelippe dist îolje. 

Al parlement de Fraunce sunt venuz messagers 
A ly ray Phelippe et à les xij. pers^ 
Par le ray Richard, counte de Payters, 
Le counte de Albemarle,^ et ly quens Roger, 
Sir Lucas de Luc^^e, et Robert de Coyners,^ 
Saluent sire Phelippe et ses counsaillers. 

Dist ly quens de Albemarle,^*^ '• Sir, en graunt 
'' Te salut nostre rays, cum fere dait ^^ sun seygnur. 
" Te maunde ke la noyse et tut le graunt ^- clamoui' 
" Ke de Akre est venuz, à tuz est dolour; 
'•' Mort sunt les Kristiens, nul i vist cel ^^ jour ; 
" Pur quai le ray Richard te prie, pur l'amour 
" Ke morust en la croyce humayne Salveour, 
" Aydez as Kristyens ^* en ço gi'aunt ^^ tristour. 

^ Aie?- U manda sur sa benisçon, 
B. L'aler hj comaunda sur sa benis- 
çoun, C. D. 

- Dionie, B. C. 

■^ Qe le rey, B. D. De, A. 

^ e de co72seiI, B. C. D. 

^ Et le re// Richard, C. 

'^ cornent rei P., B. 

7 e à ses xij. pères, B. et al xii, 
peers, C. 

^ Auniarle, B, Almarle, 1), 

Eobert of Brunne lias liere, '* Of 
" Almarle erle William, and an erle 
" Eogers." 

^ de Coigners, B. Coygners, C. D. 
" de Coynguers," Robert of Brunne^ 

10 Aumarle, B. 

11 com sire dait, C. 
'- et le (jrant, C. D. 

13 nul n'i vist ceo, B. ceo, D 
i"* au Cristiens, C. 
1' en cel yrant, D, 


His fîither leffc him money in abimdance ; 
Enjoins h ira the expédition on bis blessing. 

King Philip of France was at St. Denis 
In private conférence, where he bas heard 
That king Richard, with his knights, 
Is designing to seek the land of Syria from the 

He proceeds to Paris, and barons and clergy 
He summons to him there, prays them earnestly 
For aid and for advice against the pagans ; 
And says, " King Richard, through his presumption, 
" Will steal this voyage without my company." 
Hear now how king Philip talked foolishness. 

To the parliament of Paris are corne, as messengers 
To king Philip and to the twelve peers 
From king Richard, the earl of Poitiers, 
The earl of Albemarle, and the earl Roger, 
Sir Lucas de Lucy, and Robert de Coniers, 
They sainte sire Philip and his councillors. 

Says the earl of Albemarle, " Sire, in great love 
" Our king saintes thee, as he ought to do liis lord. 
^' He sends thee word that the rumour and ail tlie 

" great outcry 
" That is come from Acre, is grief to ail ; 
" The Christians are dead, not one is alive there at 

" this day ; 
" Wherefore king Richard prays thee, for the love 
" Of him who died on the cross the Saviour of man- 

" kind, 
" Help the Christians in this great sorrow. 


" Le ray Richard s'atyre, ne volt aver sojoiiv : 

" Si tu as de ly et il de tay succour, 

'' La teri'e est regayné, molt serrayt graunt lioniir." 

Les xij. pers de Fraunce al ray Phelippe omit dit, 
" Sir, le duk Richard n'est pas ray petit; 
^' Plus vaillaunt seygnur huy ne port habit. 
" Larges sunt les terres ke sun père conquist ; 
" Argent ad saunz noumbre, chuvalers par escrit 
*^ Sunt à ly lyez, as quels '^ saunz countredit 
'' Akres ert renduz par Richard ray elyt ; 
" Lesser sa compaynye à Deu serrait despyt." 
Philipjolns Le ray Phelippe remaunde molt curtaysement, 
Richard m j]^ g^| j.qj E-ichard mercy ^ molt sovent 
sade. Sa bone voluntë et sun maundement ; 

Ly maunde k'il bye passer à Marsyl verrayment 
Le primer jour de Marce, si Deu prest le vent ; ^ 
Et prie a[l ray] Richard ^ et à sa bone gent, 
Ke cel aler ne lessent pur nuly^ prechement. 
The latter Kaunt le ray Richard les respouns ^ savait 
coUects J)q Phelippe ray ^ de Fraunce, sun counsail assemblait, 
the uûder- Et trestut le moble ke en Engleterre avait 
takmg. j^j^ partye de ses ten-es vendre comaundait, 
Ne cyté, ne burge, ne marchaunt taillayt, 
Ne disme, ne vyntyme, à clers^ demaundait. 
Le evesk de Dureme Sadberge ^ achatait, 
Sells lands. Of le wapentak, pur avoyr k'il donayt. 

Le eveske de W3mcestre issi^^ barganayt, 

1 ad quel, C. à cjuels, D. ■ which is evidently incoiTect. 

- mercyst, CD. ! ^ de clers, B. D. de vytteime des 

^ si Dieu li preste vent, B. hj \ clers C. 

prest vent, G. T). i 9 Saberg, B., and Robert of 

'^ al rey Richard, B. C. D. 
•' pur nul, C. 
^' le respons, B. 

' Du rei Philip de, B. De Philipp 
rey de F., C. A. reads Ke Phelippe, 

Brunne. Sagherge, D. It has been 
supposed to be Sedgefield in the 
county of Durham. 

'» issint, B. C. 


" Kiiig E,icliard is preparing, lie will not bave delay ; 

" If thou hast of him, and he of tliee, assistance, 

*' The land is regained, it would be very great honoiir." 

The twelve peers of France bave said to king Philip, 
" Sire, duke Richard is no little king ; 
" No more valiant lord wears the garb at this day. 
" Broad are the land s which bis father conquered ; 
" Money he bas without count, knights by writing 
" Are bound to him, to wbom without contradiction 
" Acres will be rendered througb Richard the king 

" elect ; 
'* To leave bis company would be an affront to God/' 

King Philip sends back very courteously, 
And thanks king Richard very often 
For bis good will and bis message ; 
He says be intends to proceed to Marseilles truly 
On the first day of March, if God grant the wind ; 
And prays king Richard and bis good people, 
That tbey abandon not this expédition for anybody's 

Wben king Richard knew the reply 
Of Philip king of France, be assembled bis council. 
And ail the goods that be bad in England 
And part of bis lands commanded to be sold, 
Nor taxed either city, or borougb, or merchant, 
Nor asked of the clergy either tentb or twentietb. 
The bishop of Durham bought Sadberg, 
Witb the wapentake, for the wealth which he gave. 
The bishop of Winchester similarly bargained, 



from the 
king of 

cornes to 

of the 


Ke le ray Richard pur argent ly fefFait 

De deus bons maners, of kaunt ke aportenait.^ 

De tel entendement le ray Richard estait, 

Ke de autry avoyr esplaiter se dotait 

En la Terre Sainte, où aller beayt. 

Partaunt al ray d'Escoce tost maiinder fesait 

Venir fere sa pes, de kaunt ke ly devait.- 

En le mays de Novembre ^ à Caunterbyre tut drait 

William ray d'Escoce vint of graunt esplait, 

Et of le ray Richard taun[t] bel là parlayt, 

Ke le ray Richard sun homage là rescait 

Pur terres ke de ly en Engieterre tenait ; 

Et sur ço fîst sa pes, et countez ly liverayt 

Xvj. mil lyvres * pur le graunt surfait 

Ke le ray Richard à Willinm par douait, 

Salve les servises ke Malcolm solait 

Fere al rays Englays, et devait de drayt, 

En venaunt, en alaunt,^ kaunt maundez serrait 

Al parlement de Loundres, et sa livré prendrait, 

Cum covenaunt taille entre els volait. 

Et le ray Richard, saunz contek et saunz plait, 

Rokesburge et Berwik al ray William rendait, 

La une part et l'altre ottraye ke si *^ sait. 

William ray d'Escoce ad pris ses congez, 
Repaire en sun pais à ses parentez. 
Le ray Richard demort entre ses barnez, 
Establye deus gardayns de tut ^ ses régnez ; 
Huge de Durem^ eveske renomez, 

1 ouf quanque portenait,C. pur- 
tenayt, D. 

- de quantqHl devait, B. 

^ Robert of Brunne has it, " The 
" moneth of Novembre, after Al- 
" halwemesse." 

■* Robert of Brunne has, "sexti 
" thousand pomide." According to 

Roger de Hoveden king William 
paid ten thousand marks sterling. 

5 En venaunt et en alaunt, D. 

^ La une parte à Cautre outrahe 
si, C. 

' Estahli gardeyns à touz ses r. 
B. de iuz, C. D. 

^ Hugo de Dureme, D. 


Tliat king E-icliard for raoney enfeoffed him 

With two good manors, and ail tliat pertained to them. 

Of such sentiment was king Kichard, 

That he was afraid of making use of other people's 

In the Holy Land, wliither he designed to go. 
For this cause he sent immediately to call the king of 

To come and make his peace, of ail that he ov/ed him. 
In the month of November, direct to Canterbury 
William king of Scotland came with great retinue, 
And spoke so fair there with king Richard, 
That king Richard received his homage there 
For the lands which he held of him in England ; 
And thereupon he made his peace, and delivered him 

Sixteen thousand pounds for the great misdeed 
Which king Richard pardoned to William, 
Save the services which Malcolm used 
To do to the king of England, and ought by right, 
In coming and going, when he should be summoned 
To the parliament of London, and should take his 

As the agreement concluded between them willed ; 
And king Richard, without strife and without dispute, 
Delivered up Roxburgh and Berwick to king William, 
One part and the other grants that it be so. 

William king of Scotland has taken his leave, 
Returns into his country to his kindred. 
King Richard remains among his barons, 
Appoints two guardians of ail his kingdoms ; 
Hugh the renowned bishop of Durham, 

VOL, TT. . c 




Et William le evesk^ de Ely, sunt cliargez 
Garder la regioun of les dignetez. 
appointe . Qj^^valers justises les sunt associez, 

Huge^ Bardolf, et William le Mareschal clamez, 
Geffray le fiz Pers, chuvaler avisez, 
William de la Bruere fu le quarte uomez, 
Al plez de la coroune et maintenir les feez. 
Kaunt le ray Richard sa terre ad establye, 
Richard's La garde comaundé^ et la justiserye, 
d epartue gg mette en mer à Dover devers Normendye, 
Oii fet sa purveaunce de aler en Solye.^ 
En sa cité de Boanne/ of sa chuvalerye, 
Tint ses Noelez of trop graunt noblye. 
Le Lundy primer après la Tiphanye^ 
Le ray de Fraunce et ly " al Guë de Saint Remye 
Tindrent parlement dount fere la compaynye 
Ferme ^ pur conquere sur la paenerye. 
Ly un et ly altre par escrit se lye 
Fere le pelrinage saunz fraude et boydye. 
Frères sunt jorez, pur quai la clergye 
Ad doné la sentence sur la flecbaunt partye. 
Le ray Pbelippe s'en va de ilokes à Saint Dynye. 
Le ray Bichard s'en va purver sa navye 
Des tûtes les countrez ^^ parmy sa seygnurye, 
Et guiours -^^ de sun host, les nouns noun ay oblye. 
Corn- Li ercevesk de [Aneus] ^^ daun Gérard par noun, 

manders of Et li bon eveske Bernard de Bayoïm, 

the fleet. "^ 

Bicbard de Came vile, et Bobert de Sabloun,^* 

the two 


* William evesqe, C. 

- Hugo, D. 

2 ad comaundé, C 

•» à Sulie, B. SuUi/, Robert of 

•' de Home, C. de JRone, D. 

*» le Teopinné, C. Robert of 
Brunne translates it, " The Monen- 
" day that felle to he next after the 
'•' tuelftday." 

■ à ly, C. 

^ Robert of Brunne says, " at 
" the river of S. Rymay." 

^ Freine, B. 

1" Dionie, B. C. 

^^ De tote les countês, C. 

'- les gwiburs, C. 

^•^ Omitted in A. ; hère supplied 
from B. Auyns, C. D. Anxus, 
Robert of Brunne. 

^^ de Gobloun, C. de Sabloun, 
Robert of Brunne. 


And William bisLop of Ely, are chargée! 

To guard the kingdom with the dignities. 

Knights justices are associated with them, 

Hugh Bardolf, and William entitled the Marshal, 

Geoffrey fîtz Peter, a prudent knight, 

William de la Bruyère the fourth was named, 

To the pleas of the crown and to maintain the fées. 

When king E<ichard lias settled his land, 
Has ordered the guardianship and the administration 

of justice, 
He puts to sea at Dover towards Normandy, 
Where he makes his provision for going into Syria. 
In his city of Rouen, with his knights, 
He held his Chris tmas with very great nobility. 
The first Monday after the Epiphany 
The king of France and he at Yé St. Remy 
Held conférence, in order to make their company 
Powerful for conquest over the pagans. 
One and the other binds himself by writing 
To perforai the pilgrimage without fraud and deceit. 
They are sworn brothers, wherefore the clergy 
Has pronounced the curse on the party which fails. 
King Philip départs thence to St. Denys. 
King Richard goes to provide his navy 
From ail the countries throughout his lordship, 
And commanders of his host, I hâve not forgotten 
their names. 

The archbishop of Auxienne, named dan Gérard, 
And the good bishop Bernard of Bayonne, 
Richard de Camville, and Robert de Sabul, 

c 2 


Et William de Forz/ sire de Oleronn, 
Ount les nefs le rays en proteccioun, 
A guyer par mer of sa garnisoun 
En la Terre Sainte sur Sarazyn feloun. 
Le ray Richard comaunde ke ^ sanz evasioun 
Aryvent en Marsil'' sur sa benyçoun.* 
They sail. La primer semayn de la Passioun 

Al sigle ount le vent li clerk et ly baroun.-' 
Des ore les condye ^' Deus et Saint Symoun. 
Parmv cel halte mer sio-lent al raundoun, 
Cent et x. graunz nefs, défaite de avyroun'' 
N'ad nul endrait de sai, ne ^ mestre de garçoun : 
Chascun a i^ens assez ke se vent lur lescoun.^ 
Overtaken Le quinte jour après se-^^ chaunga le vent, 
orm. j^^ ^^^ ^^ Brettayne ount vaynë quitement ; -"^ 
En la mer d'Espayne sunt chascez par tourment 
Entre Saracyns, mes Deu omnipotent 
Les salva molt ben de lur encombrement, 
X. nefs de la route sunt desavisement 
Forsvées des altres, ly mestres est dolent. 
Une fu là naë,^- de Depe ^^ verraiment ; 
Les ix. sunt de Loundres,^"^ ke cryeat durement 
Sur Deu et sur sa mère, priaunt dévotement 
Ke salver les voille, les garde, et les defent, 
Are saved Pur l'amour Thomas,^^ ke martirement 
imracle Suffrist pur Sainte ^^ église ; et Deu certaynement 
Oyst la prière, escotez ore coment. 

^ William de Fartez, Eobert of i " defant aviroiin, C. 

Brunne. i ^ ne, omitted in B. de se, ne 

- he, omitted in B. I mestre ne garçoun, D. 

2 Arivent à Marsile, B. C. I ^ lour escoun, B. 

'^ sur la benyçoun, D. Robert of [ ^^ si, B 

Bruune translates hère, 

" Richard said tbam his -wille, 

" ' Mariners, if ze moun, i ^"- naeez, B. 

♦' ' Aryves in to Marsille, with i ^^ de Cepc, C. 

" ' Godes benisoun.' " ! ^' ^^-^ •^- ^""^ « Londres, C 

'" e clerk e baroioi, B. 
•> les comaunde, C. 

^^ uîit wainê cointetnent, B. owit 
waignê quitement, C. 

'•' Sein Thomas, B. 
"5 par saint, C, 


And William de Fortz, lord of Oleroii, 

Hâve under tlieir cluirge the king's slnps, 

To lead by sea with his host 

Into the Holy Land against the wicked Saracen. 

King Eichard commands that, without fail, 

They arrive at Marseilles, on his blessing. 

The first week of the Passion 

The clergy and barons hâve the wind in their sails. 

Henceforth be their guide God and St. Simon. 

Through that high sea they sail rapidly, 

A hundred and ten great ships, want of oar 

No one had in regard of itself, nor need of hands ; 

Each lias men enougli who know their business. 

The fifbli day afterwards the wind changed ; 
They hâve gained in safety the sea of Britany ; 
They are driven by tempest into the sea of Spain, 
Among Saracens, but God Almighty 
Saved them very well from their danger, 
Ten ships of the company are by mismanagement 
Separated from the others, the master is in grief 
One was there sunk, a ship of Dieppe truly ; 
The nine belong to London, who cry earnestly 
On God and on his mother, praying devoutly 
That he will save them, keep them, and défend them, 
For the love of Thomas, who martyrdom 
Suffered for iioly church ; and God certainly 
Listened to the pra^yer, hear now how. 


En une nef de Loundres de ryche atiffement 
The vision. Siint deus bons cytayns, ke jovencels ount cent, 
Prest pur Deu servir cum à pelryn apent. 
Encost du governaille apparust bonement -^ 
Un bon erceveske ^ en revestement ; 
Un rays corouné près de ly s'estent, 
Et pus un eveske/ veaunt celé gent. 
Lors dist ly ercevesk à Loundrays verrayment,'* 
*' Jo suy cyl sur ky ws cryez sovent, 
" Thomas de Caunterbyre, Loundraj^s,*" ne dotez ent ; 
" Saint Emoun^ le Martir of may cy est présent/ 
" Et saint Nicolas, ky touz jours prestement 
" Est aide al mariners/ les meyne salvement. 
" Nous trays de Deu là sus^ avoums comaundement 
*' Gaiter-^ les nefs Richard, et ws ensement/' 
Tost cessa le tempest ^^ après le prechement. 
Departure Taunt cum les nefs le rays Richard sunt en mer,^- 
ofthekingj]^ ne sevent ^^ quel part dayvent aryver, 

Le ray de Fraunce et ly se fount assembler 
A Lyouns sur la Roanne/^ purveer et ordiner, 
Oii al quel ^^ port porrount la mer entrer. 
Lour hoste fu si grauude, ne poaint herberger 
En cité, burge, ne vile, ensemble ne passer. 
Felippe devers Gène ^^ sun hoste fet aler ; 
Richard à Marsil passa ^'^ saunz targer. 
Uokes kant devaynt tromper à manger,^"^ 
Bataunt de Cecille vint un messao-er.^^ 

^ verrayment, C. '" gardée', C. D. 

- Un bel erceveaqe, B. C. Un ' ^^ la tempeste, D. 
bêle ercevesqe, D. ^- le neifs Hichard sunt entre mer, 

3 un altre eveske, B. B. 

** doucement, B. D. à Loundres , ^"^ ne sovent, C. 
doucement, C. \ ^'^ A Bouns sur le Mone, C. la 

5 Loundre, C, 

6 Edmoun, B. 

JRone, D. 

ij à quel, C. D. 

7 ou moy est à présent, 3. ' "* Geuen, C. 

^ as mariners, B. C. à maryners, ^' de Marsille passe, C. passe, D. 

D. I ^^ al manger, D. 

^ de Deu, le rays, C. ^^ vint messager, B. 


In a ship of London richly equipped 

Are two good ci ti zens, who hâve a hundred youths, 

Eeady to serve God as is a pilgrim's duty. 

Beside the helm appeared truly 

A good archbishop in his robes ; 

A crowned king stands near him, 

And then a bishop, in the sight of thèse people. 

Then said the archbishop in a low tone to the Londoners, 

" I am he upon whom you call often, 

'' Thomas of Canterbury, Londoners, do not doubt it, 

" St. Edmund the martyr is with me hère présent, 

'' And St. Nicholas, who always at hand 

'' Is an aid to the seamen, leads them safely. 

" We three from God there above hâve command 

*' To watch over Richard's ships, and you likewise." 

Immediately after the preaching the tempest ceased. 

While the ships of king Richard are at sea, 
And know not on what side they are to arrive, 
The kiog of France and he hold a meeting 
At Lyon s on the Rhône, to provide and order 
Where and at what port they will be able to put to 

Their army was so great, they could not lodge 
In city, borough, or town, or pass together. 
Philip causes his army to go towards Genoa; 
Richard passed to Marseilles without delay. 
There when they were on the point of sounding the 

horn for dinner, 
A messenger came in haste from Sicily. 



in Sicily 

La lettre la rayne de Cecille va douer 

Al Richard ^ sun frère, et le ~ va counter, 

Mort est le ray William, ke solait régner ^ 

En Cecille of Jone, sore le riche ■* Richer ; 

Et ke le counte ^ Tancrede, combataunt chuvaler, 

Cosyii le ray William, se fîst coruner, 

Et Jone la rayne en prisoun là fist^ garder. 

Pur quai le ray Richard se comence ^ coroucer ; 

Ses busces, ses galayes, fet ^ tost aprester, 

Et pense al primour sa soer deliverer. 

Avys ^ ly est k'il ad genz dount conques ter 

Cecille sur Tancrede, et vaindre^^ sun poer, 

Si par pees ne voylle en resun acorder. 




[Anno Domini raillesimo c. nonagesimo. Rex Fdcardus 
transfretavit versus Terrain Sandam.] -"^ 

Le seine jour en August de l'an entytelé,^- 
Le bon rays Richard est en mer entré, 
Tost s'en va vers Gene,^^ oii il ad trovë 
Le ray Phelippe de Fraunce malade en lyt coché. 
Richard li confort, après prent congé, ^^ 
Et va devers Cecille of tute sa mesné. 
Ad Tibre kant il vent, la pape l'ad maundé 
Octave ^^ suu cardinal, ke of ly ad parlé. 

' Au rei Jlicîiaril, B. Al ray 
Richard, C. D. 

- eh va coiaiter, C. 

' là régner, B. 

^ le rei JR., B. soer le rey, C. 

^ qe counqe, B. qe count, C. 

'' en priaon fist y., B. C. D. 

" se comenca, B. D, 

s fist, B. tost fet, D. 

^ Instead of this and the following 
Une, D. has one line : 

Et Cecylle sur Tancrede par pocr 

'" reincrc, B. rcnidrc. L'. 

^^ This rubric is inserted frora B. 

^"- cntillé, B. de August de Van en 
tiielé, C. en Aust de Taw encyclé, D. 
Robert of Brunne translates it, 
*' The sevent day of hervest, in tbat 
" ilk ;er." 

'" en Gène, B, vers Genen, D. 

^^ le rei confort, après il prent 
cungé, B. 

'"^ Octane, B. Octave son chard- 
man, C. " Sir Octobone," Robert 
of Brunne. Hovedcn calls him Oc- 
tavJanus cardiual-hi?-hop of Ostia, 


He goes and gives the letter of the queen of Sicily 

To Richard her brother, and proceeds to tell him, 

King William is dead, wlio nsed to reign 

In Sicily with Joan, the sister of king Richard, 

And that earl Tancred, a warlike knight, 

Cousin of king William, h ad caused himself to be 

And caused Joan the queen to be kept there in prison. 
Wherefore king Richard begins to be "wroth ; 
Causes quickly to be put in readiness his busses and 

his galleys, 
And thinks in the first place of delivering his sister. 
It is his opinion that he has people enough to conquer 
Sicily from Tancred, and to subdue his power, 
Unless he will peacefully agrée to reason. 

A 71710 Domini 1190. 
King Richard ^assed the sea totvards the Holy Land. 

The seventh day of August of the year given in the 

The good king Richard has entered on the sea, 
He goes immediately towards Genoa, where he has 

King Philip of France ill and confined to bed. 
Richard comforts hira, afterwards takes leave, 
And goes towards Sicily with ail his attendance. 
When he cornes to the Tiber, the pope has sent to 

Oçtavian his cardinal; who has çonversed with him, 



Hlness of 



Joan set 
at liberty. 

the isle of 

Le ray par taunt i est trays jours demorë, 

[E le rey Philippe du lit relevé.]^ 

A Meschine en Cecylle est Phelippe aryvë ; 

Et le ray Richard après i vint de gré. 

Le jour de la croyce en aust renomë ^ 

La navye Richard, dount fu desperé,^ 

Al port de Meschynes ly vint en salveté; 

Forpris une de Depe,^ ke fu forvayd 

Le terce jour après le ray ad sojorné, 

Ad ray de Cecille ad Richard prié 

Délivrer ly^ sa soer Jone en amysté. 

Le ray Tankrede fu sage, dotait adversité, 

Deliverait^ la rayne of graunt honesté. 

Et convayer la list of tut sun barné 

Tôt di^ait à Meschines, sa principale cytë. 

Le ray Phelippe de Fraunce encouiitre l'est aie, 

Of le ray Richard, ke celé ount mené 

Al palays sun frère, où ele fust herbergé. 

Le ray Richard si tost en avaunt" estait, 
En le floum de [la] Fare rychement entrayt ; ^ 
Le 3"lle de Labaniare,^ ke un paen avait, 
Et tynt des Cristyens pur [rent] k'il^*^ douait, 
Conquist le ray Richard, le paen^^ en chascayt. 
Gel ylle à sa soer of gardayns assignait. 
Un ylle i fu decost,^^ ke ly GrifFoun gardayt. 

^ Omitîed in A.; supplied from 
B. 0. and D. 

- en haut reiiomc, C. D. 

'•' dount fu fer é, B. 

' un depe, C. 

^ Il omitted in B. 

^ Delivera, B. 

' com avant estait, C. 

^ En le flum de la Fare derechef 
entrait, B. C. D. Robert of Brunne 
has translated this rather clumsily, 
" A water that closed it iu that flum 
*' was de la Fare." 

'•' Le ydle de Albeiuurle, C. 

^^ pur rentes r/il, B. pur rent 
qil, c. D. 

^^ les paens, C D, 

^2 de costé, B. D. ylle fa de custé, 
C. Robert of Brunne singularly 
misunderstood this, and supposes 
that the isle was called Griffonie, 
" men cald it Griffonie," whereas 
Pierre de Langtoft says that 
Griffons, or Greeks, inhabited it. 
Griffonie would mean the empire 
of Greece. 


Tlie king on that accoimt has remained there three 

And king Philip is risen from his bed. 
Philip is arrived at Messina in Sicily ; 
And king Eichard afterwards came there willingly. 
The day of the Cross highly renowned 
Richard's navy, of which he had lost hope, 
Came in safety to him in the harbour of Messina ; 
Except one of Dieppe, which was lost. 
The third day after the king had abidden there, 
Eichard has prayed the king of Sicily 
To deliver to him in friendship his sister Joan. 
King Tancred was wise, feared adversity, 
Gave up the queen with great courtesy, 
And caused her to be conveyed with ail his barons 
Direct to Messina, his principal city. 
King Philip of France is gone to meet him, 
With king Richard, who hâve brought her 
To the palace of her brother, where she was lodged. 

King Richard immediately came forward, 
Entered the river of the Faro in rich array. 
The isle of La Baniare, which a pagan possessed. 
And held of the Christians for rent which he paid, 
King Richard conquered, and drove the pagan ont 

of it. 
This isle he assigned with guardians to his sister. 
There was an island beside it, which the Greeks Leld ; 



-w-lth the 
city of 

Conduct of 
the king of 

of king 

And of 



Le ra}^ Richard la piist,^ ly Griffoun la voydait.^ 
Ly citayn de Mescbine le ray Richard dotait, 
La porte de la cyté eucountre ly fermayt: 
Le contek en taunt entre els levait. 
Par quai le ray Richard siin serement fesait, 
Ke si le ray Tankrede amender ne volait ^ 
Le outrage de ses cytayns, si com il durait,''' 
Et parfere sa demaunde, cum resun chaunterayt/ 
Del testament le ray s ke devaunt ly regnayt, 
De chose ^ ke ad sa soer de dowerye appendait, 
Si en amours " ne pust, par guère conquérait. 
Kaunt le ray de Fraunce entendist coment 
Entre cels deus rays estait descordement, 
De l'amur se entremyst, pur veirs molt faintement.^ 
Nun pur ^ ço le rays Tankrede curtaysement 
Vint al ray Richard, of molz de bone gent, 
Ly dist ke prest estait complir^^ sun talent, 
Pur le ray William parfere^' sun testament, 
Et de tuz conteks pur ly et pur sa gent 
A fere ^~ sun assez, en ore ou en argent ; 
Et dist ke à sa soer avait -^^ plainement 
Fet ke fere dust,^^ par tesmoynement 
De la dame mesme, ke tost vint present,^^ 
Et dist, "Le ray Tankrede m'ad fet verrayment 
" Taunt cum fere devait,^^ de kaunt ke à may appent; 
•' Mes à tay, moun frère, respoundre ly covent 

^ Le rel tost le prlst, B. 

- le Griffun voidait, C. 

■* ne vodreit, B. C. Jie voudiaif, 

^ il disait, B. // dirrait, C. Le 
outrage des cylayns sicum ly dirrait, 

^ voleit, B. 

^ Des choses, B. Ces choses qe 
soer sa soer de doiuere, C. de dower. 

'" fn amour, B. 


"^ feyntement, D. 
■^ Nminpaspur^'B. 

'" acomplit, B. 
^^ pur fere, C. 
'-^ Affcre, C. 
^^ fet avoit, B 
^^ Quanqe fere deit, D. 
feere dait, C. D. 

^^ vient en preseiU, B. C, 
1^5 fere doit, B. 

Nounpur ce. 

Fet rje 


King Richard took it ; the Greek abandoned it. 
The citizen of Messina feared king Richard, 
Shut against him the gâte of the city ; 
Consequently strife arose between them. 
Through which king Richard made his oath, 
That if king Tancred would not make amends 
For the insolence of his citizens?, as he ought, 
And comply with his demand, as reason would sing, 
Concerning the will of the king wlio reigned before 

Of things which belonged to his sister of dowry, 
If he could not by love, he would obtain it by war. 

When the king of France understood how 
There was disagreement between thèse two kings, 
He interfered to reconcile them, in truth very insin- 

Nevertheless king Tancred courteously 
Came to king Richard, with many good people, 
Told him that lie was ready to fulfii his désire 
Of carrying out the will of king William, 
And in ail causes of strife for him and for his people 
To do his best, in gold or in silver ; 
And said that he had to his sister fully 
Done what he ought to do, by testimony 
Of the lady herself, who soon came forward, 
And said, " King Tancred has truly done for me 
*' As much as he ought to do, in ail that relates to 

'* me ; 
" But to thee, my brother, he has to answer 


'' De un graunt pavillyoun de ryche atyffement, 
'' De une table de or, de tresteles ^ ensement, 
'' De vessal argentays endorrez richement, 
" Dount servir Temperour à sun parlement. 
*■' Mon seygnur le rays, à sun finement, 
*' A tay, Richard mon frère, devis [a] - sem'ement 
" Les choses avaunt dites, dount tesmoyne ne ment.' 
Tancred '' Dame,"' dist Tankrede, ^'de son devisement 
makes his u Q£ YaoTi sevo'nur le l'ays frav accordement/' 

peace witn ^ ^ ^ . 

Richard. XL mil ounces d"or le ray Tankrede ly tent. 
Et le ray Richard, saunz plus dire, les prent, 
Issi ke sun nevou Arthur, par descent ^ 
Quens serrait de Brettayne, prendrait solempnement 
La iîllye Tankrede à femme, hair de sun tenement, 
De pees perpétuel, d'amur* enterement. 
Et de ço maryage ount fet confermement. 
Taunt cum ço ij. rays sunt sur cele^ dalyement, 
Arrivai of La mère le ray Richard prent aryvement 
Eieanor -^^ P^^'^ ^^^ Meschynes, de busces avait trent, 
Estorez de vitaylle, à sun âz les présent.*^ 

Phelippe quens de Flaundre, gentil ber et sage, 
Fu dustre la rayne" of celé vesselage,^ 
Alyanore sa mère Richard de hait corage^ 
Une damoisele i mené, ky père ^ - par héritage 
Fu rays de Naverne ^^ de gentil lynage, 
Berneger ad à noun,^- plus bel de sun âge 
Fu nule part trové, ne de gi-eignur parage. 
De celé estait en Cypre fet le maryage 
Of le ray Richard, par counsail sun ^^ barnage. 

1 des trcstels, C. D. 

^ la mère .... de fer cor âge, B. 

- devisa, B. devise, C. 

la mère, D. 

" qe par descent, D. 

^^ jtivene, qe père, B. 

^ de amour, C. 

" de Naverre, C. 

^ cel ii. rays son sur tel. 



^- Berngere ad nou7i, 'B, a noun. 

ij. reis soïint sur tele, D. 

C. Beniege ad noun, D. Beren- 

^ les prent, C. 

gere, in Robert of Brunne. 

' je la reygne, C. 

^2 de son, B. 

^ vasselage, B. 


'' For a great pavillion of rich equipments, 

" For a table of gold, with trestles likewise, 

" For vessel of silver richly gilt, 

'' With whicli to serve the emperor at his parliament. 

" My lord the king, at his end, 

^' Bequeathed surely to thee, Richard my brother, 

'' The things before named, of which witness lies not." 

" Lady," said Tancred, " of his will 

" I will make agreement with my lord the king." 

King Tancred ofFered him forty thousand ounces of 

And king Richard, without more talk, accepts them, 
On condition that his nephew Arthur, by descent 
He would be count of Britany, should take solemnly 
The danghter of Tancred to wife, the heir of his pos- 
For perpétuai peace and love entirely. 
And of that marriage they hâve made a confirmation. 
While thèse two kings are in this business, 
The mother of king Richard arrives 
In the port of Messina ; she had thirty busses 
Laden with victuals, and présents them to lier son. 

Philip count of Flanders, a gentle baron and wise, 
Was the queen^s leader with that fleet. 
Elianor, -the mother of Richard, of high spirit, 
Brings there a damsel, whose father b}^ inheritance 
Was king of Navarre of gentle hneage ; 
She was named Berengaria, a fairer of her âge 
Was found nowhere, nor of greater family. 
Of her was made the marriage in Cyprus 
With king Richard, by the advice of his barons. 




Richard at 


He "warns 
of the 
king of 

Kaunt affyez estayent et purvou Tesposage,^ 
L[a] rayne Elianore ' retliorne of sun ménage 
Pur^ sun fiz Richard à Rome'* en messao^e. 
Bernerger demort, ne pas cum hostage ; 
La rayne de Cecille vers ly la prent en gage, 
Et venent *'' ensemble cum oysels en cage. 
Kant le ray Richard assez ad soj ornez, 
Et le ray Tankrede ad fet ses voluntez. 
Ad Katayne^ la cyté est Richard aiez, 
La toumbe saint Agate ad molt honurez. 
Le ray Tankrede i est, of molz de ses barnez, 
Et fet al ray [Richard reverenz assez].'' 
Ilokes of Ta^nkrede ad trais jours demorez, 
De aler sun vayage après ^ ad pris congez. 
Tankrede ly convaye de ilokes à deus jornez, 
Et en amour graunt de doun ad^ présentez 
Quatre nefs chargez de deus maners de blez, 
Quinz gTaunt galayes ^^ pur guère appai-ayllez, 
Et plusurs autre choses ke cy ne sunt nomez. 
Le ray Richard saunz plus à ly ad redonez 
La meyllur espeye ke unkes fu forgez, 
Ço fu Kaliburne, dount Arthur le senez 
[Sei] solait^^ guyer en gueres et [en] mêliez.^- 
Lors ly dist Tankrede, '-'Deus, en ky poestez 
" Les riches et les povers sunt abaundonez, 
" Te salve, -^'^ ray Richard, et garde des enemystez ^^ 
" Le ray Phelippe de Fraunce, et ^"^ de ses falsetez. 

^ et purveez les passa c/e, C. pur- 
l'euz, ï). 

- Alienore, B. 

"• Par,'Û. 

** Iioha7i, B. 

^ vivent, B. C. D. 

^ A Catayn, C. A Katayne, D. 

' The words within brackets are 
omitted by A,, and are supplied 
from B. 

^ après omitted in D. 

^ en grant amour des douns Vad, 
B. en grant amour du doun Vad, V. 
en graunt amour de doun Vad, D. 

'^ Robert of Brunne has '* and five 
•' other galies." But the French 
text is correct. 

" Sei soleit, B. C. D. 

'- en gwerc et en medlez, C, 

^■' Te sauve, B. 

'^ de enemytez, D. 

'' et omitted in E. 


V7hen thcy were affiaiiced and the wedding provided, 

Queen Elianor returns vvitli lier houseîiold 

To Rome on a message for lier son Richard. 

Berengaria remains, not as hostage ; 

The queen of Sicily takes her to herself in pledge, 

And they live together like bii*ds in cage. 

When king Richard has dwelt long enough, 
And king Tancred has conformed with his wishes, 
Richard is gone to the city of Catania, 
And has much honoured the tomb of St. AsraUia. 
King Tancred is there, with many of his barons, 
And makes to king Richard révérence enougli. 
There he has dwelt three days with Tancred, 
Afterwards he has taken leave to go his voyage. 
Tancred conducts him thence two days, 
And in great love has presented to him in gift 
Four ships charged with two kinds of wheat, 
Fifteen great galleys equipped for war. 
And several other things which are not named hère. 
King Richard with ont more has given him in return 
The best sword that ever was forged ; 
That was Caiiburn, with which Arthur the wise 
Used to guide himself in wars and in battles. 
Then Tancred said to him, " God, in whose power 
" The rich and the poor are left, 
*' Préserve thee, king Richard, and guard thee from the 

" enmity 
" Of king Philip of France, and from his falseness. 




'' Par Huge ^ de Burgoyne, ke duk est clamez, 
" Me maunda par sun - bref, sicom ws orrez, 
" Ke trahy serray par tes ^ iniquitez ; 
" Et si guère entre nous fust continuez, 
" En aide me serrait pur ws* mettre suz pez. 
" Et, cher amy Richard, ke ^ jo dye veritez, 
" Prenez,^ su-, le bref, à ly le moustrez ; 
" Si il le volt dédire,'' sur ly serra provez." 
Le ray Richard le prent, ke devent irez, 
Et le ray Tankrede à Deu Tad comaundez. 

Richard Le ray Richard repaire par molt graunt hatye 

Arere à Meschines à sa chuvalerye ; 
Ilokes trové ad ^ sa soer et sa amye. 
Al ray Phelippe de Fraunce daillier [ne] voit-il mye. 
Phelippe en ad mervaille, et quaintement espye, 
Et maunde à Richard,^*^ en noun de compaynye, 
Quel houre et kaunt vodrait-^^ aprester sa navye 
Devers le sege de Akre, ke trop est saunz aye. 
Richard respount et dit, molt serrait graunt folye, 
[Mustrer consail à cil qi n'est pas amie ;]^^ 
Et par sun bref demene sur ço ly certifye. 
Par quai^^ de cel houre de ly ne se affye.^* 

The excuse " Ben say," dist Phelippe, " ke ço signifye, 

ofFranc^'e^ " ^® Ç^ ^^^^ [^^] forgë^^ par graunt felonye 

" Et pur ma soer Alyse, ke issint est guerpye^^ 
" Pur celé de Nauverne ; par Deu le ûz Marye, 
" Ne serra pas issint, si Dé me preste vye/' 

^ Hugo, D. 1 11 vodra, B. D. 

^2 This line is omitted in A., and 
supplied hère from B. C. D. 
1^ Pur quay, CD. 

- Me manda son, B. 

^ par vos i., B, C. D. 

"* dont vous, C. D. 

^ E, mon cher ami, qejeo, B. 

6 Pernez D ' ^^ "^^is, line is omitted in B 

S'il veut dédire, C. S' Il volt de- \ ^''fu forgé, B. 
dire, D. ! i^ Est pur ma soer Aleyse q'en- 

8 ad trové, B. C. D. 
^ ne voet-il mie, B. 
'° à rai Richard, B. al rey Rich- 
ard, D. 

si est guerpie, B. Est pur ma 
soer Alice Wensynt est qweipye, 


'^ By Hugh of Burgundy, who is called duke, 

'^^ He sent me word by liis letter, as yoii shall liear, 

" That I should be betrayed by tby wickedness ; 

" And, if war were continued between us, 

" He "would give me assistance toput you under foot. 

" And, dear friend Richard, that I tell truth, 

" Take, sir, the letter, show it to him; 

'* If he seek to contradict it, it shall be proved upon 

" him." 
King Richard takes it, who becomes angered ; 
And king Tancred has bid him adieu. 

King Richard returns with very great haste 
Back to Messina to his chivalry ; 
There he has found his sister and his sweetheart. 
With king Philip of France he will hâve no dealing. 
Philip has wonder at it, and cunningly watches, 
And sends to ask Richard, in the name of companion- 

At what hour and when he wouïd make ready his 

Towards the siège of Acre, which is too long without 

Richard replies and says, it would be very great foUy 
To show council to him who is not a friend ; 
And he certifies him thereupon by his own letter, 
Wherefore from that time he puts no trust in him. 
'^ I know well," said Philip, " what that signifies, 
" That that letter was forged through great wicked- 

" ness, 
" And for my sister Alice, who is thus deserted 
'* For her of Navarre ; by God the son of Mary, 
*' It shall not be so, if God lend me life." 

D 2 



King Respouns le ray ^ Phelippe kaunt Richard [ad] oye,^ 

explana- -^^ matyn ly prove devaunt la clergye 
tion. Ke le ray sun père, duk de Normendye, 

Avait conu Alys kaunt le avait en ballye, 
Et fillye engendrait, ke mort est et sevelye ; 
La lay de saint église trop serrait blemye, 
Et Richard et Alyse '^ de Dampnedeii maldye, 
Si en maryage Richard par là se lye. 

" 0," * dist le ray Phelippe à ses "^ gens de Fraiince, 
*' En le ray Richard ne quiday descaivaunce, 
'' Gisors ly dona[y]® of le apurtenaunce, 
*' Et X. mil mars, pur fere le alyaunce 
" De ly et de ma sor, dount est ore destaunce. 
" Des ore est moun avoyr et ma terre en balaunce, 
/' Et jo par tut trahi ; par Deu et sa pussaunce, 
'' Si de mes covenauntes n'en ai restoraunce, 
'' Jo frai al ray Richard, en fet e en parlaunce, 
*' Desçà mer et delà, of monn poer gTevaunce/"' 
*' Nai, sir," dist Richard, "lesset'^ ta manaunce ; 
'• Tu avéras tun avoyr^ ta vile, of l'apendauDce." 
The two Les clers et les barnez ne sofFrent ^ descordaunce 
recondied. ^i"'^^^'^ cels .ij. rays, vount fere accordaunce ; '' 
Richard de sun avoyr ly fet asseuraunce. 
Et Gisors ly rend par bone tesmoniaunce ; 
Sa soer ly quite clayme, et prent aquitaunce, 
Ke marier ly pusse saunz sa desturbaunce. 
Philip pro- Phelippe après l'acord ne fet [là] ^^ demoraunce, 
^cre. Prent congé de Richard, et vers la mer se launce, 
En Akres kaunt il veent, poy valt l'apparaunce, 
Avaunt ke Richard i veent ^^ ren i fet par chaunce.'- 

^ du rei, B. de rey, C. del rey, 


" ad oie, B. C. D. 
3 de Aleyse, C. 
"^ O, omitted in C. 
5 e ses, B. 
c donay, B. C. T>. 

' lessez, C. D. 
^ ne soeffrunt, C. 
^ Vacordaunce, B. C. 
'i^ nefeit là, B. 
^^ Richard veent, C. 
vint, D. 

^- rien n'ifoit, B. 



Wlien Richard lias lieard the reply of king Philip, 

In the morning he proves to him before the clergy 

That the king his father, duke of Normandy, 

Had been intimate witli Alice when he had lier in ward, 

And had begotten a daughter, who is dead and buried ; 

The law of holy church would be too much stained, 

And Richard and Alice accursed of the Lord, 

If Richard binds himself in marriage in that quarter. 

" Oh," says king Philip to his people of France, 
" I did not look for deceit in king Richard ; 
" I gave him Gisors witli the appnrtenance, 
'' And ten thousand marks, to make the alliance 
" Of him and of my sister, of wliich there is now a breach. 
" Henceforward my wealtli and my iand are in balance, 
" And I everywhere betrayed ; by God and his power, 
" If I bave not a restoration of my covenants, 
" I will do to king Richard, in fact and in t?Jk, 
" On this side the sea and beyond, grievance to 

" my power." 
" Nay, sire," said Richard, " leave thy threat ; 
*' ïhou shalt hâve thy wealth, thy town, witli the 

" appnrtenance." 
The clergy and the barons sufïer not discord 
Between those two kings ; they go to make accord ; 
Richard makes him assurance of his money. 
And restores Gisors to him by good witness ; 
His sister cries him. quit, and takes aCvquittance, 
That she can marry without his interférence. 
Philip, after the agréera ent, makes no stay, 
Takes leave of Richard, and hnrries towards the sea, 
When lie comes to Acre, little worth is his appearance ; 
Before Richard comes there, he does nothing there as 

it happens. 



for Syria. 

a great 

and is 
driven to 

of the 

Après le ray Phelippe, le ray Richard remist, 
Et hors de Meschines sun chastel abatist, 
Ke, avaunt -^ Tankrede sa pes deservyst, 
Pur recette avojrr ilokes lever fist ; ^ 
Et kaunt amys estayent, abatre le promist,^ 
Ke nul enemy après ly tenist.^ 
Pur quai ^ al ray Tankrede damage avenist.^ 
Après de jour en altre sa navye purvist 
Devers le sege d'Akre, et servir Jhesu Kryst. 
Sa soer et sa amye en une busce assist. 
Et Roger Maukaele sun chuvaler suyst/ 
Of busces et galayes et gens ke les sufyst.^ 
Cum en celé halte mer la navye venist, 
Tempest trop horrible les busces surprist ; 
Ly mariner al sigle encountre combatist. 
Dame Jone la rayne Deus issint ^ requist 
Ke salvement à porte ^^ en Cypre descendist, 
Et dame Berneger,^^ ke poy se joyst, 
Pur ço ke sun seygnur de nul part i vist. 
Deus busces i morii-ent, le chaunceler i peryst/~ 
Et le sel le rays entur sun col pendist. 
Isake, ray de Cypre, les bens des morz^^ saysist. 
Et kaunt ke furent vifs en sa prisoun mist. 
Kaunt le ray Richard la meschaunce oyst, 
Of tote sa navye i vint saunz respit. 
Et al rays Ysake dévotement escrit, 
Ke, pur l'amur cely ke mort pur ly suflfrit; 
Les bens de ses genz rendre ly vousist. 

^ Ke veaunt Tankrede, A. 
- lever le fist, B. 
^ abatre le fist, C. 
^ après la tenist, B. après le 
tenist, C. 

' Par quel, B. C. D. 

^ damage en avenist, C. D. 


"t fuist, C. son chaunceler suist, 

^ This line is omitted in C. 

^ issi, B. 

10 al port, C. D. 

1^ Berengcre, B. 

1- le chaunceler perist, B. C. D. 

^^ de morz, C. 


After king Philip, king Richard remained. 
And threw down his castle outside Messina, 
Which, before Tancred made his peace, 
He caused to be raised there to hâve a refuge ; 
And when they were friends, he promised to throw it 

That no enemy might hold it after him, 
Whereby injury might corne to king Tancred. 
Afterwards from day to other he provided his navy 
Towards the siège of Acre, and to serve Jésus Christ. 
His sister and his sweetheart he placed in one busse, 
And Roger Mankael his knight foUowed, 
With busses and galleys, and people who were sufti- 

cient for them. 
When the navy came into that high sea, 
A very terrible tempest overtook the busses ; 
ïhe mariner contended against it with his sail. 
Then Lady Joan the queen supplicated God 
That she might safety land in a haven in Cyprus, 
And lady Berengaria, who was little joyful, 
Because she saw her lord there on no side. 
Two busses were lost there, the chanceUor there pe- 

And the king's seal hung round his neck. 
Isaac, king of Cyprus, seized the goods of the dead, 
And put ail who were alive in his prison. 
When king Richard heard of the misfortune, 
He came there with ail his navy without delay, 
And wrote to king Isaac earnestly, 
That, for the love of him who suffered death for him, 
He would restore the goods of his people. 



Isake, ray de Cypre, tost ly countredit ^ 
Deliverer les prisouns, les bens ke là conquist;^ 
Retenir les volt, et fere ent sun profit.^ 
Kaunt le ray Richard sa duresce enteDdist, 
[Cornent à sa prier iij. fiez nst despist,] * 
Sun aler devers Akre cel lioui'e suspendit, 
Et sur le ray de Cypre à la guère se prist. 

lung Eodem anno ap'plicidt rex Ricardus Gipviainj et 

Isake, ray de Cypre, empereur de Griôbuns,^ 
Kaunt vist le ray Richard en mer of ses barouns 
Aprochaunt la terre, sun pople ad somouns 
De Griffonye et Cypre, tuz venent al sablouns,' 
La rivaille en long bataillent envirouns, 
Se profrent à défendre de launces et bastouns. 
Richard les regard, escrye sur les Gascouns,^ 
'' Mettez-vus à terre,^ confoundoums cels brecons \ " ^^ 
Forces a Et les maryners par les avirouns 
and deîeats Aryvent à la terre, tresbuchent les felouns. 
Isaac. Isake se mette al fute, ne put a ver fusouns, 
Et jekes à lendemayn ^^ se tent en tapisouns. 
Le ray Richard escrie les c. Londrais par noun, 
" Desore mey suez tuz, en noun de graunt guerdoun ! ^^ 
" Parnoums cest emperour,^^ deliveroums nos prisouns." 

^ This and the following line are 
transposed in C. and D. 

- et plus les ne tensit, C. et plus 
ne les tenist, D. 

" efere son profit, B. et fere en 
son profist, C D. 

'^ This line is omitted in A. tnd 
B., and given hère from C. and D. 

^ Omitted in A., given hère 
Irom B. and C. Amw prccdicto 
rubricato, C. 

^ des Griffouns, C. D. 

' De G., de Cipre, i. v. à sablons, 
B. C. D. 

^ sur les garscons, B, svr ses 
Gascouns, C. D. 

'■^ Mettom-nus à terre, B. Mettez 
nous, C. 

^^ bretouns, C. 

^- jesqe leiidemayn, B, jekes lende- 
mayn, C. 

^- Des ore me siieîz touz, en noun 
de g[_ra^ntz guerdons, B. D. 

^^ cel empcrour, C. 


Isaac, king of Cyprus, immediately refused him 

To deliver the prisoners and the goods lie obtained 

there ; 
He resolved to retain them, and make his profit tliereof. 
When king Richard heard of his harshness, 
How he had three times treated his prayer with eon- 

He suspended his journey towards Acre at that time, 
And prepared himself for war against the king of 


TJie same year Jdng Richard landed in Cyprus, and 

captured it 

Isaac, king of Cyprus, emperor of the Greeks, 
When he saw king Richard at sea with his barons 
Approaching the land, has summoned his people, 
Of Greece and Cyprus, ail corne to the sands, 
Draw up in battle order along the shore, 
Offer to défend it with lances and clubs. 
Richard looks at them, shouts to the Gascons, 
'' Put yourselves on the land, let us confound thèse 

" rascals ! " 
And the mariners by their oars 
Reach the land, overthrow the wretches. 
Isaac takes to fiight, he cannot hâve many foUowers, 
And he holds himself in hiding places till the next day. 
King Richard calls to the hundred Londoners by name, 
" After this ail follow me, in the name of great re- 

" wards ! 
" Let us take this emperor, let us deliver the prisoners !" 



Boasts of 


takes pos- 
session of 
■where his 
sister and 

Isake par ses espyes ^ entendist lour resouns, 

Se prist^ à les mountaynes, se tynt en les boscouns. 

La nout survynt, Richard se dota de tresouns, 

Retorne â la ryve, estent ses pavilloims, 

Du gayne à la jorné fist^ ses larges douns, 

Enportaunt * la praye tuz sunt compaynouns. 

Isake ad fet sun vou à Deu et saint Symouns, 

Ke al matyn vendra saunz evasiouns, 

Of launce en poyng,^ eskeu al col, pur ses regiouns 

Encountre^ les Englays, ke fount destrucciouns 

Sur ly et sur ses gens ke sunt en ces ^ baundouns. 

Et si le ray Richard veygne en ses laçouns,^ 

Ou counte ou baroun de ses naciouns, 

Jammès [n'Jeschaperount ^ saunz grevouse raunçouns, 

Pur pape ne patriarke, pur tuz lur ^^ sermouns. 

Le ray Richard la nout en tentes reposait, 
Le jour après suaunt à Lymesçoun alayt, 
Gyté riche et gTaunde, ke guerpy estait 
Des Gryffouns ke la tyndrent ; le ray Richard entrayt, 
Sa soer et sa amye aryvez i trovait. 
Isake l'emperour estoré la avait ^^ 
De vitaille pur ij. aunz, de reen i faudrait.-^^ 
Le ray Richard ses barges de furment chargait ; 
Repaire à sun hoste, et privément parlait, 
Ke à l'estaiUe jornal mover se volait, 
Coure sur l'emperour, où trovez serrait. 
Chascun des barouns test se apparayllait ; 
Le ray fu ly primer ke se myst laundrait, 
De trestut sun host nés un demorait. 

1 par espyes, C. 
- Et prist, C. 
■^ fet, B. C. D. 
^ Enpartaunt,!). 
^ lance en point, B. poygne, D. 
^ En counires, C. 
"" en ses, B. les genz ke sount en 
ses, C. D. 

^ vienge en ses lasçons, B. veent 
en ses lasçouns, C. 

^ n'eschaperunt, B. ne eschape- 
rent, C. ne eschaperount, D. 

1'' lur omitted in B. 

^' edorezja avait, C. 

-- de rien ne J'ailleit,'B. 


Isaac by his spies heard of their designs, 

Took to the mountains, held himself in the bushes. 

Night came on, Richard was apprehensive of treachery, 

Eeturns to the shore, spreads bis tents, 

Makes bis large gifts of the plunder taken in the day ; 

In carrying off the prey ail are companions. 

Isaac bas made bis vow to God and St. Simon, 

That be will corne in the morning without fail, 

With spear in fist, sbield at bis neck, for bis kingdom 

Against the Engiish, who make destruction 

Upon bim and bis people who are under bis power. 

And if king Richard corne into bis nets, 

Or earl or baron of bis nations, 

Tbey shall never escape without heavy ransoms, 

For pope nor patriarch, for ail their talking. 

King Richard reposed the night in tents ; 
The day foUowing after be went to Limesun, 
A rich and great city, which was abandoned 
By the Greeks who held it ; king Richard entered, 
He found his sister and his sweetheart arrived there. 
Isaac the emperor had stored it 

With victuals for two years, there was want of nothing. 
King Richard loaded his barges with wheat ; 
Retui'ns to his army, and privately talked, 
That be would move with the morning star 
To attack the emperor, wberever be should be found. 
Each of the barons immediately made bim ready ; 
The king was the first who put himself in position ; 
Of aU bis army not one remained behind, 



riight of 

of king 

Arriyal of 
Guy king 
of Jérusa- 
lem and 

Fors Bernard de Bayoun, ke la mer gardait. 
Richard of ses baroims l' empereur aprochait, 
Et trop horriblement Isake escryait, 
Ses tentes abatist, Ysake avylait; 
En chemys et brays-"- fuyaunt eschapait, 
Ses chuvals, ses armes, al ray Richard lessait.*^ 
La baner de l'empire^ Richard ilokes waynait. 
La part^'e del pople ke encountre ^ se donait 
Le ra^'S en la batayile trop malement menait, 
Les uns pris-il vifs, les uns i tuait,^ 
Et à graunt^ nobleye victor repairait. 
Sa feste à L^miesçoun cryer lors fesait,' 
Et dame Bernerger ilokes esposait. 
Le terce jour de sa feste,^ le ray comaundayt 
Ke Bernard de Bayoun la dame corounayt. 
En cel halte feste tut drait à Lymesçoun 
Sunt venuz à coui't^ par graunt afifeccioun 
De Jérusalem le crentil ray Guvoun, 
Et Galfray sun frere,^'^ et Aumfiy de Turoun,^^ 
Raymoun de Antyoche, prince de graunt renoun, 
Bomound counte de Triple, et le duk Leoun, 
Frère Ruffyn des mounz,^- trop vaillaunt baroim, 
Offrent lur homages et ^^ lur servyse en soun 
Al gentil ray Richard, à morir en le noun 
De cyl ke suth Pylate suffry passioun. 
Richard les rescait of oi^aunt devocioun. 
Par ount chascun se lye par obligacioun 
Ke leals ly serrount suth ^^ sa proteccioun, 

' £ln chemise e en hrais, B. 
En chemyse, en hrayes, D. 

- à Richard lessait, C. 

■^ I.a hanere de Cypre, B. 

"* qe coutitre, C. 

° e les V71S tueit, B. les uns; il 
inayt, D. 

^ al grau f, C. 

" horsfesoit, B. 

' delà /este, B. D. 

^ a la courte, B. al court, C. 

'" Geoffrey de Lusignan. 

^- Amfray de Turon, C. He is 
called by Hoveden, Amfrid de 

^- In Eobert of Brunne, it is : 
" Frère Ruffyn Delmount." Rupin 
de la Montaigne, in Hoveden. 

^'^ et omitted in CL 


su, C. 


Except Bernard of Bayonne, wlio guarded the sea. 

Richard with his barons approached the emperor, 

And shouted upon Isaac very terribly, 

Threw down his tents, reviled Isaac ; 

He escaped by flight in his shirt and breeches, 

Left his horses and arms to king Richard. 

Richard there won the banner of the empire. 

The part of the people who made résistance 

The king in the battle treated very evil ; 

S orne were taken alive, others slain there. 

And with great nobleness he returned conqueror. 

He then caused his feast to be proclaimed at Limesun, 

And there he espoused lady Berengaria. 

The third day of his feast, the king commanded 

That Bernard of Bayonne should crown the lady. 

In this high feast direct to Limesun 
Ai*e corne to the court through great affection 
The gentle king Guy of Jérusalem, 
And Geoffrey his brother, and Amfrid de Tours, 
Raimond of Antoch, a prince of great renown, 
Boamond count of Tripoli, and the duke Léo, 
Brother of Rupin of the Mountain, a very valiant 

They offer their homages and their service wholly 
To the gentle king Richard, to die in the name 
Of him who under Pilate suffered passion. 
Richard receives them with great dévotion, 
Whereupon each. binds himself by bond 
That they will be loyal to him under his guidance, 


Et sa seygnurye par nul evasioun 
Lerrount pur altiye, dount aver guerdoun. 
They pur- Le ray Richard si tost as armes fet cryer, 
suelsaac. g^^ hoste en deus partyes comaunde deviser ; 
De sa chuvaliye partye fet lyverer^ 
Al gentil ray Guyoun.^ ke ben les seet guyer. 
L'emperour Ysake en oyst parler*^ 
Quels gens sunt venuz al ray Richard aider, 
Se doute durement de lur encombrer ; 
Par les melz vanez de tut sun poer 
Prye al ray Richard k'il pussent accorder/ 
Et venir devaunt ly la forme recorder 
Coment il purra son trespas amender. 
Submission Le ray Richard ^ respount, et dist '' Yolenter." ^ 
ofthe L'emperour i vent, et dist al ray Richer, 

Emperor -^ . 'i 

Isaac. *• Su% moun trespas te prie pardoner; 

" Ton homme devendray par terre et par mer, 

" Et tendray ma terre de tay à toun voler. 

" Tes gens, ke fesay cum fol enprisoner, 

'' Te rendray saunz demore, of trestut le aver 

" Ke tes genz naez perdirent l'altr'er. 

" En toun pehymage of tay voyl aler, 

" Of cent caynt d'espaye, chascun chuvaler, 

" Quaraunte c. mountés al foer d'esquyer/ 

'' Et à V. c. à pé,^ as quels fray payer 

" Solde pur deus aunz of tay demorer. 

" Ma fyllye, hair de mes terres, te durray à garder, 

" Taunt cum ço covenaunt^ te averay fet enter." 

^ partie fet lever ^ B. | ' Quatre cenz mountz, à foer 

- Au rey sire Gui/on,'B. d'esquiei',^. Quatre cent mountez, 

2 en oi de ceo parler, B. ! C. Robert of Bininne bas similarly 

•* q'il puis acorder, C. q^ il pusse ! translated it, "And four hundreth 

acorder, D. **' to bote, squieres of gode aray." 

^ Le rey, rey Richard, B. j '** Od cink cenz à pè, B. Et ouf 

6 Voîenters, B. Robert of Brunne 
translates tbis, "Richard ansuerd 
therto, * I grante it blithely.'" 

V. cent au pêe al quels, C. 
^ ceste covenant, B. 


And his seigneury by no évasion 

Will they leave for that of another, from whicli to 
hâve reward. 

King Richard immediately orders to cry " As armes ! " 
He causes his army to be divided into two parts; 
A part of his chivalry he commits 
To the noble king Guy, who knows well how to lead them. 
The emperor Isaac heard talk of it, 
What people are corne to aid king Richard, 
Fears greatly their attack ; 
By the men of most renown of ail his power 
He prays king Richard that they may be reconciled, 
And to corne before him to record the form 
How he shall be able to make amends for his offence. 
King Richard replies, and says, " Willingly." 
The emperor cornes there, and says to king Richard, 
" Sir, I pray thee to pardon my offence ; 
'^ I will become thy man by land and by sea, 
" And will hold my land of thee at thy will. 
" Thy people, whom like a madman I caused to be 

" imprisoned, 
" I will restore to thee without delay, with ail the 

" property 
" Which thy drowned people lost the day before 

" yesterday. 
" I will go with thee on thy pilgrimage, 
" With a hundred men girt with sword, each a knight, 
" Four hundred mounted in the manner of a squire, 
" And with ûve hundred on foot, to whom I will cause 

" to be paid 
" Pay for two years to remain with thee. 
" My daughter, heir to my lands, I will give thee in ward, 
" Until I shall hâve entirely performed that covenant 

" to thee." 






Lors le ray Richard, de molt gentil quer, 

Pardonne le trespas, se acorde à Tempérer,^ 

Pavyllonn et tente le fet assigner, 

Et taunt com ly mesme ly comaunde lionnrer. 

Isake mesme le jour, kaunt tuz~ vount reposer, 

Repentir se comence de sun dayller, 

Hors de ses pavyllouns escbapez est cum leer,^ 

Mannde al ray Richard, par sun messanger 

Ke à ço covenaunt ne volt obliger 

Terre ne tenement,"* ne snn cors lyer, 

Ne pur sa terre "^ rendre à ly un dener, 

Ne par tel servage ses hairs déshériter. 

" Deus ! " dist Richard, " cum cestuy est fol béer, 

'^ Kaunt quide nus Englays issint tregetter." 

Ore va le ray Richard ordiner coment 
Il purra l'emperour suspendre vistement. 
A Guyoun et Raymound, et à celé gent, 
Assigne xx. galayes, et graunt busces cent, 
Ke vount queraunt Isake par vers le orient.*^ 
Il mesme va par terre en graunt hardement ; 
Des viles et cytez ' chascun à ly se rend. 
Robert de Tur[n]ham ^ se mené noblement, 
La terre suth maryne ^ ad conquys nettement, 
Revent à sun seygnur, et vount vers le occydent. 
La cytë de Nychoise ^^ estoré richement 
Ount pris, et la vile de Cheryn ^ ' ensement ; 
Del chastel dedeynz la fyllye Isake descent, 
Et cheet devaunt le rays ploraunt tendrement, 

^ ^acorde Veniperer, D. 

- tuz omitted in C. 

^ Hors des pavillons eschapez 
cum leer, B. C. Hors des pavilliouns, 

^ Tere et tenement, C. 

^ terre omitted in B. 

^ par mer vers Porient, B. D. 

quere Isak par mère vere Varient, 

"< et des citez, C. 

^ Turnham, B. D. 

^ sur marine, B. 

1'^ Nichocie,B. 

^^ de Cheryng, C. Cheryne, D. 
Hoveden calls it Cherin. 


Then king Eichard, with very generous heart, 
Pardons tlie ofFence, becomes reconciled with the em-* 

Causes pavilion and tent to be assigned to him, 
And orders him to be honoured as much as himself. 
Isaac tlie same day, wlien ail go to repose, 
Begins to repent of his proceeding, 
Is escaped from his pavilions like a thief. 
He sends to king Richard by his messenger 
That to that covenant he will not oblige 
Land nor tenement, nor bind his body, 
Nor pay him for his land a penny, 
Nor disinherit his heirs through such slavery. 
" Oh God !" said Richard, " what a mad baron this is, 
When he thinks thus to enchant us Englishmen V 

Now goes king Richard to arrange how 
He will be able to suspend the emperor quickly. 
To Guy and Raimond, and to that people, 
He assigns twenty galleys and a hundred great busses, 
Who go seeking Isaac towards the East. 
He himself goes by land in great boldness, 
Every one of the towns and cities surrenders to him. 
Robert de Turnham behaves himself nobly, 
The land on the coa,st he has conquered clean, 
Returns to his seigneur, and they go towards the West. 
The city of Nicosia, richly stored, 
They hâve taken, and the town of Cherin likewise ; 
From the castle within the daughter of Isaac descends, 
And falls before the king tenderly weeping, 



Richard's De mercy ly prie pui- Deu omnipoteni ; 
m^C\T)rus°^ Et le ray l'ottrye assez cortaisement. 

Le chastel et les bens dedenz trovez ^ prent, 
La pucele à sa femme fet maunder gentement. 
Guyouu et Raymound revenent uniement,^ 
Pur ço ke il ne ount conquis terre ne tenement. 

Robert de Tur[n]ham^ lors pria sun seygnur 
Aler à BufFenet asseger ^ la thour ; 
En tote Gryffonye n'ad chastel meyllur. 
Le [ray] ^ Richard i va, ilokes ne prent sojour. 
Taunt com le ray Richard est en cel errour,*^ 
Adresce ses engyns, i gette ^ nout et jour. 
Thestory Statyn le seneskal dist à l'emperour, 
perorSaâc-^ manger où il sist ^ en régal honur, 
andStatin. '' Sir ray Isake,^ jo suy toun vavasour, 

*' Et gardayn de tes terres, jo vay ke deshonur 

" Tai aproche durement par cel ^^ conquerour, 

" Ke ray s est des Engiays, et sage guerraiour. 

" Va et faz sa pes, ke par^^ ton errour 

" Ne sait perdu le règne, dount ton auncessour ^^ 

" Ad tenuz jekes en sçà cum bon governour/' 

Isake se corouce vers tel counsaillour, 

Du cotel l'esena gettaunt en tel erroui-,'^ 

Le colpoun de sun nées coupait del trenchour.-'* 

^ trovez, omitted in C. ^ Isakins, B. C. D. and Robert of 

- nuement, B. C. D. Robert of Brunne. 

Brunne translates it, " Sir Guy and ^^ ^este, B. ceo, C. 

Bumund tbei com as thei )ede." ' " 9« P^r, B. 

3 Tnmham, B. C. D. J' antecessour, C. 

. _ -^ Vessena qettant en errour. B. C. 

"* et asseqer. B. t^ 7 a 

^ ' D. le sena, A. 

•5 Tbis Word, evidently wanting u Robert of Brunne bas trans- 

to complète tbe Une, is only given j i^ted tbis ratber freely :— 

^y S- C. " Fulle brotberly and brim he 

^ cel estour, B. D. tel estour, C. 
Tbis and tbe following line are 
transposed in B. and C. 

" kept up a ti'encbeour, 
'' And kast it at Statin, did bim a 
" scbamfulle scboure, 

* ii O^it^y C. « Hie nese an J bis ine be carfe at 

8 où il seet, 0. D. « misaventoure." 


Prays him for mercy for the sake of God Almighty ; 
And the king grants it very courteously. 
He takes the castle and the goods found inside, 
Causes the maiden to be sent in gentle manner to his 

Guy and Raimond return empty handed, 
Because they hâve neither conquered land nor tene- 


Robert de Turnham then prayed his lord 
To go to Buffenet to lay siège to the tower ; 
There is not a better castle in ail Greece. 
King Richard goes thîther, there he makes no delay, 
Ile directs his engines, and throws there night and day. 
While king Richard is occupied in this assault, 
Statin the steward says to the emperor, 
Where he is seated at his meal in roysiÀ honour, 
" Sire king Isaac, I am thy vavasor, 
" And keeper of thy lands, I see that dlshonour 
'^ Approaches thee greatly through this conqueror, 
" He is the king of the English, and a wise warrior. 
" Go and make his peace, that by thy error 
" The kingdom be not lost, which thy ancestor 
" Has held till now like a good governor." 
Isaac becomes angry against such a counsellor, 
With the knife he struck him, throwing it carelessly, 
A slice off his nose he eut with the carving-knife. 

E 2 


Statinsur- Statyn s'en fuyst en lionnte et dolour,^ 
renders the -j^^ vent al rav Richard of m oit Gjraimt ^ clameur. 
Cyprus to Le ray prent sun homage ; kaunt Statyn ad soccour, 
R^hard ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Richard saunz plus de labour 
Baffe et Buffenet, Candare et Dendamur, 
Et totes les cytez dount Ysake fu gyour. 

Trestuz les graunz seygnurs ke sunt demorez 
Of le ray Richard, sunt ben confortez 
Ke Cypre of le honur est si tost waynez. 
Ad cape ^ Saint Andreu, abbay fort assez. 
Est le ray Isake privëment muscez.^ 
Le ray Richard l'oyt dire, laundrayt est alez ; 
Capture of Isak 1}^ vent encountre, en croyz ly chet al pez,^ 
Isaac. jjy ^jg^^ c( gi^e^ pi^i^. L)eu, ayez de may pitez, 

" Grauntez may vie et membre, en prisun me mettez,^ 
'^ Saunz ferges de fer pur hounte de parentez." 
" Tu avéras ta prière," dist ly ray s, " levez." 
Et pur ço ke ly sot" en taunt fu forsenez, 
Ke mencioun ne fist de raunçoun ne de régnez,^ 
Desore sunt les manicles [et] ses anels forgez^ 
De plus pur argent en trésor ^^ trovez ; 
The go- A les deus raynes sun cors est comaundez, 
orCn)rus Johanne et Berneger ^^ ly ount en lur poestez. 
entrusted to Et le ray Richard ad maintenaunt donez 
Al seneskal de Cypre la garde des cytez ; 
Pur taunt ke il estait-^- si vilement mahaynez, 
Statyn le Naes ^^ desore est surnomez. 

^ et en dolour, C 
2 en mult grant, C. 
^ A cape, C. 
** mousez, D. 

^ en croice chiet à peez, B. e7i 
croice cheet al peez, C. en croyce 

'* hj sez, C. 
^ ne régnez, B. D. 
^ ses manicles e ses forges, B. 
ses manicles, ses anels, C. 
^° en tresorie, B. 
^^ Johane e Berengere, B. Jone 

chet as peez, D. To fall on the ! et Bernegere, D 

ground with the anus stretched out 
in fonn of a cross was the most 
humble mode of supplication. 
^ This Une is omitted in D. 

^■- cuni il eatoit, B. C. Partaunt 
com il estait, D. 

^^ le nasée, B. le nasê, D. 


Statin Aies thence in shame and grief, 

And cornes to king Richard with very great outcry. 

The king takes his homage ; when Statin has succour, 

He delivers to king Richard with ont more ado 

BafFa and Buffenet, Candare and Dendamur, 

And ail the cities of which Isaac was ruler. 

Ail the great lords who are remained 
With king Richard, are well comforted 
That Cyprus with the honour is so soon won. 
At Cap St. Andrew, a very strong abbey, 
King Isaac is secretly concealed. 
King Richard hears it, is gone thither ; 
Isaac is corne to meet him, falls suppliant at his feet, 
Says to him, " Sire, for God's sake hâve pity on me ; 
*'' Grant me life and limb, put me in prison 
" Without fetters of iron for shame of my kindred/' 
" Thou shalt hâve thy prayer," said the king, "rise.'^ 
And because the fool was so far devoid of sensé, 
That he made no mention of ransom or of the king- 

Henceforward are his manacles and his fetters forged 
Of the linest silver found in his treasury ; 
To the two queens his body is entrusted. 
Joan and Berengaria hâve him in their power. 
And king Richard has now given 
The keeping of the cities to the steward of Cyprus ; 
Because he was so foully wounded, 
Henceforth he is named Statin le Nasé. 


Cypre est perdue par Ysake le tyraunt, 
Et gayné par Tespeye ^ Richard ly vaillaunt, 
A ky le pople tut vent mercy cryaunt, 
A tenir de ly par servise fesaunt. 
Eich d " Sir/' dist Statyn, " fa venir ly marchaunt, 
establishes " Chuvaler, esquyer, cytaj'n, et sergaunt, 
Cyprus ^° " -^^ burges et de viles chascun ten^e tenaunt, 

'' Et preigne tes bornages ^ cum novel conqueraunt." 
Le ray fet issint, et les gens par taunt 
La moyté de lour bens ly vount presentaunt, 
Pour tenir les lays ke tenuz^ ount avaunt, 
Ke Manuel ^ le rays, of seal ^ pendaunt, 
Confermait^ en Cypre kaunt il fu governaunt^ 
L'empyre de Griffonye ; le ray Richard le graunt. 
Leavesitin Ore ad le ray Richard parfet sa mestrye, 
S^t*^^ ^^, Et par graunt conqueste Cypre ad saisye. 
Eobert de Al Statyn ^ le Nasé fet graunt cortaisye ; 
TurnhaiD. q^^,,^ p^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^:^^ p^^, l'espeye 

De ly et de ses heirs, salve la seygnurye 

Ad tuz les rays Englays taunt cum homme ad vye. 

Statyn l'ad resceu, et le rays emprie^ 

De Robert de Thurnham en soccour et aye/^ 

Tant ke la pes en Cypre sait melz establye. 

Robert i demort, le [ray] ■'^ Richard l'ottrye. 

Kaunt le ray Richard ad fet sun voler 
En la terre de Cypre, et pris ad ^^ par poer 
Isake l'emperour, Johanne et Berneger 
Sunt alez vers Triple Isake ilokes mener. 
Le ray Richard après ne volt ^^ demorer, 

' par espeie, B. 

- E prenez les homages, B. 

3 qe tenez, C. 

4 Eobert of Brunne has "Samuel." 

7 quant il governayt, C. 

■^ A Statin, B. 

^ empire, B. 

^^ en socour e en aie, B. 

3 od son seal, B. ouf son seal, C. | ^' This word is evidently wauting. 
ou son seal, T>. '" qe pris ad, là. 

'' Conferma, B. ^^ veut, B 


Cyprus is lost by Isaac the tyrant, 
Aud gained by the sword of Richard the valiant, 
To whom the people ail corne crying mercy, 
To hold of him by doing service. 
" Sire/' said Statin, " cause to corne the merchant, 
" Knight, esquire, citizen, and sergeant, 
" Of towns and cities every one holding land, 
" And take thy homages as a new conqueror." 
The king did so, and the people thereupon 
Go and offer him the half of their goods. 
To hold the laws which they hâve held before, 
Which Manuel the king, with his seal attached, 
Confirmed in Cyprus when he was governing 
The empire of Greece ; king Richard grants it. 

Novï^ has king Richard completed his business, 
And by great conquest has seized Cyprus. 
To Statin le Nasë he does great courtesy ; 
He has given him Cyprus to hold by the sword 
Of him and his heirs, saved the seignury 
To ail the English kings as long as man has life. 
Statin has received it, and prays the king 
For Robert de Turnham in succour and aid, 
Until the peace in Cyprus be better established. 
Robert remains there ; king Richard grants it. 

When king Richard has done his will 
In the land of Cyprus, and he has taken by force 
Isaac the emperor, Joan and Berengaria 
Are gone towards Tripoli to carry Isaac thither. 
King Richard will not remain afterwards, 



Richard jsfe le ray Guyoun, al sygle fount ^ cryer. 
Acre. Nés un de la mesnë après demorast ^ arer, 

Fors Robert de Turnham k'en est justizer. 
Le jour suaunt^ à noune ount veu en la mer 
Un graundesime busce,'^ ke sygle fet lever, 
En noun le ray Plielippe vers Aki^e prent Faler/ 
Se[s] armes enviroun^ la nef fount hors boter. 
Meets with Pur saver moun ^ dount sunt s'en va ^ ly maryner ; 
enemy^sail- I^espouns ly ount doné et dyent, " Sir cher, 
ingunder " Nus sumes de Antyoche de gentil mister,^ 
colours,and " ^^ alums vers Akre, servise pur doner ^^ 
sinksit. " jjQ i-ay Phelippe de Fraunce, ke nous fist maunder." 
E dist ^^ le ray Richard, " Of cels volums parler." 
Le prince de Antioche la nef fet regarder,^^ 
Revent of graunt alayne, et dist^^ al ray Richer, 
*' Touz sunt Sarazyns, ke vount envenimer 
" Le pople Krestyen par pusoun amer." 
" Ore tost ! " dist le rays, " vous allez batailler ; 
" Assaillez la nef, la fêtes enfoundrer,^^ 
'• Et ayt chascun sun waigne ^^ saunz altre chalanger." 
Il mesme en sa galaye fu tut ly primer.^^ 
Ly Sarazyn se dresce,^^ comence à getter 
Le fn Gregays encountre, et Richard va percer 
Le bek de sa galaye la neef pur naer.^^ 
Xv. c. paens ly mestre va counter 

^ vount crie?', B. 

^ après demnrt, B. C. demort, D. 

^ Le jour avant, C. 

^ Une grandisme busce, B. C. 

^ prent aler, C. 

'^ ount enviroun, C. 

' mon, B. C. Pur saver dount 
sunt, D. 

s se va, C. 

9 mester, B. C. D. 

'^^ vers Acres pur serviez doner, B. 
servir pur dener, C. D. 

11 O, dit, B. O, dist, C. D. 

1- va regarder, B. C. D. 

1^ od grant e dit, the word alayne 
omitted, B. à grant aleyne, C. D. 

1^ confoundrer, B. enfounder, C. 

15 la gwayne, D. 

i** Robert of Brunne translates 
this, " The kynges owen galeie, 
" he cald it Trencthemere." 

^"t se adresce, CD. 

1^ Du beek sa galeie la neef va 
naer, B. Del bek sa galey, C. D. 


Nor king Guy ; they raise the ciy " To the sail." 
Not one of his household afterwards remained behind, 
Except Robert de Tarnliam, who is justiciaiy of it 

The day following at none (3 o'clock p.m.) they hâve 

seen at sea 
A very great busse, which causes its sail to be raised ; 
It takes the way towards Acre in the name of king 

Philip ; 
They cause his arms to be exposed around the ship. 
The mariner goes off to see wliose they are ; 
They hâve given him an answer, and say, " Sir dear, 
'' We are of Antioch, of gentle employ, 
" And we are going towards Acre, to give service 
^' To the king of France, who sent for us." 
And said king Richard, " We will talk with them." 
The prince of Antioch goes to survey the ship ; 
Returns with great breath, and says to king Richard, 
" They are ail Saracens, who are going to poison 
" The Christian people Avith bitter poison." 
" Now quick !" said the king, " you are going to give 

" battle ; 
*' Attack the ship, make her sink, 
" And let each hâve what he gets without other claim." 
He himself in his galley was the very first. 
The Saracen cornes to, begins to throw 
Greek fire against him, and Richard goes and pierces 
With the beak of his galley the ship to sink it. 
The master goes and counts fifteen hundred pagans 



Ke là sunt naez, [ne] put^ nul escliapcr, 
Fors xl. et vj. ke le ray fet ^ salver, 
Et ad ray ^ de Fraunce partye présenter. 
D'or,^ de riche chose, n'est soume ^ de l'aver 
Ke en la nef estait, put nul^ homme counter. 
De pusoun ke là fust put ^ homme enpusoner 
Trestuz ke lors vindrent ^ Akres asseger ; 
En mer fu [tut] getté, saunz rens ^ esparnier. 
Le ray Richard les sigles comaunde eshaucer,^^ 
Et haster^^ vers Akres les Kristiens aider. 
Ore les condue Deus et salve de encombrer ! ^^ 

arrives at 

Anno Domini riiillesimo c. nonagesimo prirtio reces- 
sit rex Ricardus de Cipria, et venit Acon, quœ 
etiam capta est per eundeon}^ 

En la sainte vigile de la Trinité 
Est ly ray Richard suz Akres aryvé. 
Sa femme et sa soer ilokes ad trové, 
Et la fillye Isake jadis ray nome ; 
Sun père est en garde-^** à Triple demoré. 
TheGreeks Et, quant le ray Richard de Cypre fa aie, 
aTstate ^^^ Gryffonye gens^^ un moyne eschapé, 
monk to Cosyn l'emperour Ysake [le] deposé,-^^ 
Isaac.^ Ount fet ray de Cypre, et Statyn ount grevé. 

1 Qe sunt là naez, ne put, B. Ki 
sount là naez, pout nul, D. 
- le rei les fet, B. C. D. 
3 Et al ray, C. D. 
■* De ore, C. De or, D. 
5 ne summe, B. C. D. 
^ ne puit nul home, B. 
7 qefustpoeit,'B. 
^ qe là vindrent, C. 

9 En mer fu tut getté sanz rien 
espanier, B. 

10 enhaucer, B. C D. 

" E haster, B. D. Et hastier, C. 
12 This line is omitted in B. C. D. 

1'^ The rubric is hère given 
from B. In C. it is as follows, 
Anno Domini mo. nonagesimo primo 
recessit rex Ricardus a Cypria, et 
venit Actu, quœ capta est. Robert 
of Brunne has translated this rubric 
into two lines of his metrical text : — 

" The date -was a thousand, a 
" hundreth, nienti and one, 

" Fro Cipres he was sailand, a 
" toun he wan, Acon." 

1^ est gardé, B. 

1'^ Les gens de Grifonie, B. C. D. 

16 le déposé, B. C. D. 


Who are there drowned; none could escape, 

Except forty and six, whom the king caused to be 

And part to be presented to the king of France. 
Of gold and of rich objects, and tbe total of the 

Which was in the ship, could no man count. 
Of the poison which was there, one might poison 
Ail entirely who then came to besiege Acre ; 
It was ail thrown into the sea without sparing any. 
King Richard ordered the sails to be haled up, 
And to hasten towards Acre to aid the Christians. 
Now may God conduct them and save from trouble ! 

Anno JDomini 1191, king Richard departed from 
Cyprus, and came to Acre, which also is taken 
hy him. 

On the holy eve of the Trinity 
Is king Richard arrived under Acre ; 
There he has found his wife and his sister, 
And the daughter of Isaac formerly entitled king. 
Her father remains in guard at Tripoli. 
And, when king Richard was gone from Cyprus, 
The people of Greece an apostate monk, 
Cousin of the deposed emperor Isaac, 
ïïave made king of Cyprus, and hâve given trouble 
to Statin. 


Robert of l{o]3ert de Thurnham est molt mespayë/ 
takes pro- Et le Va queraunt jekes ly ait - trové ; 

r^?mf th "^'^^ P^^^' ^® prent, à Cheryn lad mené, 
monk. Où hors de prisoun^ nuytauntre est passé. 
Statyn et Robert as armes ount cryë ; 
Le pople tut de Cypre i venent de volunté.* 
Le cbaityf est repris, à Cheryn remené. 
Le terce jour après Robert ad comaundé 
Somoundre la court de tote la countré. 
Les fraunkes et les serves sunt^ venuz de gré 
Al jugement le rays del moyne^ corouné. 
Escotez ore cornent Robert l'ad jugé. 

Be monaco rege facto, et postecc suspenso.'^ 

The monk ''Sire/' dist Robert, ."tu fastes moyne jadis, 

emperons a \^ j)g|j omnipotent estavez enemys, 

judged and ^ i a i i • 

hanged " Kaunt pour terryen honur ^ tun habit werpys. 


Robbour en ceP reaime par nous fustes pris, 
En prisoun à Cherjm cum robbour fustes mys. 
La prisoune debrisastes, fustif^^ fu tu pris; 
Tu avéras jugement par lay de moun pays.^^ 
Fêtes lever les fourches, et pendez^- le chaityfs. 
Plus bel te serrait en cloystre aver sys,^^ 
Et chaunter ^^ ta messe, et fet le Deu servys. 

^ mespaê, B. C. î). j ^ pur terrrene honur, C. " for 

- que7-ant, jesqe il cit,'B. U. que- ' " îhe worldes blisse," Robert of 


^ en ceste, B. ev celé, D. 
^^ futifs, B. dehrusastes, futyf, C. 
e futyf repris, D. 

" " That lawe I salle the make 
D. Robert of Brunne translates tbis. ■ " that is Richard lond." Robert of 
" Lered men and lay, fre and bond I Brunne. 
*' of toune." 1 ^- e pendre, B. 

•5 de moygne, C. D. j ^-^ aver assis, B. D. 

7 B. C. De monaco rcyefacio, D. : ^^ E chaunté, B. C. D. 

raunt jekes il ad, C. 

^ de la prisoun, C. D. 

■* de Cypre vient à volent»^, B. 
et (for i') veent de v., C. i vecnt, D. 

^ serfs i sunt, B. C. serves i sunt, 


Robert de Turnham is mucli provoked, 
And he goes in search of him nntil he Ims found liim ; 
He takes him by force, bas carried him to Cherin, 
Where he escaped ont of prison by night. 
Statin and Robert bave cried " To arms ! " 
Ail the people of Cyprus come there voluntarily. 
The wretch is retaken, and carried back to Cherin. 
The third day after Robert bas given orders 
To summon the court of ail the country. 
Freemen and bondmen are come gladly 
To the king's judgment of the monk crowned. 
Now listen how Robert bas pronounced judgment on 

Of the monk made king, and aftervjards lianged. 

" Sir," said Robert, " thou wast formerly a monk ; 
" Thou wast enemy to God Almighty, 
" When for earthly honour thou forsookest thy habit. 
'' Thou was taken by us as a robber in this kiugdom, 
'^ As a robber thou wast put into prison at Cherin ; 
'* Thou brakest the prison, as an escaped prisoner wast 

" thou taken ; 
" Thou shalt bave judgment by the law of my country. 
*' Cause the gallows to be raised, and hang the wretch. 
'' It would be better for thee to bave been sitting 

" in a monastery, 
" And chaunting the mass, and doing God's service. 



of this 
of a king. 


" Ke chalanger reaime ke Kichard ad conquys, 
" Et pendre^ cum laroun si près de tes amys." 

Kaunt ço novel rays^ à mort fu liverez, 
Et la pes le rays en Cypre affermez, 
De Statyn le Nasée Robert prent congez, 
Retorne à sun seygnur of rychesce assez, 
Ly counte coment un moyne, estret de parentez^ 
L'emperour Isake, fii emperour cryez 
Par gens de Gryfîbnye, ke pus ount chalangez 
La seygnurye de Cypre, et farent entrez ; 
Coment ço novel rays fu pris et menez 
Al prisoun de Clieryn,^ et coment eschapez ; 
Coment il fu repris, coment ^ remenez, 
[Coment en la courte estoit encoupez,]^ 
Et coment par agarde ilokes fu jugez. 
Dist '' le ray Richard, " Allas ! viletez ! 
" Ky pendist ^ unkes rays ? fus-tu ^ forsanez ? ^^ 
" Tu faistez vilaynye à touz corounez." 
" Sire," dist Robert, " de ly nent plus parlez ! ^^ 
" Taunt com le ray Phelippe ad si ^^ demorez, 
" TJncore ne assailist Akres unkes une fez ; ^^ 
" Tu as fet esplait, à Deu le mercyez.^^ 
" Adrescés vos engyns, [et] passet^*" les fossez." 

Le ray Richard adresse suth ^"^ Aki^e ses engyns ; 
Conforte les Englays, Normaunz, et Paytevyns ; ^' 

^ E prendre, B. C. 
- Qtiant celé novele rey, B. celé 
novel rois, D. 

3 des parenteZf C. 

4 En la prison Cherin, B. 
^ contenez, B. 

^ Omitted in A., and supplie d 
from B. C. D. 
' O dit le rey, B. 
^ Qi pendi, B. 
9 fors tu, B. C. D. 

'° forsenez, C. D. 

^^ de II plus ne parlez, B. de ly 
ne plus parlez, C. D. 

12 ci, B. C. 

1^ ne assailleit Acres ne mie unfezy 
B. D. Uncor assaiUist Acres ne my 
unfeez, C. 

1^ a Dieu mercier, B. 

1^ et passez, C. D, 

1^ sur, C. 

1" Paytesyns, C. Paytefyns, P. 


" Than to claim a kingdom which Richard has conquered, 
" And hang like a thief so near tliy friends." 

When this new king was delivered to death, 
And the king's peace established in Cyprus, 
Robert takes leave of Statin le Nasé, 
Returns to his sovereign with riches enough, 
Tells him how a monk, descended from the kindred 
Of the emperor Isaac, was proclaimed emperor 
By people of Greece, who hâve afterwards claimed 
The sovereignty of Cyprus, and were entered ; 
How this new king was taken and carried 
To the prison of Cherin, and how escaped ; 
How he was retaken, how carried back, 
How he was brought to trial in the coiart, 
And how by sentence he was there judged. 
Said king Richard, " Alas I shame ! 
" Who ever hanged a king ? wast thou mad ? 
" Thou didst shame to ail crowned heads." 
" Sire," said Robert, "say no more of him ! 
" As long as king Philip was remaining hère, 
" As yet he never assaulted Acre once ; 
" Thou hast done action, thank God for it. 
" Prépare your engines, and pass the fosses." 

King Richard prépares his engines under Acre; 
Comforts the English, Normans, and Poitevins ; 



and acti- 

engines of 
war bumt. 

En bcarges et galayes fet ^ levei' molyns.^ 
Les vens sunt en les vailes, lez^ sunt les peleryns. 
Les alesce et movent^ les molëes des Ryns,^ 
Fu gettent cum foudre, fumés sulferyns, 
La noyse fust hidouse al vespre*^ du matyns. 
Ke fet le ray Richard? entre ses vaisins 
Ne cesse de couper les chênes acheryns ; ^ 
Les fossez ad saisi malgré les Sarazyns.^ 
Les fossez enchenez le ray Richard passait, 
Et sur la cyté assalz plusurs i donait ; ^ 
Et le ray Phelippe ausynt ^^ le fesait ; 
Ly un et ly altre trop de ennoy^^ avait. 
Phelippe pur négligence ses engyns lessait 
Une nout saunz garde, li Sarazyn gettait 
Fu de la cyté, et si les eschafait, 
Ke le ray Phelippe fors carbuns ^^ i trovait ; 
Pour quai^^ le ray Richard al matyn le prêchait,^'* 
Ke sage guerreour dait doter descait, 
Et plus de la nout ^^ ke kaunt le solail vait. 
Richard de ses engyns à Phelippe prestait,^^ 
Et del remenaunt vigorousment overait. 
Le assalt de cels ij. rays si longement dorrait 
Sur les Sarazyns, par si graunt esplait, 
Ke le frère ^" Saladyn, ke la cyté gardait, 

^ e en galeies feit, B. 

" jneîyns, C. Robert of Brunne 
translates, " In bargeis and galeis 
" he set mylnes to go." 

3 leez, B. C. D. 

^ Les cdetz en movent, B. en mo- 
vent, C. D. 

5 Le JRyns, B. C. D. This line ap- 
pears to be very obscure, nor are ^ve 
much assisted by Robert ofBrunne's 
translation, '." Tbe stones -svere of 
" Rynes." Hearne, in his Glossary, 
explains this last word by *' Rhine, a 
*♦ river so called, from whence they 
" used to hâve straiige odd stones to 
" be shot in engins." 

^ à vespre, C. à vespre de m., D. 

7 asceryns^ B. D. les cheyns as- 

seryns, C. à Cheryns, A. 

^ caracyns, D. 

^ plusurs doneit, B. C. D. 

^^ ausi, B. 

^^ demoie, B. 

^- fors carboîin, D. 

^3 Par quei, B. 

^^ ly prêchait, C. 

^^ en la nuyt, B. C. en la nocte, 

^^ aprestait, B. 

^' Kefrer, C. Qe frère, D. 


Causes mills tô be raised in barges and galleys. 

The winds are in the sails, glad are tlie pilgrims. 

The machines cast the weighty stones, 

They throw fire like thunder, and sulphurous smoke : 

The noise was frightful from morn to evening. 

What does king Richard ? among his neighbours 

He ceases not to eut the iron chains; 

He has made himself master of the fosses in spite of 

the Saracens. 
King Richard passed the chained fosses, 
And on the city gave there several assaults ; 
And king Philip did the same ; 
The one and the other had too much weariness. 
Philip through négligence left his engines 
One night without guard ; the Saracens threw 
Fire from the city, and so warmed them, 
That king Philip found there nothing but charcoal ; 
Wherefore king Richard in the morning preached to 

That a wise warrior ought to fear deceit. 
And more by night than when he sees the sun. 
Richard lent some of his engines to Philip, 
And worked vigorously with the rest. 
The assault of thèse two kings lasted so long 
Upon the Saracens, with so great effect, 
That the brother of Saladin, who commanded the city. 




The Sara- 
cens treat 
for peace, 
but the 
kings re- 

The mira- 



OfFers of 
the Sara- 

Of Richard et Plielippe sovent de pees parlait, 

Les offre ^ la cyté, et rendre les volait, 

Issi ke de nul de soens ^ ke dedens estait 

Serrait retenuz ne membre perderait. 

Nul de cels ^ deus rays l'offre accordait, 

Ne ly Sarazyn rendre les volait^ 

Les cytës ne les terres ^ ke Richard demaundait ; 

Pour quai li Sarazyn en Akre r et ornait,^ 

Et ly Kristien à Tassait alait. 

Novele sovent '^ lur vint ke molt les ^ confortait, 

Un dart marveylluse,^ dedenz i fa purtrait 

La parole ke suyt en^*^ Latyn tut drait. 

In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. 


Kristyen fa nul ke unkes houre savait 
Coment ne par ky la sette hors passait, 
Et vint de la torele ^^ ke Richard assegait ; 
Et ke kantke ^^ Sarazyn dedenz ordinayt 
Fust en la flèche escrit ; le ray Richard loait ^* 
A ^^ Deu de tel miracle, et loer devait.-'-^ 

A Phelippe et Richard les Sarazyns volaynt 
Sovent la cyté rendre, et ben promettaynt 
Ke la saynte terre Jérusalem ^^ rendraynt, 
Et XX. mil Cristiens, ke en prisoun avaynt. 

1 offri, B. offrist, C. 

" qe nul de seunSy C. qe nul de 
sons, D. 

^ de ses, C. 

■* la rendre nepoeit, B. rendre les 
poayt, C. D. 

•' et les terres, C. 

^ en Acres li turneit, B. 

7 Nove sovent, D. 

^ mult lour, B. 

^ mult merveyllous, C. D. 

^0 qe fust en, C. qe suist en, D. 

^^ B. C, with the omission of 

^- de la torere, D. 

^■^ Et quanqe, C. Et kaiint qe, D. 
ke appears superfluous. 

1^ loaist, C. 

"^^ A omitted in C. Dieu de cel 
myi^acle, D. 

^^ i deveit, B. 

^" de Jérusalem^ C. 


Often spoke of peace with E-icliard and Philip, 
Offers them the cifcy, and would surrender it to them, 
On condition that no one of his people -who were in- 

Should be arrested or lose member. 
Neither of thèse two kings agreed to that offer, 
Nor could the Saracen surrender to them 
The cities nor the lands which Richard demanded ; 
Wherefore the Saracen returned into Acre, 
And the Christians went to the assault. 
News often came to them which much comforted them, 
A wonderful arrow from within, in it was written 
The sentence which follows, ail in Latin. 

In Tiomini Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. 


There was no Christian who ever knew 

How nor through whom the arrow passed out, 

And came from the tower which Richard was be- 

sieging ; 
And whatever the Saracen within was planning 
Was written in the arrow ; king Richard praised 
God for that miracle, and praise him he ought. 

To Philip and Richard the Saracens desired 
Often to surrender the city, and firmly promised 
That they would deliver up the holy land of Jérusalem, 
And twenty thousand Christians whom they had in 

F 2 


Ne Phelippe ne Kychard de ço s'affyaynt ;^ 
Mes de jour en altre al sait ^ alaynt. 
Abreach Les minours Rycliard les founz del mour^ percaynt, 
made in the -^^ ^^ graundesyme pece del mour cravaun taynt.^ 
Les Frauncays cel lioure minaynt et gettaynt, 
Et vers la Thour Maldite sur les mours entraynt. 
Les Sarazyns saunz doute tost les rechascaynt ; 
A plusurs donaynt playes, et plusurs tuaynt. 
Les Englays à lour bryke ^ taunt ben combataynt, 
Ke à lour ray Rycliard vaye esë ^ fesaynt. 
Richard [i] est entre/ les Saraz}Tis ly vaynt/ 
Tûtes lur rych esses à ly comaundaynt.^ 
Les Frauncays trestuz Phelippe escrj^aynt, 
'' Entrez en la cyté ke tes^^ gens i sayent ; 
'' Prys sunt les Sarazyns, tes vayes ^^ estopaynt." 
Acre is Ore est la vile de Acre par Rychard saysye, 

taken. ç^^ baner en la thour en signe de mestrie. 

Le ray Phelippe de Fraunce, ouf sa ^^ chuvalerye, 

Il boute sa baner, nul ly countredye. 

Le duk de Austrice i vent, et ^^ sa banere desplye, 

La boute en une thorele cum homme de corapaynye 

Ke fust al assaut de Crestyen partye. 

Le ray E-ychard en taunt ne se paye mye,^^ 

Fet venir le duk, demaunde par hatye. 

^ de ceo saffieiehit,'B. se afi/aint, ' line, " The Inglis at ther triste 

C. se affyaynt,T). Robert of Brunne \ " bifor thani bare aile doun." 
translates, " Thei treistid not ther- ! ^ voie aisé, B. vey esée, C. D. 
"tille." I ' Le rei Richard en entre, B, 

- à Vasaut, B. à Passant, C. à j Kichard i est entré, C. D. 
Vassalt, D. I ^ luy vayent, D. 

^ de mures, B. Richard les mures j ^ recomandeient, B. C. D. 
percaint, C. de mour, D. ! ^^ tels, D. 

^ du mur cravanteient, B. dcl • '^ qe ces veies, B. 
mure cravantayjit, C. del mur cra- \ ^- od sa, B. ou sa, C. D. 
ventaynt, D. j '^ et omitted in B. and C. 

^ à lour hrige,^. adlour brike,C ^^ de taunt ne s'apaia mie,li. ne 

Kobert of Brunne translates thi.-3 ' se paia mye, C. D. 


Neither Philip nor Richard trusted in that, 
But from day to day went to the assaulfc. 
Richard's miners pierced the foundation of the wall, 
And threw down a very great pièce of the wall. 
The French at that time were mining and casting, 
And were entering on tlie walls towards the tower 

The Saraeens without doubt soon drove the m back ; 
To many they gave wounds, and many they slew. 
The English at their combat fought so well, 
That they made an easy way for their king Richard. 
Richard is entered there, the Saraeens yielded to him, 
They surrendered to him ail their riches. 
Ali the French shouted to Philip, 
" Enter the city, that thy people may be there ; 
*' The Saraeens are taken who stopped thy way." 

Now is the town of Acre taken possession of by 

His banner on the tower in sign of mastery. 
King Philip of France, with his knights, 
Fixes his banner, no one prevents Jiim. 
The duke of Anstria cornes there, and unfolds his 

Raises it on a tower as a man of the company 
Who was at the assault on the Christian party. 
King Richard thereupon is not at ail satisfied, 
He sends for the diike, demands with haughtiness, 



and the 
dxike of 

The army 
divided in 

Philip be- 
sieges a 

" Cornent teens-tu ta terre/ de ky seygnurye ? 

'' Et pour quay ta baner as bote par mestrie 

^' Entre baners as rays,^ saunz avouuerye ? " 

" Sir rays/' dist le duk, " poui^ veirs le ws dye, 

" Jo suy cy venuz en Crystyene vye 

'^ Destmre à moun poer la mescreauncye ; 

" Et, sire, si ws^ plest, jo tenk ma ducherye 

'' De Deu et de saint Pare, par lour garauntye." 

*' Sire duk," dist le rays/ "par le fiz Marye, 

*' Si tu n'as seygnur, ta terre ert altrye." 

Après on^ez quel mal avyTit de ceP envye. 

Akre fu perdue, ke ore est regayné ; 
Les deus rays i sount of molt grant mesné, 
A cels sustenir^ la terre est molt charge, 
De beyvre et manger^ kaunt est^ la chereté. 
Entre les deus rays par taunt fu or dyne, 
Ke Toste Cristyen fu là devysë 
Aler en deus partyes sur les enemys Dé. 

Devisez [est] en deus le hoste ^ par accordaunce. 
Conquer un cliastel enprist le ray de Fraunce 
Ad une jorné de Acre, ke molt fist grevaimce^^ 
Maynt jour à Kristyens, trop fu^^ la tenaunce. 
Le ray Eychard s'en va par Deu et sa pussaunce, 
Viii. j ornes ad conquys sur les mescreaunce/^ 
Le ray Phelippe cel heure avait ^^ nule chaunce 
Le chastel conquere, par fet ne par manaunce. 
Le ray Richard l'oyt dire, doute de descayvaunce,^^ 
Ke forsclos serrayt ^^ de graunt chevisaunce, 

* Cornent tienes ta iere, B. 

'^ des reys, B. au reys, C. al 

reis, D. 

2 si le vous plest, C. s^il vous 

plest, D. 

■* dit Richard, B. 

^ de celé, B. 

^ A tels gens sustenir, B. C. D. 

T e de manger, B. C. 


'^ grant est, C. D. 

^ Devisez est en doits Vost, B. C. 

1*^ fist grant grevaunce, B. 

11 trop fort fu, C. D. 

1- sur la mescreaunce, B. C. D. 

'^ n^avoit, B. 

1^ doute deceivaunce, B. C. D. 

'5 fort chose serrait, C. 


" How holdest thou thy lancl? of whose seignory? 

" And why hast thou raised thy banner by force 

" Between the banners of the kings, without autho- 

'' rity?" 
'' Sir king," said the duke, "for truth I tell it you, 
" I am corne hère in Christian life 
^' To destroy to my power the iniidels ; 
'' And, sire, if y ou please, I hold my duchy 
'' Of God and St. Peter, by their warrantry." 
" Sir duke," said the king, *'by the Son of Mary, 
^' If thou hast not a seigneur, [thy land will belong to 

" another." 
Afterwards you will hear what evil sprang from this 


Acre was lost, which now is regained ; 
The two kings are there with very great company ; 
The land is heavily charged to support them, 
Great is the dearness of drinking and eating. 
Between the two kings it was therefore resolved, 
That the Christian army was there divided 
To go in two parts against the enemies of God. 

The army is divided into two by agreement. 
The king of France undertook to subdue a castle 
At a day's journey from Acre, which did great grievance 
Many a day to the Christians ; very strong was the 

force which held it. 
King Richard departed, through God and his power, 
He has conquered eight day s' journey on the infidels. 
King Philip at this time had no chance 
Of subduing the castle, by act or by threat. 
King Richard heard it said, fears deceit, 
That he should be eut off from great aid, 



Philip re- 
turns to 

Si le ray Phelippe i feist demoraunce, 

Et le Soudan ^ venist sur ly par purveaunce. 

Sun host tost retorne, of trésor saunz noumbraunce,^ 

Et al ray Phelippe revent en aydaunce. 

Kaunt le rays Phelippe par mareschal savayt 
Cornent le rays Richard si loynz conquys avayt, 
Cornent et pur quay retorner volayt, 
Dist à ses barouns, *' Nus ne fesums ^ esplayt, 
'' Eethornoms vers Acre, kar hounte nous serrayt, 
" Si en nos présences ço chastel conquj^s sayt 
" Par le ray Richard, et meyns* [nus] doterayt 
'* Payen, et Kristyens meyns nus honurayt." 

Richard Le ray Phelippe repaire ^ vers Acre of sa gente ; 

besi ege the I^^ ray Richard i vent of pavylloun et tente.^ 

castle. A. loger se fet ben et rychemente, 

De manger et [de] bayvre^ kaunt fet à talente, 
Ses waytes establye, et al repos se prent. 
Al matyn se levé, et à la messe ^ attent ; 
A Deu et ad sa mère prya dévotement 
De aide et soccour, autresi ^ verrayment 
Cum tut^^ sun désir ad doné playnement 
Venger la mort Jhesu sur Pylatyn parent. 

Ore ad le ray Richard sa ^^ messe paroye ; 
Escotez cum dist à la-^^ chuvalerye. 
" Del ray Phelippe ne avoms soccours ne aye ; ^^ 
^' Pensez de vos honurs,^* ne me fayllez mye ; 
" A Deu face le avou, jà^^ jour de ma vye 

* saldun, D. 

2 sanz numbre, C. 

^ niLs vus fesoms, B. 

^ meins nous d,, B. C. D. 

^ reperire, B. 

^ ouf pavilloun estent, C. 

"^ e de beivere, B. C. D. 

^ esa messe, B. et la messe, C. T). 

^ De aie e de socour auxi v., B. 
De aye et de socour autresi verray- 
ment, C. De aye et socour, D. 

10 Cum tretut, C. D. 

11 la, B. C. 

1- cum il dit à sa, B. cum il disi 
à la c, C. T>. 

12 socour ne nul aie, B. socour, 

'* nos honeurs, B. 

1^ faz le vou qe jà jour, B. face 
le wou jà Vour, C. face le vow jà 
jour, D. 


If king Philip make delay there, 

And the soldan should corne upon him in force. 

His army immediately turns back, with treasure with- 

out count, 
And returns to the assistance of king Philip. 

When king Philip knew by a marshal 
How king Eichard had conquered so far, 
How and why he intended to return, 
He said to his barons, " We obtain no success ; 
" Let us return towards Acre, for it would be shame 

" to us 
" If in our présence that castle be conquered 
" By king Richard, and less would fear us 
" The pagan, and the Christian would honour us less." 

King Philip returns towards Acre with his people ; 
King Richard cornes there with pavillon and tent. 
He causes himself to be lodged well and richly. 
When he has caused to eat and drink at will, 
He establishes his sentinels, and gives himself to repose 
In the morning he rises, and attends at mass ; 
To God and to his mother he prayed devoutly 
For aid and succour, inasmuch truly 
As he had given ail his désire fully 
To avenge the death of Jésus upon the kindred of 

Now has king Richard fînished hearing his mass ; 
Hear how he spoke to the knights. 
" From king Philip we hâve neither succour nor aid ; 
" Think of your honours, do not fail me at ail ; 
" To God I make the vow, never day of my lifë 



The En- 

" Plus près Akre vendray, avaimt ke ay^' saisye 
" Mesmes cel chastel, ke Phelippe ad guerpye ; 
" Refuse nous ad par molt grant envye ;^ 
*' Alums à Tassait, Jhesu nous condye ! " 
Le fossé est molt large,^ et parfound assez, 


attack the ^^ chastel de tûtes pars ^ est environnez ; 

castle. XJiie chance estrayt, et puys un pount-levez, 

Tut drait jekes à la porte, of dobble cheyne barrez. 
La porte fust overt, des Sarazyns armez ^ 
Cynkaunte ad cel entre sunt porters assignez. 
Des mangonels^ et lenges al ray ount gettez. 
Les Crystiens encountre autel les ounf^ maundez. 
X. sergauns des plus fers et des melz ^ vanez 

Theking's Devaunt le cors le ray sa targe^ ount portez. 
Il mesmes, cum geaunt, les cbeynes ad coupez ; 
Tut drayt à la porte est ly rays passez, 
Combaty cum leoun, sun destrer fu tuez. 
Et le ray Rycliard la presse perçayt al pez, 
Parmy les Sarazyns le chastel est entrez. 
Les Cristyens ben quidaynt ke pris fust ^^ et menez. 
" Le ray Richard est mort ! " ount ly Normaunz cryez ; 
Tuent et destruent les gens renayez, 
Le chastel ount saysy, et si ount trovez 
Le ray Rychard al des en la sale mountez, 
Combataunt of chens Sarazyns nomez; 
Tuez sunt trestouz, for [s] trays renomez, 
Quels al ray Phelippe Richard ad présentez. 

Molt est graunt honur as Engiays avenu 
De lur ray Richard, taunt valliaunt tenu. 

He enters 
the castle. 

1 qefei, B. 

2 haitye, C. 

•^ Desfossez mult large, B. 
4 (Je tote parSy B. Le chaicstel 
totes partz, C. D. 

•' de Sarazins arivez, B. C 
*» De mangonelSf B. 

' encountre au tiels uni m.y B. 
encountre à altels les uni m., C. 
autels, D. 

^ e de melz, D. 

^ le targe, C. 

^'' Les Crisiiens quideient qe pris 
est, B. C. D. 


'^ Will I corne nearer to Acre, before I hâve gained 

" possession of 
" This same castle, which Philip has forsaken ; 
" He has refused us through veiy great jealousy; 
" Let us go to the assault, Jésus be our guide ! " 

The moat is very large, and deep enough, 
The castle on ail sides is surrounded by it ; 
A narrow causeway, and then a drawbridge, 
Right up to the gâte, barred with double chain. 
The gâte was open, of armed Saracens 
Fifty are assigned as porters at that entrance. 
With mangonels and slings they hâve cast at the king. 
The Christians hâve sent against them similarly. 
Ten sergeants of the fiercest and most famous 
Hâve carried his shield before the king's body. 
He himself, like a giant, has eut the chains; 
Straight to the gâte is the king passed, 
Combated like a lion, his steed was slain, 
And king Eichard on foot pierced through the crowd, 
Is entered the castle among the Saracens. 
The Christians quite thought that he was taken and 

carried off. 
" King Richard is dead ! " the Normans hâve cried ; 
They slay and destroy the infidel people, 
They hâve gained the castle, and so hâve found 
King Richard mounted on the dais in the hall, 
Combating with dogs named Saracens ; 
They are ail slain, except three of name, 
Whom Richard has presented to king Philip. 

Yery great is the honour accrued to the Engiish 
By their king Richard, esteemed so valiant. 




The soldan 
proposes a 
truce for 

Philip in 
faveur of 
of it, but 

Le ray Phelippe de Fraunce est durement envieu,^ 

Ke pur le chastel prendre, ke est ore ^ rendu, 

A].a ses bens despendre, [et] si les ad^ perdu. 

Le soldan^ par espyes ad ben entendu 

Ke le ray Pbelippe ne se paye ^ poynt del jeu.^ 

Du soldan par lettre à Pbelippe est venu, 

Et du ray E-icbard un Sarazyn resceu ; 

Il vent en message, si est trop ben conu,^ 

Et dist al deus^ rays, *'Le soldan ws salu, 

" Et dist ke pur set aunz bon serrayt le treu ; 

" Kar si vostre Deu est de teP vertu, 

'^ Cum ws ly avez precbé al North et al Seu, 

" Nous serroums de ça issjmt purveu,^^ 

" Ke la teiTe ert vostre, et nous con vertu, 

" Saunz plus de saunk espandre ke n'est ore ^^ espaundu. 

'^ Le waynum-^^ saunz cbalaunge ws sait retenu." 

Le ray Pbelippe de Fraunce ad tost ^^ respoundu, 

" Ke ^^ mesure refuse, sovent est ^^ desceu." 

" Allas 1 " dist Rycbard, " ke uukes nul tel dit 
" Sur promesse de paen^*^ de Krystyen issyst. 
*' Nus sûmes cy venuz servir -^^ Jbesu Kryst, 
'^ Ke pur nus morust, kant en la croyz pendist ; ^^ 
" Nus sûmes tuz ses fiz, il nus formast^^ et fist, 
'^ Nus cbalangoums la terre oii nostre père nasquit, 

^ emeit, D. 

2 ore est, B. 

■^ e si les ad, B. C. D. 

■* Ke le Soudan, C. 

^ Phelipp se paye, D. 

^ de jeu, B. 

~ message, trop fu bien, B. C. D. 

^ à deus, C. D. 

9 sait de tel, C. D. 

^0 issint tiel liour purveti^^. de ea 
cel hour issint p., C. de cy à ccl 
houre issint, D. 

" ore omitted in B. C. 

^* Le gayn, B. La waigne, C. 
Le waygne, D. 

^^ ad tant r, B. 

'4 Qi,B. Ki,T>. 

^5 est sovent, B. C. D. Robert of 
Brunne renders king Philip's reply 
in two lines : — 

"And said, ' Ther men bedis skille, 
" ' skille men ouh to talve ; 

" « Tho that wille not that tille, 
" ' skille salle tham forsake.' " 

^^ Pur promesse du paen, B. du 
paen du Cris liai, C. 

^^ de servir, B. pur servir, C, 

^"^ morust en croiz quant p., C. D. 

^^ forma, B. fovrmayt, D. 


King Philip of France is deeply mortified, 

Wlio to take the castle, whicli is now surrendered, 

Went to spend liis goods, and so bas lost them. 

The soldan hy spies has well understood 

That king Philip is not at ail satisfied with the game. 

From the soldan hy letter is corne to king Philip, 

And hy king Richard a Saracen received ; 

Ile cornes on message, and is very well known, 

And says to the two kings, " The soldan saintes y ou, 

" And says that a truce for seven years would he good ; 

*' For if your God is of such power 

" As you hâve preached of him to North and to Soatli, 

" We shall be by that time so prepared 

'* That the land shall be yours, and we converted, 

'^ Without shedding more blood than is shed alread}'. 

" Let the gain be retained by you without dispute." 

King Philip of France has immediately replied, 

" Who refuses reason, is often deceived." 

" Alas ! " said Richard, " that ever any such saying, 
" On the promise of a pagan, should issue from a 

" Christian. 
" We are come hère to serve Jésus Christ, 
" Who died for us, when he hung on the cross ; 
" We are ail his sons, he formed and made us ; 
" We claim the land where our father was born, 




Philip pré- 
pares for 


the two 

" Ke ly puaunt paen sur Crystyen conquyst. 

" Si il la rendre volent par '^ pes saunz countredit, 

" De lur conversioun ben averoum respit. 

'' Et, sire, si ço noun, aloums of graunt delyt, 

" Conquere par le espeye ke Krystien perdist. 

" Ky sun de ver ne face pur quai la croyce prist,^ 

^' Hastivement ly preygne la maie mort subit." ^ 

Phelippe, ray de Fraunce, assez tost entendist* 

Ke le ray Rychard assenter ^ ne vousist 

Al soldan ^ trewe prendre, se teust ^ et surrist, 

Et de jour en altre privément purvyst 

Repair[er]^ en sun pays, et sovent requist 

Congé del ray Rychard par gens ke ly ^ transmist» 

Ly dist ke maladye si fort ly susprit, 

Ke endurer ne pout saunz cocher en lyt, 

Et ad Deu^*^ voler comaunder Tespiryt. 

Rychard, saunz demore, trop dolent respoundit, 

" Si le ray Phelippe desore me faillyst, 

" Et ad Dampnedeu covenaunt ne tenist, 

" M oit serrayt chalangé de ço ke ly promist;^^ 

" En ly est la demore, en sun^^ plaisir gist 

" Demorer ou aler, à Deu est le despit." 

Sovent avaunt cel houre estayt graunt destaunce 
Entre le ray Richard et le ray de Fraunce, 
Ke par compaynye et par fet de covenaunce^^ 
Demaunda la mayté de terre et tenaunce-^* 
Ke le ray Richard conquist par sa launce ^^ 
Sur le ray de Cypre, où il ne myst^^ aydaunce. 

^ s^il la voilent rendre, pur pes, B. 
si il la volent rendre par pees, C. D. 

^ perist, D. 

^ la mort subit, C. 

* assetz entendit, B. 

^ assentir, D. 

'' A Saladin, B. A saudan, C, 

' se teusce, D. 

8 Repairer, B. C. D. 

5 qe à li, B. C. D. 

1" al Dieu, D. 

^^ de ceo q'il promist, B. 

^' e à son, B. 

^^ et par covenaunce, B. 

^^ et de tenaunce, B. C. 

^'' par la launce, B. C. D. 

1^ il mist, B. w'en eust eydance. 



'* Which the stinking pagan conquered from Christian. 
' If they "will surrender it by peace witliout dispute, 
'* We will willingly accept respite of their conversion. 
" And, sire, if not so, let us go with great joy, 
" To eonquer by the sword what the Christian lost. 
'* Who performs not his duty for which he took the 

" cross, 
" May evil and sudden death take him quickly." 
Philip, king of France, soon enough heard 
That king Richard would not assent 
To take truce of the soldan, he was silent and smiled, 
And from day to day secretly provided 
To return into his country, and offcen asked 
Leave of king Richard by people whom he sent to him. 
He told him that sickness so violent had hold of him, 
That he could not endure without lying in his bed. 
And recommending his soûl to God's will. 
Richard, without delay, in great grief replied, 
" If king Philip henceforward désert me, 
" And hold not his co venant to the Lord, 

He will be much blamed for that which he promised 

" him ; 
The delay rests with him, it lies in his pleasure 
To remain or départ, the offence is against God." 

Often before that time there was great dissension 
Between king Richard and the king of France, 
Who, by Company and by act of agreement, 
Demanded half of the land and lordship 
Which king Richard conquered by his spear 
From the king of Cyprus, in which he gave no assist- 



gives the 
of his army 
to the duke 
of Bur- 



Et par taunt Phelippe, par graunt^ humiliaunce, 

Fist al ray Richard une quite clamaunce 

De trestut sun wayne, et sur ço ly fyaunee 

Gascoyne et Normendye garder de grevaunce, 

Cum sa terre demene, of sa'- pussaunce. 

Phelippe prent congé saunz plus de parlaunce ; 

Ad Huge de Borgoyne, duk de graunt^ vayllaunce, 

Comaunda sun host, desuz la^ governaunce 

Ly bon ray R-ichard, ke saunz demoraunce 

Court sur Saladyn, molt fust en graunt dotaunce ^ 

Al feloun de ^ Cesarë, escotez ore la chaunce. 

Le ray Phelippe s'en va par mer vers Lumbardye/ 
Repaire en sun pays pur sa maladye, 
Et le duk de Austrice en la compaynye. 
Le ray Richard demort of sa ^ chuvalerj^e, 
En Akres et Antyoche^ gardayns establye, 
Et vers C[a]yphas ^^ sa baner desplye. 
Près de ly fu tuz jours plenté de navye. 
Après de jour en altre Saladyn espye;^^ 
A Joppen^^ kaunt il vent, Saladyn n'3^ est mye. 
Sus en la mountayne ^^ du floum Cesarye 
Est -^^ sire Saladyn, espyaunt enbuschye ; 
Et tuz ^^ les Sarazyns de sa seygnurye 
Sunt venuz à deffendre le floum ^^ par espeye, 


^ od grant, B. en grant, D. j 

^ Cum. de sa terre demeyne od j 
tote sa, B. ouf tut son puissaunce^ 
C. oue tote sa pussaunre, D. 

■^ graunt omitted in B. 

^ sa g., B. 

^ en grant grevaunce, B. 

6 Au Jlmn de, B. Al flum de, C. 

'* Philipp de Fraunce par mère 
vers L., C. 

^ ov.f la, C. oue la, D. 

^ En Acres, eii Antioche,^. 

10 Caijphas, B. C. D. 

^^ Vespie, B. , 

^2 Al Joppen, C. 

1^ n^est mye, C. kaunt i veent, 
Saladyji ne est mye, D. 

^•^ en la funtayne de, B. de flum, 

15 Et, C. 

16 Od touz, B. Ouf tuz, C. En 
touz, D. 

lî" delflum. D. 


And in conséquence Philip, by great humiliation, 

Made to king Richard a quit-claimance 

Of ail his gain, and on that gives assurance to him 

To préserve from injury Gascony and Normandy, 

As his own land, with his power. 

Philip takes leave without more talk ; 

To Hugh of Burgundy, a duke of great valour, 

He entrusted his army under the government 

Of good king Richard, who without delay 

Marches against Saladin ; he was in very great fear 

At the river of Csesarea, hear now what happened. 

King Philip proceeds by sea towards Lombardy, 
Returns to his country for his sickness. 
And the duke of Austria in his company. 
King Richard remains with his knights, 
He establishes wardens in Acres and Antiocli, 
And towards Caiaphas displays his banner. 
Near him was always plenty of ships. 
Afterwards from day to day Saladin watches him ; 
When he comes to Joppa, Saladin is not there. 
Up in the mountain of the river of Cœsarea 
Is sir Saladin, keeping watch in his ambuscade ; 
And ail the Saracens of his lordship 
Are corne to défend the river by the sword, 





Ke Richard n'y passe/ ne nul de sa partye, 
Saunz aver bataylle of sa ^ paenerye. 

Battle of 

Saladyn les hoers^ del floum* ad saysye, 
Et E-ycliard vent si près ke Saladyn s'afîye 
Rychard utraer, et aver la mestrie 
De tuz les Kristyens ke là furent en v^^e. 
Le ray Richard aproche devers Cesarée ; 
Le floum ly estout passer si trover put le gué. 
Les hoers du floum ad Saladyn estopé,^ 
Par ount le passage al rays^ est vée. 
Richard regard, et vait la terre environne 
De tuz les Sarazyns ke pount porter espé ; 
E dist le ray Richard, " Mercy la mère Dé ! ^ 
" Pur quai nus venimes, ore le avoums trové ! " 
Et kant vait k'il ne poet par poer de mené 
Sir Jaques Passer, ne reprendre vaye en salveté, 

Sun host en trays escheles tost ad devysé. 

Sire Jakes de Aucunes,^ chuvaler esprové, 

De gentil norture et noble parenté,^ 

De pruesse en fet, de drait-^'^ vérité, 

De vigour en bataille, de sen avysé, 

Paringal ^^ ne avait en terre où. fu née, 

De la primere ^'^ eschele pur Deu ad prié ; 

Le ray Richard l'ottrye ^^ pur sa graunt bounté, 

Et cyl du ray Richard pur tuz jours prent congé.^^ 

de Avennes. 

ne passe, C. 

cd la, B. ouf la, 

C. oue la. 


' oers, B. 

4 dejlum, D. 

^ Les oers ad Saladyn du jium 
estoppê, B. C. D. Rotert of Bninne 
translates this, " Passage non he 
" nam, the forthes -^er withsette." 

6 al Bichard, D. 

7 Merde mère Dé, B. C. D. 

8 de Avenne, B. de Acunes, C. 

de Aucunes, D. " Sir James of 
" Avenu," Robert of Brunne. 
In Hoveden the name is Avennes. 

^ nureture de parenté, B. norture 
de noble parentée, J). 

^'^' en drayt, C. 

11 Parigal, C. D. "Père had he non 
" in the lond ther he was bom," 
Robert of Brunne. 

1- de primere, B. 

13 R. otrie, B. 

14 This Une is omitted in D. 


That Kichard pass not there, nor any of his party, 

Without having battle with the pagans. 

Saladin has seized the passes of the river. 

And Richard cornes so near that Saladin is confident 

To overcome Eichard, and hâve the mastery 

Of ail the Christians who were there alive. 

King Richard approaches towards Csesarea ; 
It was necessary for him to pass the river, if lie 

could find the ford. 
Saladin had stopped the shallows of the river, 
Whereby the passage is forbidden to the king. 
Richard regards, and sees the land surrounded 
With ail the Saracens who are capable of bearing 

sword ; 
And says king Richard, '' Thanks to the mother of 

" For what we came, now we hâve found it ! " 
And when lie sees that he cannot by force of troops 
Pass, nor retrace his way in safety, 
He has immediately divided his army into three 

Sir Jacques de Avennes, a knight of expérience, 
Of gentle nurture and noble kin, 
Of prowess in deed, of very truth, 
Of courage in battle, of prudent mind, 
Equal he had none in the land where he was born, 
Has begged in God's name for the first squadron; 
King Richard grants it to him for his great goodness, 
And he takes his leave of king Richard for ever. 

G 2 



The anny 
of the 

La secounde escliele al rays est réserve. 

Al duk de Biirgoyne la terce est comaundë, 

[Et] aP mestre du Temple, of sa fraternité. 

En l'ost par de là du^ pople canyn 
La primere eschele tynt sir Saladyn ; 
Paen plus vayllaunt ne fust en tut sun lyn. 
En la secounde eschele estayt sir Coradyn, 
Seygnur des Dames,^ et fiz SafFadyn f 
Soudan plus curtays ne gustayt unkes vyn.-^ 
De la terce eschele mestre fu Melchyn, 
Seygnur de Baudas, et de Methyffasyn,^ 
Seygnur de Galilée, et del leu où Kayn 
Tua sun frère Abel par feloun engyn. 
Sire Jakes de Avennes, verray pelryn. 
Se seygna^ de la croyce, et prent sun chemyn 
Sur la primere eschele, cum lever ^ sur mastyn. 
Deathof Deus fez passa parmy, et du braund^ asceryn 
Sir Jaques Tua paens saunz noumbre ; mes Calaphès Duryn ^^ 

' Coupa la jaumbe destre sir Jakes, à l'houre s'e[n]clyn,^^ 
Et dist, " ray Richard, je suy tun ^^ cosyn ; 
'^ Le ray Henri, tun père, en chastel Constantyn,^^ 

1 E al, B. C. D. Robert of 
Bninne translates this with some 
additions : — 

" With [him] were the Templars» 

" and tlier fraternité, 
" Fais in aile maners, so tellisthe 

" stori me." 
Robert wrote after the Templars 
had been condemnedand proscribed. 

2 par là et del, B. 

2 Seigneur de Damas, B. C. D. 
And Robert of Brunne translates it, 
" lord of Damas." 

■* Saladyn, C. Fassadyn, D. 

5 " Soudan so curteys never drank 
" no ■wyne," Robert of Brunne. Pierre 
de Langtoft was so earnest in using 

his French poetical phrases, that he 
forgot or probably he did not kncw, 
that the Mahometans prohibited the 
use of wine. 

^ MecJdphasyn, C. e Melchifasyn, 
D. " And Sir Matifasyn," Robert of 

^ Se signe, B. C. D. 

^ leverer, B. C. leverere, 7). 
Robert of Brunne translates, " als 
" grehound or mastif," if Hearne 
has not printed or for on. 

^ du brank, C. braunt, D. 

^^ '• Sir Kalaphes Duryns," Ro- 
bert of Brunne. 

^^ s'enclyn, B. D. 

'- jeofu toun, C. jeo su ton, D. 

^^ Costantin, B. 


The second (middle) squadron is reserved to the king. 
The third is entrusted to the duke of Burgundy, 
And to the master of the Temple, with his brother- 

In the army of the canine people on the other side, 
The first squadron held sir Saladin ; 
There was not a pagan more valiant in ail his lineage. 
In the second squadron was sir Coradin, 
Lord of Damascus, and son of Safîadin ; 
A more courteous soldan never tasted wine. 
The master of the third squadron was Melchin, 
Lord of Baudas, and of Methyfasin, 
Lord of Galilée, and of the place where Gain 
Slew his brother Abel by wicked craft. 
Sir Jacques de Avennes, a true pilgrim, 
Signed himself with the cross, and takes his way 
Upon the first squadron, like greyhound on mastiff. 
Twice he passed through, and with the blade of steel 
Slew pagans without number ; but Galaphès Durin 
Gut off sir Jacques's right leg, at the moment he bows 

And says, " king Richard, I am thy cousin ; 
'' King Henry, thy latlier, in the castle of Gon- 
" stantine, 









" Engendra ma mère sur dame Avelyn, 
" Countasse de la Marche, par Deu ^ et saint Martyn ; 
" Venez venger ma mort sur ço Sarazyn/' 
Jakes de rechef de l'espeye^ Colonyn 
Assené ^ sir Kalaphé ^ aval du patryn,^ 
L'enboela parmy ; pur veir, en la fyn 
Sire Jakes perdist les braz,^ et lendemayn matyn 
Fu Sun cors ^ trové près du cors Baudewyn, 
Frère de l'Hospital, fîz le quens Paulyn, 
Seygnur de Morayn ^ et du Mount Moryn. 
Kaunt le ray savayt sire Jakes ^ fu tuez, 
Vers le floum s'en va cum home forsenez. 
Kaunt Saladyn ly vait, de bone voluntez 
Aproche al ray Rychard, jà sunt encountrez, 
Un rays et un soldan du mound les melz^^ vanez. 
Pour veir, le primer coup de Richard donez-^^ 
En la haume-*^^ de sa launce, les pez ly sunt levez, 
La cowe sun destrer sun chef ad tochez, 
Le soldan est chaeu, et tost [est] ^^ remountez, 
Et le ray Richard le floum ad recovi-ez; 
Les gens de sa eschele le floum sunt tuz passez. 
Pour veir en cel contemple sunt tuez et naez 
Quaraunte mil paens et mil de baptisez.^^ 
En la drayn eschele sunt dure démenez 
Templers et Frauncays,^^ sir Huge est rebotez,^^ 

1 pur Deu, D. 

2 de espey, C. d'espeye^ D. 
Cologne was celebrated for it blades 
of fine Steel. 

3 Assena, C. D. 

4 Calaphès, B. Calephê, D. 
^ peitrin, B. paytrin, D. 

^ le braz, D. 

7 Fu le corps, B. 

8 Morian, B. CD. " AVas lord 
" of Morian aile and of ISIount 
" Modyn," Robert of Brunne. 

^ qe Jakes, D. 

1^ du munde meuz, B. C. D. 

11 qe Richard l'ad donez, B. le 
primer coupe Richard l'ad dojiez, C. 
coup Richard Vad donez, D. 

^ En le helme, D. 

13 tost est, B. 

1^ et mille baptizez, C. e mil des 
baptysez, D. 

1^ Eobert of Brunne, with his 
feeling against the Templers, trans- 
lates hère, " The Templers ilka 
" dele failed and thien fled." 

16 sire Huyhe est rebukés, B. C. D. 


'' Begat my mother on lady Avelin, 

" Countess of La Marche, by God and St. Martin ; 

" Corne and avenge my death on that Saracen." 

Jacques again with liis sword of Cologne 

Strikes sir Calaphès below tlie breast, 

Pierced him through tlie bowels ; for trnth, in the end 

Sir Jacques lost his arms, and on the morrow morning 

His body was found near the body of Baldwin, 

A brother of the Hospital, son of count Paulin. 

Lord of Morian and of Mount Morin. 

When the king knew that sir Jacques was slain, 
Ile proceeds towards the river like a man out of his 

When Saladin sees him, with good will 
He approaches king Richard, now are they met, 
A king and a soldan the most famous in the world. 
For a truth, the first blow given by Eichard 
On the helm with his spear, his feet are raised up, 
The tail of his horse has touched his head, 
The soldan is fallen, he is soon remounted, 
And king Richard has gained possession of the river; 
The men of his squadron hâve ail passed the river. 
For a truth in this struggle are slain and drowned 
Forty thousand pagans and a thousand of the bap- 

In the last squadron are hard bested 
Templars and Frenchmen, sir Hugh is driven back, 







cornes to 
their aid, 
and gains 

Ke duk est de Borgoyne, et sovent ad ciyez, 

'' Gentyl ray Richard, retliornez et aydez, 

'•' Ou morir nus covent, taunt sûmes enchacez ! " 

De Jérusalem le ray Guyoun gentis 
Dist al ray Richard, '* Sire, tornez le vis ; 
" Le duk et sa eschele sunt jà taunt suppris, 
" Ke ^ le soldan Saladyn à poy les ad conquis. 
" Les frères of la croyce ^ tapisent cum futys ; ^ 
" Nés un fet sun de ver fors Raynald ly Marchys.' 
Dist le ray Richard, " Par le cors saint Dynys, 
" Of le ayde Deu,^ si le duk sait pris, 
'' Tost sera délivre de ly paen chai tifs." 
Le rays lest le floum, sun chemyn ad repris, 
t e victory. -g^ j^ ^^^^ aquite des mayns ses enemys. ^ 

Le duk perdist cel houre chuvalers trent et sys. 

Trais cens de pytaille, sergauns c. et dys. 

Et de cel eschele kaunt ke sunt remys 

Fet le ray passer le floum à lour amys. 

De la mayn Richard ilokes est occys 

Le^ fiz le ray de Dare, copez ly fii le quys.^ 

Le soldan Saladvn est taunt dure assis, 

Se prent à la mountayne en fuaunt ^ par pays. 

Al floum de Cesarëe Richard enporte '"^ le ])rys. 

Richard rays Englays va saysir ^^ Cesarée, 
Joppen, de ^^ Scaloun, Cadès, de Japhë. 
Et al ray Guyoun la garde ad doné. 
Le duk de Burgoyn est si mal nafl^rë,^^ 
Ke ly cyrogen^^ del duk est desperé, 

^ Ke omitted in D. 

- od les croices, B. 

2 en futys, D. 

4 de Dieu, B. C. D. 

5 des e., B. 

" Le omitted in D. 

'' la qiiisse, B. 

^ Et prent à la m.fuant, C. 

^ emprent, B. C. D. 

^^ ad saisye, D. 

" et Scalon, B. C. D. 

^- si mal mené, D. 

'^ li surigien, B. sirogene, D. 
Kobert of Brunne translates this 
passage, •' That his lèche was in ille 
" hope of him," 


Who is duke of Burgundy, and often he lias cried, 
'* Gentle king Richard, return and aid us, 
" Or we must die, so hard are we pressed !" 

Of Jérusalem tlie noble king Guy 
Says to king Richard, '' Sire, turn your face ; 
" The duke and his squadron are now so oppressed, 
" That the soldan Saladin has almost overcome them. 
" The brothers with the cross seek hiding places like 

" fugitives ; 
" Not one does his duty except Rainald the marquis." 
Says king Richard, " By the body of St. Denis, 
" With God's aid, if the duke be taken, 
" He shall soon be delivered from the rascally pagans." 
The king leaves the river, has retraced his way. 
And rescues the duke from the hands of his enemies. 
The duke lost at that time thirty-six knights, 
Three hundred foot, serjeants a hundred and ten. 
And ail who remained of this squadron 
The king caused to pass the river to their friends. 
There is slain by the hand of Richard, 
The son of the king of Dare ; his thigh was eut oiF. 
The soldan Saladin is so much cast down ; 
He takes to the mountain flying across the country. 
At the river of Gsesarea Richard carries off the prize. 

Richard the English king goes and takes possession 
of Gsesarea, 
Joppa, Ascalon, Cades, and Jaffa, 
And has given them in.guard to king Guy. 
The duke of Burgundy is so badh' wounded, 
That the duke's surgeon is without hope, 



retiirns to 

for peace. 


Et le ray Richard molt descomforté. 

Le ray le mené vers Acre pur aver la saunté.^ 

Et en repairaunt voydez ad trové 

La vile de Mount Carmele, et de Nazaré ; 

Cliastel Peleryn avaimt avayt waynë, 

Caloynne et C[a]yphas - ad ly ad proprié ; 

Pur eser les naifrez en Acre vent de grd 

Le soldan Saladyn si tost l'ad maundé 

Ke parler vodrayt of ly en amysté, 

Ne pas al damage de la Kristientë ; 

Et le ray s l'ottrie par counsail du bamé. 

Yenuz est Saladyn en fourme ordiné 

Al palays le rays, si l'ad ^ salué. 

Saladyn dist, "Sire, tu est'* prodomme en Dé, 

" Tuz ces Kristyens sunt en ta poesté,^ 

" Tu es lur seygnur, jo say ta dignité. 

" Si tu vols la pes pur tay et ta mesné, 

" Et trewe pour vij. aunz saunz mover medlé, 

'' Jo fray tun assez, si tu vols équité." 

'' Certes, Saladyn," dist le ray Hicher, 
" A sustenir le guère assez as-tu poer, 
^' Et ad respyt ^ prendre tu n'as pas mester ; 
" Ne jo à graunter lo,"^ ore n'ay eu voler ; 
" Mes de la rendre si tu vols parler, 
" Et la lay mastyne vols renuncyer, 
" La pes te graunteray, et te fi'a[y] ^ baptizer ; 
'^ Reaime te dorray dount te fray corouner." 
" Sir," dist Saladyn, "gré te day saver, 
" Ke tu saunz déserte me ^ vols bonurer ; 
" Si tote la paynyme pusse ^^ justizer. 

^ pur avoir sancté, B. D. pur 
aver santetê, C. 

^ Caj/phas, B. 
pkas, C. 
a et Vad, C. 
^ Sire, tuezj C. 

Chalowi et Cay- 

^ Sunt ceaus cristiens touz qe sunt 

! en, ta p., B. 

i ^ Et al respit, C. 

I ' le, D. 

i yray.jy. 

\ '-^ me sanz désert, C. 

I ^^ la paienejustiser, B. 


And king Kichard greatly distressed. 

The king carries him towards Acre to obtain health. 

And in Lis return lie has found deserfced 

The town of Mount Carmel, and of Nazareth ; 

Château Pèlerin he had gained before, 

Caloyune and Caiaphas he has appropriated to himself ; 

He cornes gladly to Acre to give ease to the wounded. 

The soldan Saladin has immediately sent him word 

That he wishes to talk with him in friendship, 

Not to the hurt of Christendom ; 

And the king grants it by the advice of his barons. 

Saladin is come in the established form 

To the king's palace, and has saluted him. 

Saladin says, " Sire, thou art a man noble in God ; 

" AU thèse Christians are in thy power, 

" Thou art their sovereign, I know thy dignity. 

" If thou wilt peace for thee and thy people, 

" And truce for seven years without stirring up war, 

" I will do thy désire, if thou seekest equity." 

" Truly, Saladin," said king Richard, 
" Thou has power enough to sustain the war, 
" And thou hast not need to take respite 
" Nor hâve I to grant it; till the présent I hâve had 

"no wish for it. 
" But if thou desirest to speak of giving it up, 
" And wilt renounce the houndish religion, 
" I will grant the peace, and I will cause thee to be 

" baptized ; 
" I will give thee a kingdom, of which I will cause 

" thee to be crowned/' 
" Sire," said Saladin, " I ought to con thee thanks, 
" That thou wilt do me honour without désert; 
" If I could hâve the rule of ail pagandom 


" Et nul n'y fust fors may, sir, ne governer, 
" Je pusse et jo vousisse à tay acorder. 
^' Mon frère Saffadyn tent sun règne enter, 
" Ses fiz sunt graunz seygnurs, ne volent lesser ^ 
" Terre ne tenement pur nuly prêcher." 
" 0," dist le ray Richard, "va tay counsayller, 
" Et ad terce jour de cy venez ça arer ;'^ 
'' Cel houre ^ te dirray cornent dayt aler, 
" A parfere la guère ou la pes fourmer." 
Saffadin Saladyn repaire ad sa compaj^nye ; 

to defeat ■'^^ banadyn, sun irere, sun repayr espye, 
the object Et maunde al ray Richard par graunt cortaisye 
Le meyllour destrer de la paenerye. 
Par certayns enseygnes sur tote ço ly prie 
Ke en Saladyn trop ne se affye; 
Il dist, " Quant il vent entre compaynye, 
'' Tuz jours le ray Richard par paroles defye, 
" Et dist de tay soûl tosb averayt^ la mestrie, 
'' Si tu says taunt vayllaunt cum le monde te crie. 
" Rebuke^ le ben de sa surquiderye. 
" Si tu vols chuva[l]s, hernays, ou armerye, 
'' Sais -tu tote certayn,^ jo ne te faudray mye." 
Saladyn revent al jour establye. 
rectives ^^ ^'^7 Richard cel houre ad novele oye,"^ 
news of the Ke les genz de Fraunce sunt en Normendy e 
invTs^ion of Par maundement Phelippe, ses terres ount saysye ; 
Normandy. -^j. ç.^ ^i^jç. ^Qg^^ j^g veygne as Normaunz en aye, 

Déshéritez sen-a de sa seygnourye. 

Le ray Richard as uns la chose cevtifye, 

Et al parler del trewe ^ al soldan plus se plye. 

^ votent jà l, B. ! ^ Rehukez, D. 

- cea venez arer^ B. Et la terce ; ^ Soiez tu certain, B. Says tout 

jour de cy ca venez arer, C. de cy^ | certaynjeo te ne faudra mye, C. 

cya venez arer, D. | î" navel ad oye, C. 

^ Del hour, C. . "^ de trewe, C. 

^ avéra, B. C. , 


" And no one were tbere but me, lord or govornor, 
" I could and I would accord with thee. 
" My brotlier Saffadin holds liis kingdom entire ; 
" His sons are great lords, tliey will not yield 
" Lands or tenements for anybody's preaeliing." 
" Oh," said king Richard, " Go take counsel, 
" And on tlie third day hence corne back liere ; 
" At tliat time I ^vill tell thee how it shall go, 
To carry ont the war or to establish peace." 

Saladin returns to his company ; 
And Saffadin, his brother, spies his retnrn, 
And sends to king Richard with great courtesy 
The best steed in the pagan iand. 
By certain tokens he prays him on ail tbat 
That he trust not too much in Saladin ; 
He says, '' When he cornes among companions, 
" Always by words he défies king Richard 
" And sa5^s that of thee alone he would soon liave the 

" mastery, 
" If thou be so valiant as the world proclaims thee. 
'' Rebuke him well for his presumption. 
" If thou desirest horses, harness, or arms, 
" Be quite certain, I will not fail thee." 
Saladin returns on the day fixed. 
Kiug Richard at that time has heard news, 
That the people of France are in Normandy 
By sending of Philip, and hâve seized his lands ; 
And if he does not before corne in aid to the 

He will be disinherited of his lordship. 
King Richard gives information of the matter to some, 
And inclines the more to talk of peace with the soldan. 



Second Desuz le mount Tabor, en une praerye, 




Est Saladyn venuz, en amour, saunz boydye, 
Et prie al ray Richard ke^ sun playsii' ly dye. 
Du dyt Saffadyn le rays ad graunt envye ; 
Par quai à respoundre Richard estudye. 
Chose ne volt promettre, si il ne sayt complye f 
Respouns ilokes donné à nul jour ^ ert ublye. 

Le rays à Saladyn dist en respoundaunt, 
*' De trewe kant tu parles, tu me voys ^ mokaunt. 
" Parmy la paynime ^ le pople est molt graunt, 
'^ Et tu de tute le monde es le plus vayllaunt,^ 
" Le melz apris des armes, et le melz "* combataunt ; 
" Pour quai^ parmy la terre es-tu aie prechaunt, 
'•' Si soûl me trovyssez,^ mountez ou alaunt, 
" La teste perderay par coup de launce ou braund ? ^^ 
" Si tu vols ço prover, cy ad leu avenaunt, 
'^ Pur tote ta value ore mey grauntez^^ taunt, 
" Combatoums solayns, ke nul n'y sayt aydaunt,^^ 
" Et ly quel de nous sait trové recreaunt, 
*' Accioun et claym perde à remenaunt 
" De tote la graunde terre dont Kristyen^^ avaunt 
" Fu festuz^* et saisy, de Deu là suz tenaunt." 
" Sire," dist Saladyn, " si homme sait vivaunt, 
" Paen ou Crystien, ke unkes oyst kaunt 
" Ouf tay soûl combatre m'en alay avauntaunt, 
" Ou fere à tay despyt, si noun^^ encountraunt 
" En bataylle champestre ma terre defendaunt, 
" Trestut moun héritage te dorray mayntenaunt." 
Le hait mestre du Temple lors^^ vynt procuraunt 

1 ke omitted in C. 
- si ne seit acompîie, B. 
^ à nul le jour, C. 
^ tu me vas, C. 
^ la paene, B. 
^ le plus grant, B. 
7 apris en armes e meuz c, B. 
meltz, C. 

^ Par quay, C. D. 


^ froissez, B. 

10 brank, C. D. 

'^ me gra7itez,'B. C. D. 

1- soleins e nul i aidant, B. C. D. 

^^ qe Cristien, B. 

1^ Fu vestu, B. C. D. 

1^ si moun, B. 

16 hors, B. 


Under Mount Tabor, in a meadow, 

Saladin is corne, in love, without deceit, 

And prays king Eichard thafc he will tell him his 

The king lias great ill-will of the saying of Saffadin ; 
On which account Richard studies his reply. 
He will not promise anything, if it be not carried 

into effect ; 
The reply there given, will never be forgotten. 

The king to Saladin says in reply, 
'' When you talk of truce you are only mocking me. 
" Among the pagan lands the population is very 

' great, 
" And thon art the most valiant of them ail, 
" The best taught in arms, and the best in fîghting ; 
" Why hast thou been preaching throught the land, 
" If you should find me alone, on horse or on foot, 
'^ I should lose my head by stroke of spear or of sword ? 
" If thou wilt prove that, hère is a convenient place, 
" For ail thy worthiness now grant me so much, 
" Let us fight alone, that no one assist in it, 
" And which e ver of us shall be found recréant, 
'^ Let him lose for ever action or claim 
'* Of ail the great land of which the Christian before 
" Was enfeoffed and seised, holding it from God there 

" above." 
** Sir/' said Saladin, " if there be man living, 
" Pagan or Christian, who ever heard when 
*' I went boasting to fight with thee singly, 
" Or to do despite to thee, if not in encountering 
" In field of battle defending my land, 
^' I will give thee now ail my héritage.'* 
The high^'master of the Temple then came pleading 



agrce on a 
truce for 

his affairs 
in the East, 
and retums 
to Europe. 

Ke sire Salcidyn, pur tuz ly mescreauDt, 

Promette al ray Richard la trewe parduraunt 

Seet aunz en bone pees ; le ray Eichard le graunt, 

Salve as Krystiens, par ço covenaunt, 

Kaunt ke il ount waygnë saunz ren recoupaunt. 

Le ray Rychard vers Akre sud cbymyn repren[t] ; 
Le ray Guy et sun fiz fet venir vistement, 
Le prince de Antyoche, Raymound, of sa gent ; 
Amfrede de Thuroun ^ i vynt bonement ; 
Bomound counte de Triple i fu prestement ; 
Et Leoun,^ frère Ruffyn,^ vent al parlement; 
Et le ray Richard les counte tut coment 
Le ray Phelippe de Fraunce, par malvays talent, 
Court en Normendye, destrut sun tenement, 
Aler ly estout* et prendre vengement. 
Les terres par delà les prye dévotement 
Garder et guj^er vij. aunz enterement. 
Frères de l'Hospital, del Temple ensement, 
Sunt coadjutours del governement. 
A Deu les comaunde, et sun congë prent. 

Le ray ^ de Antyoche, et le ray Guyoun, 
Bomound quens de Triple, et Amfray de Thuroun,^ 
Ount citez et viles en proteccioun, 
Ke le ray Richard conquist sur feloun. 
Isake^ Temperour prent sa lyveraysoun 
Al Temple al frères ^ demoraunt à mesoun ; 
Sa fyllie la rayne quert pur garisoun.^ 
Le rays, en repayraunt devers sa regioun, 
Fet marier sa soer of ly quens Raymoun, 

^ Aunfrede de Turim, B. de 
Turujii C. Aumfrede de Twi/n, J). 

- Eloon, B. 

3 Rophin, C. Bupyn, D. " Sir 
Rufîyn brother Leoun," Robert of 
Brunne, meaning, of course, Sir 
Rnfîj-n's brother. 

"* estent^ C. 

^ Le pi'ince, B. C. D. 

^ e Auvfi-ai de T^iron, B. D, 

' Jakes Vemperour, B. 

^ entre frères, B. C. D. 

^ This line is omitted in C. 
Robert of Brunne translates it, 

" His douhter with the quene was 
" for hir -warisoun." 


That sir Saladin, for ail the misbelievers, 

Promise to king Richard a truce lasting 

Seven years in good peace ; king Richard grants it, 

Assured to the Christians, by that co venant, 

Ail they liave gained withont retracting anything. 

King Richard résumes his road towards Acre ; 
He sends immediately for king Guy and his son, 
The prince of Antioch, Raymond, with his people : 
Amfrid de Tours comes there willingly ; 
Boemond, count of Tripoli, was there in readiness ; 
And Léo, brother of Ruffin, comes to the conférence ; 
And king Richard relates to them ail how 
King Philip of France, througli ill will, 
Is invading INTormandy, and destroys his lordship, 
It is necessary for him to go and take revenge. 
He prays them devoutly the lands on that side 
To guard and rule seven years entire. 
The brothers of the Hospital, of the Temple also, 
Are coadjutors in the government. 
He recommends them to God, and takes his leave. 

The prince of Antioch and king Guy, 
Boemond count of Tripoli, and Amfrid de Tours, 
Hâve cities and towns in protection, 
Which king Richard conquered from the wicked people. 
Isaac, the emperor, takes his provisions 
At the Temple, among the brothers, dwelling in the 

house ; 
His daughter seeks the queen for her provision. 
The king, in his return towards his kingdom, 
Causes his sister to marry count Raymond, 



Le^ counte de Saint-Gile,'^ homme de graunt renoun. 

King Ne say cornent après, ne par quel resoun, 

Qgg ^^ Le ray laissa ses genz tuz, [et] en tapisoun ^ 

secretly in- Ala devers Austrice ^ à sa confusioun, 
Espyaunt à tort autry possessioun ; 
Ne coment en Austrice par procuration 

He is im- Fu pris sodaynement, et tenuz en prisoun ; 

pnsoned. Q^gj avoyr fu doné pur ^ sa redemcioun ; 
Coment l'apstoyle dona sa maliçoun 
Sur tuz ke ly pristrent, ou par consensioun ^ 
Furent al counsail de sa capcioun ; 
Mes ben ws dirray par quel devocioun 
Il vynt par saint Thomas en processioun. 

Returns to Kaunt le ray Eichard delivers ^ estait, 

Engiand. Q£ Helyanore ^ sa mère, ke molt ly aidait. 
Vint en Engleterre, à Sandwyce^ aryvait, 
Devers Caunterbyre dévotement alayt,^^ 
Vij. lews de la ville à pë le saint querait,^-"^ 
De molt riche offeraunde le martir honurait ; 
A Deu et à sa mere^^ sovent mercyait 

Conductof Ke sa graunt angusse si ben eschapait. 

John^^^^^^ Tamt cum en prisoun le rays demorait, 

Jon,"^^ sun frère, pur veir mesfet ^* ly avait ; 

Ses chastels saisist, ses rentes enportayt, 

De sa deliveraunce unkes mot parlait, 

Mes cum [rays] de terre ^^ et seygnur se portait ;^^ 

1 Le omitted in B. and D. , ^^ Sete lewes de la vile le saynt al 

pée querayt, C. al pée le seint que- 
rait, D. 

12 e à U, B. C. D. 

13 Johan, B. C. D. 
!■* messez, C. 
1^ cum reys de tere, B. C. D. 

Robert of Brunne translates it, 
" Bot al s a kyng of lond Jon bare 
" him fulle stoute." 
i'' se partait, C. 

2 de Saynt Gily, C. 
' lessa ses gensy e en t., B. D. 
4 Ostrice, B, 

^ Qe il avait Ju doné pur^ C. 
^ contencioun, C. 
7 deliverez, CD. 
^ Od Elianore^'B. Ouf Alienore, 
C. Oue Elyanore, D. 
^ Sandwyz, D. 
^^ devoute aloit, B. 


Count of Saint Giles, a man of great renown. 

I know not how affcerwards, and for what reason, 

Tlie king left ail his people and in disguise, 

Wenfc towards Austria to his confusion, 

Spying wrongfully the possession of another ; 

Nor how in Austria by procuration 

He was suddenly taken, and kept in prison ; 

What money was given for his rédemption; 

How the pope pronounced his curse 

On ail who took him, or by consent 

Were in counsel for his capture. 

But well I will tell you by what dévotion 

He came by St. Thomas in procession. 

When king Richard was set at liberty, 
With his mother Eleanor, who much assisted him, 
He came into England, arrived at Sandwich, 
Went devoutly towards Canterbury, 
Seven leagues from the town he sought the saint on 

Honoured the martyr with very rich offering ; 
He often gave thanks to God and to his mother 
That he escaped so well from his great distress. 
During the time the king remained in prison, 
John, his brother, in truth had misconducted himself 

towards him. 
He seized his castles, laid hands upon his rents, 
Never spoke a word of liberating him, 
But bare himself as king and lord of the land ; 

H 2 


Pur quai^ le ray Ricliard juger le volait 
Solom ses desserz, mes Jon- mercy criayt. 
ïïelianore, lur mère, taunt ly priayt,^ 
Theking K'il [l'Jad pardoné, et lors ly disayt, 

pardons his ,, ^n • , ai • • i 

brother. ^^^ jours en ta memore * ta mesprise sait, 

" Jà plus n'en^ penseray, pur ren ke venir dayt." 
Calls his Le rays est à Loundres, et volt ^ parlementer ; 
parliament ggg countes, ses barouns là fet ^ tuz maunder ; 

and con- ^ ' ' 

suits on Trestuz i sunt venuz, chascun de bon quer. 

Fmnce. Escotez ore coment le ray va counsayller. 

Ad clers et [ad] lays ^ ke sunt à Westmouster ^ 

Dist le ray Ricliard, " A ws voyl moustrer 

" Coment le ray de Fraunce m'en va ^^ déshériter. 

" Taunt cum jo estay arestuz outre mer, 

*' Saisist mes chastels, despendist moun aver ; 

" De vrs, mes lige gens, voyl counsail demaunder, 

" Coment plus[tost] porray '^ ma terre regayner." 

Le counte Roger respount, à ky alme-"^^ Deus aye, 
" Countes et barouns, cliuvalers par espeye ; 
" Erceveske, eveske, cytayn, et burgaye, 
" Et persouns de eglyses,^^ aiderount par monaye ; 
" Abbës, et priours, et altres gens de abbaye, 
" Aydrount par priers et oraysouns par vaye. 
" Plus valt un saynt home à ky Deus otraye, 
" Ke ne fount c. mil mars douez en coraye." 
Le dit ben plest al popel, et ly ray se paye. 

^ Par quel, B. 

2 Johan, B. mes mercy Johan 
cryait, C. 

2 le reî tant preit, B. C. h rei 
taunt priayt, D. 

* memorye, D. 

^ ne p., B. 

^ e va, B. 

^ e as lais, B. C. A clers et à lays 

^ à Weymouster, B. Wemoustej , 

^0 me va, B. ly va, C. 

^' plus tost purray, B. C. D. 

^2 respunt, qi aime, B. 

^^ Persons de seint église, B. 

" feit là, B. fet là, C. ' parsones des eylyses, D. 


Upon whicli king Kichard sought to bring him to 

According to bis déserts, but John begged forgiveness. 
Eleanor, tbeir mother, solicited him so much, 
That he bas pardoned him, and then said to him, 
'^ Be tby misdeed ever in tby memory, 
" Now I sball think no more of it, for notbing that 

'' may happen." 

The king is at London, and will hold a parliament ; 
He causes to be summoned thither bis earls and bis 

barons : 
Ail are corne there, each with willing beart. 
Hear now how the king goes to take counsel. 
To the clergy and laity wbo are at Westminster 
Says king Eichard, " To you I will show 
" How the king of France is going to disinberit me. 
" AU the wbile I was arrested beyond sea, 
" He seized my castles, squandered my property ; 
" Of you, my liège people, I will ask counsel, 
" How best I may be able to regain my land." 

Earl Koger replies, to whose soûl God give aid, 
" Earls and barons, knights by the sword; 
" Archbishop, bishop, citizen, and burgher, 
" And parsons of cburches, sball assist with money ; 
" Abbots, and priors, and other monastic people, 
'• Sball aid by prayers and supplications by way. 
^' More is the value of one holy man to whom God 

" listens, 
^' Than a hundred thousand marks given in discontent/' 
The speech pleases well the people, and the king is 



Richard Ore volt le ray Eichard ses terres estendre,^ 

possessions. Homages des ryches ~ et fealtez voit-il prendre. 

Les barouns le fount^ de quer pytous et tendre. 

Après rethorne à Loundres argent à despendre. 

De totes pars ly venent barouns pur ly défendre. 

As armes sunt venuz, Richard ne volt atendre ; 

Sur le ray Phelippe ses chastels volt reprendre.* 
Richard Aryvez est ly rays à Depe en Normendye ; 

arrives in -j^ i i. r r. i 

Nonnandy. D^my an y demort, oi sa enuvalerye ; 

Du pople de la terre kant ly rays s'affye,^ 
Sa guère fet ordiner, les^ dustres establye, 
Devers Aquitayne sa baner desplye. 
Le chastel de Curtels ^ pris ad par mestrie ; 
Chuvalers et sergauns, ke le avaynt en bayllye 
Sunt mys en prisoun, où ebescun mercy crye. 
Mes le jour pur veir pris[t] ^ par graunt vaidye 
La mesoun de Burrez, of la^ seygnurye, 
Et al Dangu-^^ va prendre sa berbergerye. 

Flightof jjQ ray Phelippe de Fraunce, of sa^^ compaynye 
' De ses xij. pères, venent en aye 
Al chastel de Curtels, kar il ne-^^ sevent mye 
Le chastel est renduz ; le veir kant ount oye, 
Vers Gesorz s'en vount fuyaunt en tapye. 
Le ray Eychard suyst, et ses genz escrye, 
" Pernez le ray Phelippe, ne ferez pas d'espeye 1 ' 

Le ray Phelippe estayt assez descomfit 
Kant of tut sun hoste^^ à Gesorz fuyst ; 

^ ses terres ordener, C. " aile his 
" lond extende," Robert of Brunne. 

2 Homages de rechef, B, C. D. 

3 ke/ount, A. les f ount, C. D. 
'^ rependre, C. 
^ ly reys se affye, CD. " And j " ouf la, C. otie la, D. 

" whan he sauh he myght on his ^" q^il ne, B. 

" folk affie," Robert of Brunne. ^^ à tôt son host, C. 

^ ses, B. C hs autres, D. 

"^ Curceles, B. Curteles, C. D . 
Cursels, Robert of Brunne. 
^ prist, C. D. 

^ odla,lè. ouf la, C. oue la, D 
^^ à Dangan, C. 


Now will king Richard make a survey of his lands, 
He will take anew bornages and fealties ; 
The barons perform them with kind and tender beart. 
Afterwards he returns to London to spend money, 
From ail sides corne to him barons to défend him, 
They bave corne to arms, Richard will not wait, 
He will recover bis castles from king Philip. 

The king is arrived at Dieppe in Normandy; 
He dwells there half a year, with bis knigbts ; 
Wben the king feels trust in the people of the land, 
He causes bis war to be ordained, appoints bis leaders, 
Displays his banners towards Aquitaine. 
He bas taken the castle of Courcelles by mastery ; 
Knigbts and serjeants, who had it in keeping, 
Are put in prison, wbere each cries mercy. 
The same day in truth be took by gTeat craftiness 
The bouse of Burrez, with its lordsbip, 
And at Dangu goes to take bis lodging. 
King Philip of France, with his company 
Of bis twelve peers, corne in aid 
To the castle of Courcelles, for they know not 
That the castle is surrendered ; wben they bave beard 

the truth, 
They go towards Gisors flying secretly. 
King Richard follows, and shouts to bis men, 
" Take king Philip, but strike bim not with the 

'* sword!" 

King Philip was sufficiently discomfited, 
Wben be fied with bis army to Gisors ; 



Tente et pavylloun ke Phelippe^ werpist 

Sunt al ray Richard tut saunz countredit. 
The disas- Phelippe of ses Frauncays à l'aler se prist ; 
bridge of I^ychard of ses Englays chasçaunt les suyst 
Gisors. Al pount de Gesorz, ke n'est pas petit; 

En l'arere garde nés un Frauncays remyst. 

Molt fu le pople graunde kaunt le pount chayst ; 

Le rays en la ruyne^ entre les altres gist. 

" Or sus, sire ^ ray de Fraunce ! " Markadë ly dist,'* 

" Tes brays sunt moyllez, tu lionys tun habyt." 
Sis cenz ^ chuvalers en l'ewe sunt ploungez, 

Des quels 1. et iij.^ ilokes sunt naez. 
T!ie pri- Lg Y^Y l^ichard comaunde ke Phelippe sayt salvez. 

soeurs "wiio ** Xi»/ 

weretaken. Mathy de Mount lloryzj baroun renomez, 
Sir Alayn de Ruscy,^ sir Fuke de Griffez,^ 
Of lur chuvalerye, sunt pris et menez ; 
Markady^'^ prist xx. de tuz les melz vanez. 
Ore est le ray Richard de An[geon returnez] ; ^^ 
En garde à Markadë ^^ les prisouns sunt lyverez. 
Des fez al ray^^ Richard cel houre et altre fez, 

1 qe rei Philip, B. 

2 la rivere, B. D. en li rivera C. 

3 sire omitted in B. 

^ Robert of Brmme bas hère 
somewhat extended the original in 
bis translation : — 

" A knyght, a bourdour, kyng 

" Richard bade, 
" A douhty man in stoure, bis 

" name ^vas ^larkade. 
" He sauh kyng Philip als be lay 

*' in the water, 
" ' Sir kyng, rise up and skip, for 

" ' thon bas wette tbi bâter. 
" ' Thou fissbes not worthe a leke.. 

" ' rise and go tbi ways, 
" ' For thou bas wette tbi breke, 

" ' schent is tbi bemays.' " 
Marchadès was the commander of 

the Routiers in Ricbard's service, 
and had the réputation of being a 
great joker. 

^ Dys cenz, C. 

^ " Of wbilk thritty and thre did 
" ther endyng there," Robert of 

^ de Mount Morte, D. 

8 de Rucij, C, " of Russie," 
Robert of Brunne. 

9 Giffrez, B. de Giffreez, C. 
" de Gefire." Robert of Brunne. 

10 Markadê, B. 

1^ à Angeowe returnez, B. de 
Danlwu rethornez, C. à Dangeou 
retournez, D. 

1- ad Marchadé,C. 

1^ fetz le rei B., B. Des fez ray 
/?., C. Des fez le,!). 


Tent and pavillon which king Philip abandoned 

Are the property of king Richard ail without dispute. 

Philip with his French took to flight ; 

Richard with his English folio wed the m in pursuit 

To the bridge of Gisors, whicb is not small ; 

In the rear-guard not a Frenchman remained. 

Very great was the crowd when the bridge fell ; 

The king lay among the others in the river. 

" Now up, sir king of France ! " said Marchadès to him, 

" Thy breeches are vret, thou shamest thy coat." 

Six hundred knîghts are plunged into the water, 
Of whom fifty-three are there drowned. 
King Richard commands that Philip be saved. 
Mathy de Mount Morice, a baron of renown. 
Sir Alan de Rucy, Sir Fulke de Griffez, 
With their knights, are taken and carried off ; 
Marchadès took twenty of ail the most men of mark. 
Now is king Richard returned from Anjou ; 
The prisoners are delivered to the custody of Marchadès. 
Of the acts of king Richard at this time and on other 



Death of 



of king 

Kaunt à chiivalerye, ne say la veritez ; ^ 

Ky les volt saver [où] il ^ sunt recordez, 

Voyse et lyse ^ sun liver ke est enromauncez,'* 

Et là purra trover tuz les propertez.^ 

Nef aunz et vj. msijs tynt-il ses régnez. 

Le iiij. jour devaunt^ Dymaynge de palmes nouiez, 

Tut drait en Lymosyne ^ dedure estayt alez. 

Desuz un chastel k'il avayt manauntez,^ 

Un alblaster dedeynz, du ray avysez,^ 

Parfound en la jaumbe de un quarel Tad^^ naffrez. 

Le ray Richard du coup est envenymez, 

Nef jours vesquyt, après à Deu est comaundez. 

Il gist à Fount Ebrak^^ près de ses parentez.^^ 

Kaunt Deus en avayt fet sun^^ comaundement 
Du bon ray Richard, sun frère se présent, 
Jon,^* à l'herytage of le honur ke apent.^^ 
Le counte de Brettayne, Geffray, verrayment 
Fust hayr après Rychard de terre ^^ et tenement ; 
Mes il morust avaunt, sachez certaynement. 
Par taunt est [Jon] resceu à l'encorounement. 
Jon et femme ad prise,^'' Elysabeth la gent ; 
Al quens de Aculeyne^^ fu fyllye par descent. 

^ ne sai les veritez, B. C. D. 
- où il, B. il sont, C. D. 
^ Voyse, lise, D. 
^ en Romancez, C. 
3 jpropretez, D. Eobert of Brunne 
adds, — 

" This that I haf said, it is 

" Pers sawe, 
" Als he in Eomance laid, ther- 

" after gan I drawe." 
'* avaunt, D. 
' à Lymosin, C. 
5 manaces, B. manauncez, U. 

3 desavisez, B. C. D. 

10 ad, B. 

11 Ehrard, B, D. 

12 This line is omitted in C. 

1^ Dieu avoit son c, B. Dieus 
avayt fet, C. D. 

i-i Johaji, B. C. D. 

1^ qe II apent, B. 

1^ du terre, C. 

1' Johan ad feme prise, B. C. D. 

1^ Aculeie, B. quens Acideyne, 
C. " The erle of Aquiley," Robert 
of Brunne. 


As far as regards chivalry, I know not tlie truth ; 

Who desires to know them, they are recorded, 

Let him go and read his book which is written in 

And there he will be able to fînd ail the particulars. 
Nine years and six months he held his kingdoms. 
The fourth day before the Sunday named of Palms, 
He was gone for récréation straight into the Limousin. 
Beneath a castle which he h ad threatened, 
An arbalester within, aware of the king, 
Has wounded him with an arrow deep in the leg. 
King Richard is envenomed by the blow ; 
Nine days he lived, afterwards he is sent to God. 
He lies at Fonte vrard near his kinsmen. 

When God had done his will 
With good king Eichard, his brother présents himself, 
John, to the inheritance with the honour which belongs 

to it. 
The count of Britany, Geoffrey, really 
Was heir after Richard of land and lordship ; 
But he died before, know certainly, 
In conséquence of which John is received to be 

John has taken to wife Elizabeth the fair; 
She was by descent daughter to the count of Aquileia. 



Death of 

Anno Domini 'miUesimo centesimo nonagesimo nono. 

Coronation Le ercevesk Hubert,^ de Caunterbyre par noun, 
ofking Yynt à Westmouster ^ jour de l'Assencioun ; ^ 
Par commune assent de counte et [de] baroun,^ 
Ad Jon, le frère Richard,^ ad donë la coroun. 
Enoynt est en rays of graunt devocioun ; 
Aunz et jours vesquyt en tribulacioun. 
Trop jolyfs estayt,^ par quai la nacioun 
Sovent encountre ly movayt contencioun. 
Normendye perdist, à sa confusioun, 
Kaunt en la court de Fraunce appelé fu feloun, 
Pur la mort Arthur, fiz sun frère Geffroun, 
Counte de Brettayne, à ky la regyoun 
Par drayt devait descendre ; si tuez fust ou noun. 
Mon mestre me suspende à dire en moun sermoun; 
Noun pur ço ben say sa mort fust la chesoun^ 
Par ount le uncle avait la possessioun, 
Ke aver endevayt le nevu^ par resoun. 
Ço fu le cas le rays saunz condicioun. 

Arthur avayt un soer, Margrete par noun wus dye, 
Plus bêle créature ne fast cel houre en vye, 
Ke tost après sun frère sun secle ad fynye.^ 
Ore ad le ray de Fraunce la mort Arthur oye. 
Et al ray Jon maunde k'il veygne en sa ballye, 
A prendre jugement de la-*^^ felounye 
Ke sur ly fu mys pur le hair de Bretonye. 
Le ray Jon demort, en Fraunce ne va -il mye. 
Pour quai le ray de Fraunce si tost ad saysye 

and of his 


» Hobert, C. 

2 Weymouster, B. Wemoiister, D. 
^ le jour de Vassencioun, C. 
'^ e de haroun, B. D. 
•^ Johan frère R., B. A Johan, C. 
A Johon lejiz Ricliard, D. 

^ " He was of licherous life," 
Robert of Brunne. 
' fu Vencheson, B. 
^ le noun, A. C. 
^ , ad non secle finye, C. 
ïo de sa, B. 


Anno Domini 1199. 

Archbishop Hubert, of Canterbury by name, 
Came to Westminster on the day of tlie Ascension; 
By common assent of earls and barons, 
To John, the brother of Richard, he has given the crown. 
He is anointed king with great dévotion ; 
Years and days he lived in tribulation ; 
He was too licencions, through which the nation 
Often moved contention against him. 
Norman dy he lost, to his confusion, 
When he was accused in the court of France of felony, 
For the death of Arthur, the son of his brother 

Count of Britany, to whom the kingdom 
Ought by right to descend ; whether he were killed or not 
My master prevents my saying in my discourse; 
Nevertheless I know well his death was the cause 
Whereby the uncle had the possession, 
Which by right the nephew ought to hâve. 
This was the king's case without qualification. 

Arthur had a sister, Margaret by name, I tell you ; 
There was not a fairer créature at that time alive, 
Who has ended her life soon after lier brother. 
Now has the king of France heard of the death of 

And he calls on king John that he corne into his 

To take his judgment for the felony 
Which was laid to his charge for the heir of Britany, 
King John remains, he goes not into France. 
For which the king of France immediately has seized 



Norman dy. 

The king 
of Scotland 

about the 
élection of 
an arch- 
bishop of 

Tolouse et Tolousan et tote Normendye ; 
Le ray Jon par taunt perdist sa seygnurye.^ 
Ke fet le ray de Fraunce ? attyre sa navye,^ 
Yeent en Engleterre of sa chuvalerye, 
Ben quydayt de la terre aver eu mestrye. 
Les Waldays et les altres hors de Pevenesheye 
Ount le ray de Fraunce rechacez par espeye. 

Ore est le ray de Fraunce repassez la mer ; 
Le ray Jon est aie sun règne justizer.^ 
William, ray d'Escoce, à Nicole fet maunder ; 
Hors de la cyté al cliauns^ en yver, 
Le jour saynt Cecille, le ray William de quer 
Là ly fist homage, et le fet ^ jorer 
Ke fsiy ly portrayt of sun^ leal poer. 
Le erceveske Hubert ^ sa croyce fist lever. 
Le ray William ne poet lyver^ ilokes aver,^ 
Il jorra sur la croyce, ke fay ly dayt^^ porter. 

Hubert ^^ le erceveske si tost cum mort estayt, 
Le priour de Caunterbyre al ray Jon envayt 
Quere congé de elyre, et ly rays le grauntayt.-^^ 
Pur ly de ^^ Norwyce ke ^^ l'evesché averayt ^^ 
Le ray Jon par lettre dévotement priayt 
Le priour, of ses ^^ moynes, ke ^^ eleccioun fesayt. 
Suppriour est eluz par^^ partye ke volayt 
Ke il fust erceveske ; partye nay disayt ; 

^ îa seignoriCf B. C. D. 

2 son navye, D. 

3 visiter, B. C. D. Robert of 
Brunne translates : — 

" And Jon northward him sped, 

" his lond for to visite." 
** as champs, B. 
5 etlifist,'B. C. 
^ en son, B. 
7 Hohert, C. 
^ livre, B. livere, D. 

^ This line is omitted in C. 
10 fei II dust, B. 
1' Hubert, C. 

1- et ly reys grantait, C. D. 
1^ li qi de, B. Pur ly qe de, C. D. 
1^ ke omitted in D. 
1^ avait, D. 
1^ ouf les m., C. 

17 ke omitted in B. and D. C. 
reads le. 

1^ par omitted in C. 


Toulouse and the Toulousain and ail Normandy ; 

King John thereby lost his lordship. 

What does the king of France? he fits out bis navy, 

Cornes into Engiand with bis knigbts, 

He quite reckoned on baving tbe mastry of tbe land. 

Tbe Welsb and tbe otbers off Pevensey 

Hâve driven back tbe king of France witb tbe sword. 

Now bas tbe king of France recrossed tbe sea; 
King Jobn bas gone to visit bis kingdom. 
He causes William king of Scotland to be summoned 

to Lincoln ; 
Outside tbe city in tbe fields in winter, 
On tbe day of St. Cecily, king William witb good will 
Tbere performed bornage to bim, and be made bim 

Tbat be would bear faitb to bim witb bis loyal 

Arcbbisbop Hubert caused bis crosier to be raised. 
King William could not bave a book tbere, 
So be swore on tbe crosier, tbat it was bis duty to 

bear faitb to bim. 

As soon as Hubert tbe arcbbisbop was dead, 
Tbe prier of Canterbury sends to king Jobn 
To seek a congé d'élire, and tbe king granted it. 
For bim wbo sbould bave tbe bisbopric of Norwicb 
King Jobn by letter prayed devoutly 
Tbe prier, witb bis monks, wbo made tbe élection. 
Tbe sub-prior is elected by tbe party wbicb willed 
Tbat be sbould be arcbbisbop ; a party said nay ; 


Lea veske de Norwyce graunt partye nomayt ; 
Par quay ^ l'un et l'altre à Rome appelayt. 

Appeal to Quatorze moynes eluz sunt à la court alez, 
e pope. Trays cenz mars à despendre le ray les ad donez ; 
Les moynes al ray Jon ount lealment jorez 
Le eveske de Norwyce ert erceveske sacrez. 
Kaunt venent à la court, lur message est moustrez. 
La pape par resoun ^ les eliz ad cassez, 
Et ad xiiij.^ moynes de grâce ad comaundez 
De rechef elyre un homme de bountez. 
Le evesk de Norwyce eluz ount altre fez. 
La pape les quasse ;* les moynes sunt blâmez, 
Suspend! lour poer ; els mercy ount cryez, 
Lour serement fet al rays en court ount countez. 
L'apostoylle les assoit, si les ad counsayllez 
Mestre Esteven élire de Langetoun nomez ; 
Esteven est ercevesk, la pape l'ad confermez. 

Election of Ke fet le ray Jon kaunt seet la verytez, 

Laïgton. Coment devaunt la pape le elyt est quassez,^ 
Coment mestre Esteven est erceveskp sacrez ? 
Les clers de la provynce ad taunt malmenez, 
Les moynes de Caunterbyre enchacez hors du sez, 
Al Brabauns^ en garde l'encloystre ount donez,''' 
Quant Innocent la pape seet la veritez 
Le ray et ses fautours ad escomengez, 

The Inter- Sa terre entredite, messe n'y ad ^ chauntez, 

Ne cors de homme mort en cymytere entrez.® 

Ke fet 1}^ cyta^Ti,^^ ke fet ly barnez,^^ 

Ky femme ou ky fyllye le rays ad violez ? ^^ 

^ Pa?- qucnj. D. \ "^ ad donê, B. le chistre ad doné. 

2 par ses resoîis, B. ! C. 


3 E les quatorze, B. Et al xiiii., i ^ messe n^ad c, C. D. 
C. I "^ enterré, B. D. 

* le cassa, B. C. ly cassa, D. 
5 cassé, B. D. 
^ A Brahauns, D. 

^^ ke fet citayn, C. 
^^ le baroné, B. 
^- Vad violé, B. 


A great part named the bishop of Norwich; 
Wherefore one and the otlier appealed to Rome. 

Foiirteen monks elected are gone to the court ; 
The kmg has given them three hundred markR to 

spend ; 
The monks hâve sworn loyally to king John 
That the bishop of Norwich shall be consecrated arch- 

When they corne to the court, their message is declared. 
The pope for his reasons has annulled the élections, 
And has of his favom- commanded the fourteen monks 
To elect again a man of goodness. 
They hâve elected the bishop of Norwich a second 

The pope annuls it ; the monks are blamed, 
Their power suspended ; they hâve cried mercy, 
And hâve told to the court their oath made to the king. 
The pope absolves them, and has advised them 
To elect master Stephen named of Langton ; 
Stephen is archbishop ; the pope lias confirmed him. 
What does king John when he knows the truth, 
How before the pope the élection is annulled, 
How master Stephen is consecrated archbishop ? 
He has so ill-treated the clergy of the province, 
Driven the monks of Canterbury out of the see, 
Given the monastery in keeping to the Brabanters, 
That when Innocent the pope knows the truth, 
He has excommunicated the king and his abettors, 
And interdicted the land ; there is no mass chaunted 

Nor body of dead man interred in cemetery. 
What does the citizen, what do the barons, 
Whose wife or whose daughter the king has violated? 



Tlie civil Courent et destruent chastel et cytez, 
^^^^" De leu en leu cum lever ^ ount le rays chascez. 

Les uns de barouns de ses parentez^ 
Combatent pur le rays, par ount il est salvez;*^ 
Marriage Taunt cum la guere durait en cel enterdit, 
^^ *^f o William ray d'Escoce sa fylle esposer fist 

daugnter ot \ *^ ^ 

the king of Al counto de Boloyne, ke par amur ^ la prist. 
Scotland. j^r^^j^^ (jgg esposayles le ray Jon oyst,^ 

S'en alait ^ à Berwyk et la vile prist ; 
Un chastel i levait/ uncore demort le syst.^ 
Amendes demaundait du ray pur le despit 
Ke ^ saunz congé de ly sa fylle maryst.^^ 
Edenburge ^^ et Rokesburge sur ço ^- demaunda quit, 
Sun fiz Alysaundre ke en hostage ly rendist.^^ 
Le ^^ ray William d'Escoce trestut ly countredit ; 
Par covenaunz entre els la pes pus se prist.^^ 

Le ray Jon repayre par viles et cytez, 
Et sur ses enemys par tut fet mal assez. 
Ses enemys sur ly parmy tuz ses fez 
Les uns et les altres ount malement grevez. 

Persecu- Tute sainte église, et les ordynez, 

^ïurd ^^"^^ Ercevesk, eveske, clers de dignitez, 

Hors de lur provandres par poer^^ sunt botez. 
Sovent à la pape la plainte fu moustrez ; ^^ 
[Sovent les meffesours sount escomengez.]^^ 

^ leverer le roy ount, C. | ^" safidlepreist marit,'B. 

- de sa parenté, B. C. D, '^ Edeueshurge, B. 

2 Eobert of Brunne translates ^- pur ceo, C. 

thèse two lines: — ^^ q'en ostage rendit, 'B. 

" Many men of his kynde sauh ^^ Le omitted in D. 

" him so abaved, ^■> la pees après se fist, B. This 

" For him thei fauht with mynde, Une is omitted in C. La pees après 

" and oft so Tvas he saved." se prist, D. 

* par amurs, C. D. ig provande e poer sount, C. j:>7-o- 

^ Quant le rei Johan des espu- vandes, D. 

saiîles oist, B. i i7 Souvent fu au pape la pleinte 

^ S'en ala, B. ! viustrez, B. fuste moustrez, C. 

7 leva, B. ^s This line is omitted in A., but 

3 dernurt le site, B. C. D. j it bas been restored from B. C. and 
^ Qtiaunt, B. I D. 


They invade and destroy castles and cities ; 

ïhey hâve hunted the king from place to place like a 

Some of the barons of his kindred 
Combat for the king, through which he is saved. 

While the war lasted in that interdict, 
William king of Scotland caused his daughter to 

The count of Boulogne, who took her through love. 
When king John heard of the marriage, 
He proceeded to Berwick, and took the town ; 
He raised a castle there, the site still remains. 
He demanded of the king amends for the offence, 
That he married his daughter without his leave. 
On that he demanded quit Edinburgh and Bokesburgh, 
And that he should deliver his son Alexander as 

King William of Scotland refused him everything ; 
Subsequently peace was established between them by 


King John returns through towns and cities, 
And everywhere commits great mischief on his enemies, 
His enemies upon him through ail his fées 
Hâve ail committed grievous outrages. 
Ail holy church, and the clergy, 
Archbishop, bishop, titled ecclesiastics, 
Are by force turned out of their prebends. 
Often the complaint was laid before the pope ; 
Often the misdoers are excommunicated. 

I 2 


Arrivai of La pape de lur errour avait graunt pytez, 
levâtes! Pandolf et Duraunt ses legaz ad maundez,^ 
[Qe siuit en Engleterre à Dovere arivez. 
Le rey e les barons à Loundres sunt alez ; 
Pandolf par- precliement la guère ad terminez.]^ 
Assolz sunt les ^ barouns ; le ray Jon ad jorez 
De l'erceveske Esteven serrait-il vengez, 
De[s] ^ xiiij. nioynes, quele part k'il saj^ent trouvez.^ 
Their Le légat Pandolf et sun compaynoun 

siiccess. Fount venir l'erceveske, les moynes par noun ; 
En molz des j ornez par graunt despotisoun ^ 
Ount prové ke le rays ad tort, et noun resouu.^ 
lie légat ad taunt fet par sen et par resoun,^ 
Ke la pees est fête de la contencioun, 
Et clerk chascun par say de sa possessioun.^^ 
Pandolf repaire à Rome, ne pas saunz ^^ r3'che doun. 
Le ray Jon demort, demaundez ad pardoun ; 
L'erceveske l'assoit en graunt ^- devocioun. 
Family of Deus fiz et deus fylles ^'^ le ray Jon avayt ; 
'i°g n. jjgj^pj^ f^ ]g aynez,^* ke après ly regnayt ; 
Rycliard le punez, ke eluz estayt 
Bay de Alemayne, et la coroune rescayt. 
Isabel sa fillye, ke nul enfaunt portayt, 
L'emperour Frederyk pur veir l'esposayt ; ^"^ 
Al counte de Laycestre l'autre maryait. 

' ad menez, B. i ^ nul resouu, B. C. 

- Pandolf e precliement, C \ ^ sermoun, B. C. D. 

2 Thèse three lines are omitted in '^ ^ chescon clerc seisi de sa p., 

A., but they are found in B. C. and B. D, saisie, C. Robert of Brunne, 
D., and are translated by Eobert of in his English version, translates 
Brunne. They are printed hère this line as follows : — 
from B, " And ilk a elerke sesed ageyn 

* ount les h., C. | " to haf his rent." 

^ E des,B. Dcl,C. ^^ ne passe sanz,B. 

^ où qe soient t., B. quel part '- ouf yrant, C. 

saynt trovez, C. quele part qesaient, '^ Deus fitz, ml.feylles, C. 

D. ! ^^ Henri son Jîtz aynez, B. 

' desputeisoun, B. D, 1 '^ pur veir esposait, D. 


The pope had great compassion on their error, 
He lias sent as his legates Pandulf and Durand, 
Who are arrived in England at Dover. 
The king and his barons are gone to London ; 
Pandulf by his preaching has put an end to the war. 
The barons are absolved ; king John has sworn 
That he will be revenged of archbishop Stephen, 
And of the fourteen monks, wherever they be found. 

The legate Pandulf and his companion 
Cause the archbishop to corne, and the monks by 

name ; 
In many days, by great discussion 
They hâve proved that the king is in the wrong and 

not in the right, 
The legate has effected so much by sensé and by 

That peace is made of the contention, 
And every clergyman is seised of his possession. 
Pandulf returns to Kome, not without rich gifts. 
King John remains, has asked for pardon ; 
The archbishop absolves him witli great dévotion. 

King John had two sons and two daughters ; 
Henry was the eldest, who reigned after him ; 
Kichard the youngest, who was elected 
King of Almaine, and received the crown. 
Isabe], his daughter, who bore no child, 
The emperor Frédéric in truth es^DOUsed her ; 
The other married the earl of Leicester. 




Le ray Jon sa terre xviij. aunz guyait ; 

En le abbaye de Swinesheved ^ home Teiipusonait ; 

Il gist à Wyncestre,^ il mesmes le volait. 

tion of 

His mar- 

Anno Domini niillesimo cc^. xvj^.^ 

Or est le ray Jon mort et sevely. 
L'erceveske Esteven ad coroimé Henry ; 
Henirni î^^'odliome fii tuz jours, des povers avait mercy. 
Plus ama ^ saint église ke nul ray devaunt ly ; 
Clers ke ben chaunterent ^ tost sunt enrychy ; 
Eglises et provandi'es ne sunt pas esparny,^ 
Ke clerk de la cliapele n'ayt porcioun parmy. 

Covent ke nostre rays par tens sait maryë ; 
Le counte de Provence sa fylle Tad donë, 
Helyanore ad noun, de gentil parenté, 
Plus bêle créature de là ne fu trovd 
Ore est en Eu gle terre ray ne corouné. 
Deus fiz et deus fylles Tad Deu preste ; ^ 
Sir Eduuard, sir ^ Edmoun, hair est le avaunt ^ no[mé]. 
Sir Edmoun de Leycestre est counte ^^ enheryté ; 
Le Mounfort le perdist kaunt fa desheryté. 
Ke nul des deus feylles en taunt sayt oblyë, 
Al fiz le ray d'Escoce est Margrete maryé, 
[Et] Béatrice ^^ de Brettajne al counte est esposë. 

Molt est ore le overayne bêle à Westmouster ^^ 

His work 
at West- 

Ke le ray Henry fist [fere] de ^^ sun aver. 

* Swynheved, D. 

- Wircestre, D., M-hicli is correct. ' 
Robert of Bnmne makes it West- 
minster : ! 

*' At Westmynstere even is Jon ': 
" laid solempnely ; " 
and he says that he died at Haughe 
in Lincolnshire. 

" At Hauhe his lif he leved, so 
" say men of that toun." 

^ The rubric is given from B. 

^ amait, C. 

5 qechauntirentbeiiyG. ke chaun- 
terent bien sunt tost enrichy, D. 

^ provandes ne suntesparny, D. 

<" " Tuo sonnes, tuo douhteres 
" fre Jhesus bas them lent," Robert 
of Brimne. 

^ e sire, B, 

^ est avant, B, 

^^ €71 counte, B. 

11 E Béatrice, B. C. D. 

1- Wemouster, D. 

1=^ fist fore de, B. C. D. 


King John ruled his land eighteen years; 
They poisoned liim in tlie abbey of Swineshead. 
He lies at Winchester, he himself willed it. 

Anna Domini 121 G. 

Now is king John dead and buried. 
Archbishop Stephen has crowned Henry; 
A good man he was always ; he was kind to the 

He loved holy church more than any king before 

him ; 
Clergy who chanted well are soon enriched ; 
Churches and prebends are not overlooked, 
That a clerk of the chapel has not his portion among 


It is right that our king in time be married ; 
The count of Provence has given him his daughter, 
Eleanor was her name, of gentle kindred ; 
A fairer créature was not found beyond sea. 
Now is she crowned queen in England. 
God has lent her two sons and two daughters ; 
Sir Edward, sir Edmund, the fîrst-named is heir. 
Sir Edmund is made heir of the earldom of Leicester ; 
The Montfort lost it when he was disinherited. 
That neither of the two daughters be at ail forgotten, 
Margaret is married to the king of Scotland, 
And Béatrice is espoused to the count of Britany. 

Very fair is now the work at Westminster 
Which king Henry caused to be made with his own 



Deu ly presta grâce sa terre governer 

Quaraunte et vj.^ aunz, saunz pople triboler."^ 

Après devenent^ pussaunt cessaunt en poer. 

Theking's Soun fiz sir Eduuard ly va couusayller,* 

Ma dame la rajme, et ly quens Riclier, 

Le counte de Warayne, sir Huge le beer,^ 

Sire William de Valence, Roger le Mortymer,^ 

Jon Maunsel le clerk, cbuvalers" de outre mer, 

Le ray de cels s'affye, les fet avauncer 

Des terres et de rentes ^ de molt gentil qiier. 

Sir Eduuard le volt, et fet sun dever. 

Les barouns Englays les volent^ destourbei", 

Tenent parlement, ei) semble vount ti-eter 

Cornent pount la terre des alyens voider. 

Al ray s et sun counsayl ount maundé messager 

Ke Testât del règne ly covent amencler.^^ 

Ly rays les respount, jour les fet doner 

Parliament Tut drait à Oxenforde, et là ^^ parlementer, 
at Oxford. ' 

Anno Domini millesiono cco. l^. viu^.^- 

[A] cel^^ parlement sopist la destaunce,^'* 
Al ray et ses liayrs ^"^ en desheritaunce 
Des gardes et relefs, des terres de^^ tenaunce, 
Al countes ^" et barouns, chuvalers et sergaunce, 
Ke tenent del ray,^^ partye par chevaunce, 

' Cinqnant e sis, B. '* Sex and 
" fifty )ere," Robert of Brunne. 

- troubler, B. 

' devint, B. devent pesaunt as- 
launt, G. devent pesaunt, cestaunt, 
D. " But sone afterward failed him 
" powere," Robert of Brunne. 

' li bon c, B. 

^ de Warenne, sire Huge VJSs- 
penser, D. 

*"' Moger Mortimer, B. sire Roger 
de Mortimer, C. 

^ chivaler, D. 

^ des rentes, T). 

'J le volent, CD. 

^" This line is omitted in B. 

" Oxenforde à la p., C. 

'■- This rubric is giveu from D. 

1=^ Acelp., B. CD. 

'^ Robert of Brunne translates, 
" At this parlement rested that 
" distaunce." 

'^ e à ces heyres, C. D. 

^^ e de, B. de terres de t., C. 

^' A court tes, D. 

'^ de ret/, C. 


God lent him grâce to govern the land 
Forty-six years^ without oppressing bis people. 
Afterwards lie becomes oppressive, as bis power failed. 
His son sir Edward acts as bis counsellor, 
My lady tbe queeii, and tbe earl Ricbard, 
Tbe earl of Warren, sir Hugb tbe noble, 
Sir William de Valence, Roger de Mortiraer, 
Jobn Maunsel tbe clerk, knigbts from beyond sea, 
In tbese tbe king puts bis trust, and causes tbem to 

be advanced 
Witb lands and rents witb very générons beart. 
Sir Edward wills it, and does bis duty. 
Tbe Englisb barons seek to restrain tbem ; 
They bold conférence, go to consult togetber 
How tbey can clear tbe land of aliens. 
To tbe king and bis council bave tbey sent a mes- 

Tbat be is required to amend tbe state of tlie 

Tbe king gives bis consent, causes a day to be tixed 
Straigbt at Oxford, and tbere to bold parliament. 

Anoio Domini 1258. 

At tbis parliament tbe dispute is appeased, 
To tbe clisinberiting of tbe king and bis beirs 
Of wards and reliefs, of lands of tenanc}^ 
To tbe earls and barons, knigbts and sergeants, 
Wbo bold of tbe king, part by cbevance. 



The terms 
upon the 

His friends 
ad vise him 
to resist. 

Simon de 
cailed in 
by the 

Partye en chef des altres of raportenaunce. 

[A] chascun seygniir-^ demort garde et chaunce,- 

Et le ray privé de tut rappendaunce. 

Le rays ne entendist poynt celé descayvaunce ; 

Kant l'escryt est fet de la purveaunce. 

Le rays le graunte,^ et mette sun sel en testmoynaunce. 

Comités et barouns l'afferment* par fyaunce, 

Et ^ ke nul estraunge en court ayt pussaunce, 

Ne ke le ray saunz els de terre nul avaunce 

Ne mette en bayllye,^ saunz lur ordinaunce. 

Al ray et as ses" hayrs estrayt est la parlaunce. 

Les amy le rays, ke sentent la gTevaunce, 

Ly dient,^ " Sir, pur Deu, tu n'es pas enfaunce ; 

" Ad tay et ad tun saunk tu faz deshonuraunce 

" Kaun[t] tu es guyé par autry voyllaunce. 

" Assez as-tu amys en Engleterre et [en] Fraunce ; ^ 

" Reprenez tun dit/'^ et fa ta governaunce ; 

*' Reteygne ^^ ta seygnur3^ej ne dotez la manaunce; 

" Tu seras ben assolz de la variaunce/"' 

Le rays volt ben par là défère la concordaunce ; ^^ 

Pur quay les barouns sunt en graunt dotaunce.-^^ 

Escotez ore cornent se fount quere chevaunce.-^^ 

Simoun de Mounfort fu cel houre^^ hors de terre, 
Par commune assent les barouns ly fount quere. 
Ly quens vynt/^ cum cyl ke léger fust à trere^^ 
Encountre sun seygnur mayntenir sun affere ; ^^ 
Tenir l'estatut en tens de pes et guère, 

- A chescon seigniir, CD. 

- e cheaunce, B. 
■^ la graunte, D. 

^ la serment, B. C. 

5 Et omitted in B. C. 

•^ en baylle, D. 

"i à ses, B. D. à ces, C. 

s Li dit, B. 

^ e en Fraunce, C. 

^^' Repernez condit, B. 

11 Reléguez, B. Retenez, D. 

1- Vacordaunce, B. C. D. 

1"^ distaunce, C. 

1^ quere chevissaunce, B. 

15 cel hourefu, B. 

16 vient, B. 

i*" cum qe leggerfust attrei'e, C. 
1^ meintenir Tafere, B. C. D. 


Part in chief of the others witli the appiirtenance. 

To each lord remains ward and cheance, 

And the king deprived of ail the appendance. 

The king did not understand that déception; 

When the charter of the provisions is made, 

The king grants it, and puts his seal in witness. 

Earls and barons confirm it with their faith, 

And that no foreigner hâve power in court, 

Nor that the king advance any one in lands without 

Nor put in place of trust, without their ordinance. 
This arrangement is hard to the king and his heirs. 
The king's friends, who feel the grievance, 
Say to him, '^ Sire, for God's sake, thou art not a 

" child ; 
" Thou dost dishonour to thee and to thy blood 
" When thou art guided by the will of another. 
" Thou hast friends enough in England and in France ; 
" Eesume thy word, and do tliy governance ; 
" Eetain thy authority, fear not threats. 
'' Thou shalt be entirely absolved of the breach of 

'' faith/^ 
The king is quite willing thus to break the agreement ; 
Wherefore the barons are in great fear. 
Hear now how they do to seek success. 

Simon de Montfort was at that time out of the 
land ; 
By common assent the barons send for him. 
The earl came, as one who was easy to draw 
To maintain his interest against his lord ; 
To hold the statute in time of peace and war, 



ings of the 

The Lon- 
insuit the 

The eaii's 
trick of the 

Saunz connsayl le rays/ le serement va fere ; - 
[Dunt pus après vint contek e contrere.] '^ 

Tost s'en va le counte, ses iiz, et ses baroiins ; 
Les chastels le rays prenent en baimdoims ; 
Courent * sur les terres, ardent les mesouns, 
Ke tenir ne volent les provisiouns.^ 
Le rays en cel contemple et ly quens Symouns 
Se mettent en agarde de contenciouns ; 
Se lyent par serment de dissensiouns 
Al ray Phelippe de Fraunce,^ ky par ses resouns ' 
Durra jugement saunz refusiouns. 
Henry le rays i va par cels achesouns. 

Le ray veent à Parys recayvere ^ jugement ; 
La rayne après vers celé part ce atent.^ 
A Sun issir de Loundres le[s] Loundrays verrayment 
Le fesaynt plus despyt ke nul home attent.^^ 
Kant le ray de Fraunce a dit^- certaynement 
Coment la purveaunce est apertement 
Desherytaunt le rays, ses ha^^rs ensement, 
Desfet l'estatut,^'^ le casse '^ nettement. 
Ly quens Symon Toyt ^^ dire, fet maunder sa gent,^® 
La guère recomence, escotez ore ^" coment, 
[La grande folie qe li quens eraprent.] ^^ 

Li quens fet fere à Loundres un char par vaidye, 
Cum fust à Sun oes/^ pur sa maladye ; 


' conseyller le reis, D. 

- This Une and the preceding are 
transposed in B. and D, 

•" This line is omitted in A., but is 
given hère from B. 

* Curunt, B. 

^ promissiouns, T). 
'"' Pliilipe rel de France, B«j 
oraitting Al. 

' qi par sa respouns, D. 

* resceiverc, B. recei/vcr, C. 

^ se tent, B. C. tost après vers 
celé part se tent, D. 

'" A son Issir de Londres les Loun- 
dreU verraimenf, B. C. D. 

^' entent, B. This line is omitted 

1- ad veu, B. C. D. 

^•* Diffère li esiut, B. 

^' le cassa, C. 

^•' Symon oit dire, B. 

^^'' sagement, C. 

^"i comence, ore escotez, C. 

^^ This line is found only in B. 
among the manuscripts, but it is 
translated by Kobert of Brunne. 

^^ à son corps, B. à son eus, C. 


Withoiit counsel of the king, lie goes and malves tlie 

Whereby afterwards came strife and dissension, 

Soon proceeds the earl, his sons, and bis barons ; 
They take the king's castles into their power ; 
Invade the lands, burn the houses, 
Of those who will not hold the Provisions. 
Tlie king in this circumstance and the earl Simon 
Put themselves to arbitration on their disputes ; 
Bind themselves by oath on their dissensions 
To king Philip of France, who by his wisdom 
Shall give judgment not subject to refusai. 
Henry the king goes there for thèse causes. 

The king cornes to Paris to receive judgment ; 
Tlie queen afterwards proceeds in that direction. 
At lier departure from London the Londoners trul}^ 
Offered lier greater insuit than any man expects. 
When the king of France lias seen certainly 
How the Provision is openly 
A disheriting of the king, of his heirs likewise, 
He sets aside the statute, and annuls it entirely. 
Earl Simon hears of it, assembles his men, 
The war begins again, listen now how, 
The great folly which the earl undertakes. 

The earl crafbily causes a chariot to be made in 
As though it were for his use, on account of his 
illness ; 



Battle of 

Lx. mil Loundrays sunt en la ^ compaynye ; 

Devers Lewes s'en va of sa chuvalerye. 

Le rays et sa mesnë sunt en la priorye. 

Ly quens Symoun al cliauns sa baner desplye ; 

[Le dragon est levé, le rei le quens défie.] ^ 

Sir Eduuard, fiz^ le rays, les Loundrays escrye,^ 

Descomfit les ad, et la chare ^ saisye, 

Quide trouver le counte, le counte n'y est mye. 

Ke fet sir Eduuard ? repaire à sa partye, 

Le char ly fist pur veir perdre la^ mestrye. 

fiture of 
the king's 

Aoino Domini millesimo ce. l. xiiij. fuitprœlium apud 
Leaus inter regem et harones, ijo. Idus MaiiJ 

Taunt eum^ sire Eduuard entur le char estait, 
Sj^mon de Mounfort descomfit avayt 
La party e le rays, le dragoun avalait ; 
Le ray de Alemaynne prisoun ^ demorayt ; 
Jon ComyTL d'Escoce en autel esplayt ; 
Le counte de Warayne^^ de ilokes eschapayt, 
Sir Huge le Bygot la mer of ly passayt. 
Maynte bone dame sun baroun là lessayt; 
Tauntz furent là tuez, ke nul home poayt ^^ 
Noumbrer les morz, fors cely ke tut vayt. 
Sire Eduuard, fiz le rays, de grë se moustrayt 
Hostage pur sun père, [le count ly rescait ; 
Ausint pur sun père] sun nefu fesayt,^^ 

1 sa, B. C. D. 

- This Une is omitted in A., but 
it is found in B. C. and D., and is 
translated by Robert of Bnmne. 

3 lefitz, C. 

■* " Edward was hardie, the Lon- 
" dres gan he ascrie," Robert of 

^ e le char, B. 

^ sa mestrye, D. 

' This rubric is taken from B. 

^ Kant corn, C. 

^ eti prison, C. 

'" de Warenne, C. 

^^ qe nul ne poeit, B. 

^■- son père, le counte le resceit, 

B. C. D. Instead of thèse two Unes, 

C. and D. give, — 

Hostage pur son père, le count ly 

Ausint j)ur son père son neweu 

J es ait, 
Henry de Almayne, hostage se 



Sixty tliousand Londoners are in his cornpany ; 
Towards Lewes lie goes witli his kniglits. 
The king and his household are in the Priory. 
Earl Simon unfolds his banner in the fields ; 
The dragon is raised, the king défies the earl. 
Sir Edward, the king's son, gets sight of the Lon- 
Has discomfited them, and seized the chariot, 
Expects to find the earl, the earl is not there. 
What does sir Edward? he returns to his party, 
The chariot cansed him in truth to lose the mastery. 

Anno Domini 1264 was the battle at Lewes between 
the king and the barons, on the ii Ides of May. 

While sir Edward was occupied with the chariot, 
Simon de Montfort had discomfited 
The king's party, had thrown down the dragon ; 
The king of Almaine remained prisoner ; 
John Comyn of Scotland was in the same plight ; 
The earl of Warenne escaped thence, 
Sir Hugh Bigot passed the sea with him. 
Many a good lady lost her lord there ; 
So many were slain there, that no man could 
Connt the dead, except him who is all-seeing. 
Sir Edward, the king's son, willingly gave himself 
Hostage for his father, the earl accepted him ; 
So his nephew did for his father, 


Henry de Alemayne, liostage se donayt. 

Escape of Sir Eduuard un an en prisoun sojorna}'!. 

Edward. ^^ counte parmy la terre le ray Henry menayt; 
Ses chastels et ses viles à wardayns assignait. 
Sire Eduuard de prisoun sagement alayt, 
En soccour et ayde les marchyz assemblayt. 

Les Hz le quens Symon trop hauta^^n estaynt, 
Et pur lur partye graunt folye fesaynt, 

Gilbert de Kaunt Gilbert de Clare si tost corousçaynt ; 

serts the ^î^' Eduuard et ly se entrefyauncaynt/ 

barons. Ke le counte - Symon et ses fis prendrayn[t], 

Et saunz raunçoun prendre à mort les liveraj^nt." 

Taunt cum les reals^ poer assemblaynt, 

Fu Norhaunton pris, les barouns là lessaynt 

Symon fiz le counte, et gens ke ly suaj^nt ; 

Cum soz et chaitifs à Kenelwortli alaynt, 

Et en lur rj^baldye ilokes demora^nit 

Taunt cura sire '' Eduuard Evesliam enscaynt.^' 

A^ino lyroximo sequenti, nouas Augusti, fait heUiim 
apvd Eveshavi inter regem et havones? 

The battle Symon de Monfort, of la baronye, 
^^jjj^^^" Le ray maugrë son fu en sa compaynye,^ 
Le counte est mounté, sa baner desplye ; 
Sir Eduuard ly vent encountre of sa chuvalrye, 
Et Gilbert de Clare de loynz par vaydye. 
Kaunt Symon 1}^ vayt, les barouns escrye, 
" Deus ayt les aimes! perduz est la vye!" 

' s^entreaffiaunceîent , B. entre- '•' Suilk ribaiidie thei led, thei gaf 

fiancavif, C. D. " no taie of wham, 

- Elle quens, B. Ke le quens,!). *• To whils sir Edward had seisid 

3 les mettraînt, C. D. j " aile Evesham." 

"* les reis, B. | " This rubric is given from B.; it 
^ sire omitted iu B. is omitted in the other MSS. 

^ Robert of Bmnne translates ^ maugré Je soen fut en la c, B. 

this, — en la compaignye, C. 


Henry of Almaine he gave himself hostage. 
Sir Edward remained in prison a year. 
The earl carried king Henry through the land ; 
Assigned his castles and his towns to wardens. 
Sir Edward skilfuUy escaped from prison. 

He assembled the Marchers for succour and aid 

The sons of sir Simon were too overbearing, 
And did great foUy for their party, 
When they so soon affronted Gilbert de Clare ; 
Sir Edward and he pledged their faith mutually, 
That they would take earl Simon and his sons, 
And, without accepting ransom, put them to death. 
While the roya^lists were assembling their forées, 
Northampton was taken, the barons left there 
Simon the earl's son, and men who followed him ; 
Like fools and wretches they went to Kenilworth, 
And dwelt there in their ribaldry 
While sir Edward was surrounding Evesham. 

In the year next following, on the nones of August, 
was the battle at Evesham hetween the king 
and the barons. 

Simon de Montfort, with the barons, 
The king, spite of his will, was in his company, 
The count is mounted, displays his banner ; 
Sir Edward comes against him with his chivalry, 
And Gilbert de Clare at a distance, craftily. 
When Simon sees him, he cries to the barons 
" God hâve our soûls ! our life is lost !" 



Sire Eduuard, cum bon fiz, delivera par espeye 
Sun père de prisoun, k'il ne demora mye. 
Dure fu la bataille, et graunt fu la folye ; 
Ke primes le comença, Jhesu ly maldye ! 
Persons of La bataylle est férue, escotez ore cornent 
iîi°the ^^^ ^^ Mounfort est tuez, sun fiz ensement, 
battle. Ses membres sunt tranchez, envayez pur présent ; 
Sir Huge le Despenser i prist ^ martyr ement ; 
Sire Rauf Basset i fist sun fynement ; 
Sire Pers de Mounfort tuez de celé gent ; 
Et sire Guy de Ballyol, vigrous en jovent, 
Il soûl fu plus playnt ke les altres cent. 
Ore ad le ray Henry terre et tenement, 
Et rays est de sa terre,; et de kaunt ke apent ; ^ 
Parliament Of la victore s'en va à tenir parlement 
^^t^~ Tôt drait à Norbauntoun, sir Eduuar[d] assent.^ 
En cel parlement estait exiliez 
La countasse de Laicestre, ses fiz sunt forjorez ; * 
Countes et barouns sunt desberytez, 
Les uns sunt al boys, les uns enprisonez, 
Ke encountre le rays armes ount portez. 
Almeryk^ de Mounfort ilokes fa privez 
De la tresorye, dount fust estallez 
En l'eglyse Saint Père de Everwyk nomez, 
Al fiz le Mortymer le ray l'ad donez. 
^^ , . Un légat Octobone cel houre est arvyez, 
tlie legate. Pur fere la pes estable la pape Tad maundez. 
Cel boure of la reyne sunt tuz repaii^ez 
Ke par la Purveaunce furent encbacez, 
Forspris Jon Maunsel, ke ^ à Deus est comaundez. 

* il prist, C. 

2 e quanque à li apent, B. 

2 s'a&sent, C. 

^ ses fitz forsjurez, B. 

^ Emerike, D. 

^ ke omitted in B. 


Sir Edward, like a good son, delivered by the sword 
His father from prison, that he remained no longer. 
Hard was the battle, and great was the folly ; 
Who first began it, may Jésus curse him. 

The battle is fought, listen now how 
The Montford is slain, his son likewise, 
His members are eut off, and sent for a présent ; 
Sir Hugh le Despenser there takes martyrdom ; 
Sir Ralph Basset there makes his end ; 
Sir Pierre de Montfort is slain of that people ; 
And sir Guy de Balliol, vigorous in youth, 
He alone was more lamented than a hundred of the 

Now has king Henry land and lordship, 
And is king of his land, and of ail that belongs to 


He goes off with victory to hold a parliament 
Straight to Northampton, sir Edward assents. 

In that parliament was exiled 
The countess of Leicester, her sons hâve abjured ; 
Earls and barons are disinherited, 
Some are to the wood, some imprisoned, 
Who hâve borne arms against the king. 
Almeric de Montfort was there deprived 
Of the treasury, with which he was invested 
In the church called of St. Peter of York, 
The king has given it to the son of the Mortimer. 
At that time a legate, Ottoboni, is arrived, 
The pope has sent him to make a stable peace. 
At that time with the queen are ail returned 
Who were driven away by the Provisions, 
ExceDt John Maunsel, who is sent to God. 

K 2 



An7io Dominî inillesiino cc^.lxvjo., 'post captionem de 
Keiiilworthe, convenerunt o'ûines exhœredati ad- 
versus regeni Henricuon} 

Movements Les déshéritez siint en ôTaunt dolour, 
inherked" ^® atyrent ensemble,- purchacent soceour. 

Roberfc le Ferers, le avaunt nomë ^ de lour, 

Tua les gens par nout, sur ço fu robbour 

Sur quaunz^ ke vers le rays avaynt nul amour. 

A Cestrefeld s'assemblent,^ à lour deshonur ; 

Le[s] reals les espyent, genz de graunt valur,^ 

La vile ount conquise, de barouns^ par errour 

Sunt les uns tuez,^ les uns par vigour 

Sunt de ilokes alez, kaun[t] ount fet ^ lur lionur. 

Ço fust ly Dey ville ke passa de l'estour.^^ 

Al matyn à la chace alaynt ly plusur, 

Robert de Ferers, Baldewyn le Vavasour, 

Ke de Cestrefeld cel houre fu seygnur, 

Cels et lour manao*e ^^ demorent en lano-our. 

Robert de Wollertoun, vaillaunt chivaucliour, 

Fu pris et pendu sur Cliene ^- saunz retour ; 

Allas ! k'il tynt encountre sun seygnoui' ! ^^ 

Jon Dey ville passa de ilokes saun sojour. 

Le Deivylle eseliapa, hardys et vaillaunt. 
En l'ylle de Haxolme,^^ oii il fust avaunt ; 
Cum en tapysouns ilokes demort, robbaunt 
Kaunz ke par là passent, burgës et ^^ marchaunt ; 
Kant doute survenue, si prent escheu et haunt,^^ 

Defeat at 

Escape of 
Sir John 


^ This rubric is taken from B. 
- assemblé, B. se tirent ensemble, 

^ Robert de Ferrers avaunt n., B. 

^ Sur que quant, C. D. 

^ ensembîent, B. assemblent, C. 

'• espient, grant de valour, B. 

" des barouns, D. 

^ Les uns sont tuez, C. 

^ quant fet unt lour honour, B. D. 

^^ cel estour, B. 

^' ménage, C. 

^^ sur Kene, D., and Robert of 
Brunne translates it, " on Kene 
hanged he was." 

^2 This Une is omitted in B. C. 

^^ Axynghom, B. Axyngholme, C. 
Axinholm, D 

^•^ burgeis ou, B, 

^^ il prent escu en haunt, B. il 
prent escu et haunt, D. 


Anno JDomini 1266, after the capture of Kenihvorth, 
ail the disinherited assemhled against Jdng Henry, 

The disinherited are in great grief, 
They draw together, and seek succour. 
Robert de Fereres, the fîrst named of theirs, 
Slew people by night, thereupon he was a robber 
Upon ail who had any love to the king. 
They met at Chesterfield to their dishonour ; 
The l'oyalists watch thera, people of great valour, 
They hâve conquered the town, of the barons in 

the action 
Some are slain, some by strength 
Are gone from thence, when they hâve done their 

It was the Dey ville who passed. from the battle. 
In the morning many of them went to the chase, 
Robert de Fereres, Baldwin the Vavasor, 
Who was at that time lord of Chesterfield, 
Thèse and their party remained in weakness. 
Robert de Wollerton, a valiant rider, 
Was taken and hanged on Chêne without help ; 
Alas ! that he held against his lord. 
John Deyville passed thence without remaining. 

The Deyville escaped, bold and valiant, 
Into the isle of Axholm, where he was before ; 
As he remains there in hiding, robbing 
Ail who pass that way, ourgliers and merchants ; 
AVhen fear arrives, then he takes shield and spear, 




S'en va devers le Suy^ compaynye queraunt. 

Le xij. jour^ de Aprile lur compaynye est^ taunt, 

Capture of Ke pris ount Nicole, les Jeus '* maintenaunt 
^^° ■ Tecent^ et destruent, les huches^ debrysaunt ; 
Chartres et escryz et kaimt ke est nnsaunt 
A Crestyen^ ount pris, les vount defolaunt 
Parmy les rneles, et femme et enfaunt 
Ount mys à Tespeye cent et cessaunt. 

Retakenby Kaunt sire Eduuard oyt dire^ ke Nicole fu prise, 
As chivas covers^ ad maundé ses amys. 
A Nicole se haste, kaunt vent en pays 
La cyté ad saisy, hors sunt les enemys ; 
Vers l'ylle de Hely tornés ount le vis;^^ 
Sire Huge Péchez i trovent, ilokes sunt remys. 
Sir Eduuard vers le suth sun chemyn ad repris 
Si ad le chastel de Kenelworth assys. 

De la feste saint Jon en la my estez 
Jekes la feste saint Thomas en iver countez, 
Ount les déshéritez le chaste! gardez 
Encountre sire Eduuard, le ray, et ses barnez.^^ 
Le légat Octobone i vynt cum fu priez, 
Sir Henry de Hastyngs le chastel rend de grez 
Salve vie et membre, ses bens ^^ dedenz trouvez. 
Le légat par ^^ le rays ad pronunciez 
Une sentence dure pur les desherytez; 
Les hairs que survivent ^^ uncore en sunt chargez. 
Le légat s'en va parmy les countrez, 
A counter of les clercs et of les ordynez,''^ 

Siège of 



^ le sieu, B. le seu, D. 

- Xe duxim jour, C. D. 

^ lour poer est, B. C. D. 

'^ Juives, B, Jues, C. 

5 Tuent, B. C. D. 

^ les hutthes, B. 

' Al Cristiens, C. Al Crisfien, 


covertz, D. " With hilled hors of 
' pris," Robert of Bninne. 

° les vis, C. 

' e son barnez, B. D. 

- e bens, C. 

^ pur,!^. 

^ qe survenent, C. 

^ A coyter od les lais, e od clers, 
e od les ordeinez, B. A counter oue 

^ l'oit dire, B. 

^ A chevals coverez, C. A chivals i les clers, oue les ordinez, D. 


Proceeds towards the south seeking company. 

The twelfth day of Apri], tlieir company is so great 

That they hâve taken Lincoln, the Jews now 

They take and destroy, breaking open the coffers ; 

Charters and deeds and whatever is injurions 

To the Christians they hâve taken, treading them 

under foot 
Among the lanes, and woman and child 
They hâve put to the sword a hundred and sixty. 

When sir Edward heard tell that Lincoln was taken, 
He has sent for his friends on covered horses. 
He hastens to Lincoln, when he cornes into the country 
He has seize d the city, the enemies are out of it ; 
They hâve turned their face towards the isle of Ely ; 
They find there sir Hugh Pecchë, they hâve resumed 

their place there. 
Sir Edward towards the south has retraced his way, 
And he has laid siège to the castle of Kenilworth. 

From the feast of St. John at midsummer 
Reckoned to the feast of St. Thomas in winter 
The disinherited hâve held the castle 
Against sir Edward, the king, and his barons ; 
The legate Ottoboni cornes there as he was asked. 
Sir Henry de Hastings surrenders the castle voluntarily, 
With safety of life and members, and his goods found 

The legate on the part of the king has pronounced 
A hard sentence for the disinherited; 
The heirs who survive are still burthened with it. 
The legate proceeds through the country, 
To converse with the clerks and with the clergy, 



Edward's Sir Eduuard vers Ely of boue gent assez. 

agabsVtlTe ^'j^^^ ^^ "^^^^6 part ad molt ben^ espyez ; 

isleofE'iv, Les barouns dedenz défendent les entrez. 
Demy an après les barouns ount maundez 
A sir Edimard, et ^ si li ount moustrez 
Ke le ylle ly ^ volent rendre, salve lour herytez, 
Chastels. vye, et membre, et ly ount priez 
Ke aider les voylle, et il les ad grauntez, 
Et par taunt al ray est-il repairez. 
Tut drait en eel contemple est contek levez 

Gilbert de Entre Gilbert de Clare et le ray senez, 

Clai'e quar- . ^ . 

rels with Tesmoyne sii-e Eduuard, la cause fu privez, 
the kmg. j^gg barons hors de l'ylle à Loundres sunt alez, 
Of Gilbert de Clare sunt-els demorez. 
Encountre le rays e sun fiz aynez 
Ount par iij. mays tenuz les cytez ;^ 
En forme après taillez sunt-els acordez, 
Chascun en sun pays en pes est^ repairez. 
Sire Eduuard, fiz le rays, ne lest pur parentez, 
S'en va devers le Nortli, molt est redotez, 
Edward's Alnewyk ad pris, du chastel ad donez 
înThe ^^ ^^ garde à un de soens, le seygnur ad menez 
North. A Loundres à sun père, Henry ray clamez. 
Sir Eduuard al rays ad mercy cryez ; 
Le rays al Vescy ad tut pardonez, 
Le duk de ^ Kenelsworth forpris et salvez. 
Il avait par raunçoun ses terres et ses fez. 

Si tost cum pur tut la pees fu cryë, 
Al légat Octobon la pape ad maundë 
Ke parmy Engleterre par ly sait prêché. 

1 ad bien, B. C. D. 

- et omitted in B. C. "D. 

' bj omitted in B. C. D. 

^ le citez, B, 

"' en pees sont, C. 

* Li sire de, B. Le dit de, C. D. 

Eobeit of Brunne translates, — 
" The lord of Kilyngworth als 
" that tyme sped -wele ; " wbich is 
a niistaken version of the reading 
of B. The reading of C and D. is 
no doubt the correct one. 


Sir Edward iowards Ely with good men enough. 

The island on ail sides he has very well examine d ; 

The barons within défend the entrances. 

Half a year afterwards the barons hâve sent 

To sir Edward, and hâve shown to him 

That they are willing to surrender to him the island, 

saved their inheritances, 
Castles, life, and members, and they hâve prayed him 
That he will assist them, and he has granted it them, 
And thereupon he is returned to the king. 
Just at this conjuncture strife is arisen 
Between Gilbert de Clare and the wise king, 
Sir Edward is witness, the cause was private. 
The barons are gone ont of the isle to London, 
They are remained with Gilbert de Clare. 
Against the king and his eldest son 
They hâve held the city during three months ; 
In form afterwards drawn up they are accorded ; 
Each is returned to his country in peace. 
Sir Edward, the king's son, leaves not for kindred, 
He proceeds towards the north, is much feared ; 
He has taken Alnwick, of the castle has given 
The custody to one of his, has carried its lord 
To London to his father, Henry king proclaimed. 
Sir Edward has prayed tlie king for mercy ; 
The king has pardoned everything to the Yesci, 
The dictum of Kenilwortli excepted and saved, 
He had, through ransom, his lands and fées. 

As soon as peace was proclaimed everywhere, 
The pope has sent to the légat e Ottoboni 
That through England by him be preached 


Progress of Cornent ly Sarazyns en despit de Dé 

cens ^^^' 0^^^ ^^ Terre Sainte destrute et mys suz pé. 

Al légat de Fraunce ausint est ^ comaundë ; 

Le ray Lawys i est des primers - croysé. 

Le ray Henry de ça de bone voluntë 

Prist la croyz cum cyl ke fu de graunt pyté. 

Sir Eduuard la prist, cliuvaler plus prise ^ 

Ke nul Krystyen acounter ^ en bounté ; 

Il pur Sun père et ly emprist eel alë.^ 

Anno gratiœ M». cc<^. septuagesww, 

Crusadeof ^^ 6 q^arreme après, le ray Lawys alait 

Devers la Terre Saynte of molt graunt esplait; 
Countes, duks, barouns, cliuvalers i menait, 
Cum en tel mester à tel prince appendaitJ 
Kaunt vynt à la mer, eure bon ^ avait ; 
Sur le ray de Tunes ^ en sa terre aryvait,^^ 
A conquere et destrure trop ben començait ; 
Moit fu graunt damage ke vivre ^^ ne poait ; 
Mort ly prist, allas ! sa vye terminait. 

Edward Sir Eduuard, fiz le ray s de Engieterre, purvait ^^ 

the east. ' ^® ^ l'Ausb ^^ après suaunt sun chemyn prent laundrait, 
A Eome of le apostoylle en alaunt parlait, 
Et pus en Cecille eel y ver soj ornait. 
Si tost cum de l'esté ^^ bel tens approchait, 
En mer se myst vers Tunes, la terre kaunt il ^^ entrait 

Death of Le riche ray de Fraunce Lawys mort trovait. 
. oms. jy^ Tunes jekes en Akre sir Eduuard passait ; 

^ auxi est, B. , ^'■^ sur le rey de Tunes ^ de conquere 

2 de primer, B. C. 

^ preisê, B. 

■* acountez, C. D. 

5 This line is omitted in D. 

« En, C. D. 

' This line is omitted in D. 

8 orre, C. D. j » d'estée, D. 

9 de Ternes, C. : '^ n^ omitted in B. D. 

comencayt, D. 

^1 qe vener, C. 

^- prenait, A. B. C. D. 

^^ Qe al Augst, B. Qe al Aust 
suant après, C. Ke al Aust après, 


How the Saracens in contempt of God 

Hâve ravaged and placed under subjection the Holy 

The legate of France bas similar commands ; 
King Louis has there taken the cross among the first. 
King Henry on this side the sea with good will 
Took the cross as he who was of great piety. 
Sir Edward took it, a knight more prized 
Than any Christian accounted in goodness ; 
He undertook this expédition for his father and him- 


An7io DoTYiini 1270. 

In the fourth year after, king Louis went 
Towards the Holy Land with very great equipment ; 
Counts, dukes, barons, and knights he took thither, 
As became such a prince in such a business. 
When he came to the sea he had good weather ; 
He arrived against the king of Tunis in his land, 
Began very well to conquer and ravage ; 
Great was the misfortune that he could not live ; 
Death took him, alas ! his life he ended. 
Sir Edward, son of the king of En gland, pro vides 
That in the August following after his way he takes 

At Eome, on his way, he spoke with the pope. 
And then remained that winter in Sicily. 
As soon as the fair weather of summer approached, 
He put to sea towards Tunis, the land when he entered 
He found the rich king of France, Louis, dead. 
Sir Edward passed from Tunis to Acre ; 



arrives at 

The sol- 
dan plans 
his mur- 

Molz lez ^ de sa venue ly Kristiens estait ; 

Le pople de Fresorms - à ly se lyayt.^ 

Le nombre'^ de gens as armes fust, cum homme disait, 

Deus c. mil p[ar] ayme^ de ly ke les noumbrayt. 

La terre fu lur waygne par poer saunz descait, 

Ne fast la meschaunce ke els encombrayt.^ 

Molt fu afFraé la ^ paenerye 
Ke Krist^^ens avaynt si graunt cliuvalerye ; 
Sir Edunard plus dotait ke nul homme de vye.^ 
Pur quai de nout et jour ^ le soldan estudye 
Coment sir Edunard put tuer par espeye.-*^ 
Tuz [jours] ad^^ Sarazyns des enfauns norye 
En cel Haute Assyse en joye, en ^- melodye ; 
Ben quident ke la joye n'ert ^^ jammès fynye. 
Ui. de cel escole le soldan prent, et prie 
K'il aylle à sir Eduuard, et par ly le dye, 
" Sir, le soldan te salue cum amye,^^ 

^ leZy omitted in D. 

^ Li poeple de Frison, B. Le 
pople de France, C. Robert of 
Brunne translates it, — 

" Grete folk of Frisland, that to 
" Acres were comen, 

" Tille him thei were willand, for 
" lord thei aile him nomen." 

3 se alyait, D. 

■^ Ce noumbre, C. Le noumbres 
des gentz, D. 

5 par ayme, B. C. D. Robert of 
Brunne translates, — 

" Of men of armes bold the 
" numbre thei ame, 

" A thousand and tuo hundreth 
" told of Cristen men bi name.^' 

^ qe lour encomhreit, B. qe les 
encombrait, C. D. 

7 fxist affraé tut ht, B. 

^ dotaint qe nul homme en vie, C. 

^ de jour e nuyt, B. Par quay de 

^0 " On what manere he myght 
'' Edward slo thorgh spie," Robert 
of Brunne. 

11 Touz jours ad, B. C. D. The 
language is hère somewhat involved 
and diflBcult in the original, but is 
translated by Robert of Brunne as 
follows : 

" Ther es a stede of wynne, thei 

" calle it Haut Assise, 
" Men norise childre therinne 

" on merveilous wise, 
'' Ever in joy and blisse, in aile 

" that thei may do, 
*' Thei wene it salle never misse, 

" ne other dede corne to, 
" Thei faire right als dos foies, 

" thei do as men tham say, 
*' The childir of tho scoles thei 

" think to lyye ay." 
1^ e en, B. e melodye, C. D. 
1^ joye ert, D. 
'* te salut, corn son amye, D. 


Very glad was the Christian of his arrivai, 
ïhe people of the Frisons attached themselves to him. 
The number of people in arms was, as man said, 
Two hundred thousand, by reckoning of him who 

numbered them. 
The land would hâve been their gain by power with- 

out fail, 
But for the misfortune which embarrassed them. 

Much was the pagan people frightened 
That the Christians had so numerous a chivalry : 
They feared sir Edward more than any man alive. 
Wherefore the soldan studies night and day 
How he may kill sir Edward by treason. 
Always has the Saracen children bred np 
In the High Assize in joy and in melody ; 
They believe entirely that that joy will never be 

The soldan takes one of that school, and prays him 
That he go to sir Edward, and on his part say to him, 
" Sir, the soldan saintes thee as a friend. 



" Soul à soul en chaumbre saunz altre compaynye 
" Te moustray privetez ;" sir Eduard l'ottrie 
Si tost cum il vent, tresun ne quidait mye. 
The assas- Or est li Sarazyn à sir Eduuard venuz, 
sin wounds -^^ ^^j^ rvche dras d'or est-il vestuz ; 

tne prince, «^ , , ' 

who slays Cotels envenimez aportait desuz, 
"^' Cum apris estait dit ad ses saluz. 

Privëment en chaumbre sir Eduuard l'ad rescuz. 
Le Sarazyn quidait repairer saunz ennuz ^ 
• En cel Halte Assise saunz fyn à les deduz ; 
Sir Eduuard ad^ naffrë, ses coups sunt conuz, 
Chascun est mortel ; sir Eduuard, fort et pruz, 
Le traitur ad tuez, en mayn Tad^ vencuz. 




Ici le rei Udward oecist le Sarazin de un tresel qe 
vint à li en message par treson del soudant 

Des playes sir Eduuard maynt homme est dolent ; ^ 
Sun cyrogen^ les garde, ly dist sûrement, 
Si salver ly voylle, reposer ly covent."^ 
Molt fu graunt mescbaunce,^ graunt encombrement, 
En la Terre Sainte, à Kristyene gent. 
Deaths of L'apostoylle sur ço ^ morust verrayment, 

remarkable -ru i i • i i i x ; 

peopie. ^^ ^® patriark, le légat ensement. 

Le ray de Navverne, ke promist sûrement 
Aider ^^ à sir Eduuard, ad fet sun fynement, 
Cum vynt en Cecille; je cray certaynement -^^ 
Ke Deu prist vengaunce en cel destourbement. 

* esmuZy B. 

2 ad il n., B. 

" l'ad tué en meins Vad, B. mayn 
ly vencuz^ C. Le traytour ad tué, 
en meyn ly ad vencuz, D. 

* This nibric is given from B. It 
reads like the title to an illumination 

^ fu dolent, B. 
^ surrigien, B. sirogen, C. 
'' Si sauver sei se voille, reposer 
covent, B. Si salver se voille, C. D. 
"^ Multfu celé meschaunce, B. C. D. 
^ Le pape sur cel la, B. 

10 Aide à sire E, B. C. 

11 jeo croy verrayment, C. 


" Alone in a room without other company 

'' I will show thee secrets f sir Edward grants it 

As soon as he cornes, he did not expect treason. 

Now is the Saracen corne to sir Edward, 
In very rich cloths of gold is he clad ; 
Beneath he bore poisoned knives, 
As he was instructed, he has said his salutation. 
Secretly in a room sir Edward has received him. 
The Saracen expected to return without injury 
Into that High Assize without end to its pleasures ; 
He has wounded sir Edward ; his blows are known ; 
Each is mortal ; sir Edward, strong and prudent, 
Has slain the traitor, has vanquished him by the hand. 

Hère king Edward slays with a trestle the Saracen 
who came to him on a message in treason from, 
the soldan. 

Of Sir Edward's wounds many a man is in grief; 
His surgeon examines them, tells him certainly, 
If he wishes him to save him, rest is necessary for 

It was a very great misfortune, great injury, 
To Christian people in the Holy Land. 
The pope truly at that moment died, 
And the patriarch, the légat e likewise. 
The king of Navarre, who promised certainly 
To aid sir Edward, has made his end, 
When he came into Sicily; I believe certainly 
That God took vengeance in this trouble. 



Sir Eduuard par ses playes est en graunt torment. 

Le ray Henri, sun père, ad fet sun testament 

Après le saint Mai'tyn, kaunt maladye ly prent ; 

L. et vj. aunz fii ray s enterement. 

Il gist à Westmouster ^ entumbez richement ; 

Sachez ke Deu pur ly overe^ apertement. 

Sun fiz sir Eduuard prist par sun assent 

La fillye le ray d'Espayne en feoime ^ en sa jovent, 

Elyanore par noun, dame bêle et gent; 

En Akre de une fillye avait enfauntement, 

Ke dame Jone ad à noun, plus bêle de altre cent. 


^ à Weymouster, B. Wemoustere, 
- overe pur ly, C. 

■^ au rei d'Espaigne à femme, B. 
Lafeille alrey de Yspanye àfemme, 


Sir Edward, through liis woiinds, is in great sufferiiig, 

King Henry, liis father, has made liis will 

After Martinmass, when sickness falls on hini. 

Fifty-six years entire was he king. 

Ile lies at Westminster in rich tomb : 

Know that God works openly for him. 

His son Sir Edward took by bis assent 

Tbe daugbter of tbe king of Spain to wife in bis 

By name Eleanor, a lady fair and élégant. 
At Acre sbe was delivered of a dangbter, 
Wbo was nanied tbe lady Joan, tbe fairest of a bun- 

dred otbers. 




ThePre- Ky volt oyr des rais,^ cornent chescun vesquit 
histVryo^f En le ylle ke-' Brutus Brettayne appeler fist, 
the reign of Et pus cel lioure en sca ^ ky gayna, ky perdist ; * 
^^^ ■ Cornent ^ li ray Belyns Ytaille tut venquist ; 

Cornent Romayn pur Rome tribute li rendist ; ^ 
Cornent li Romayn Brettayne après surprist ; 
Cornent li Danays sur Brettoun trewe mist, 
Et cornent^ al darayn la terre lessa quite; 
Cornent le rays Uther le duk Gorloys ^ occist ; 
Cornent Arthur sun fiz regiouns ^ conquyst ; 
Cornent le Brettoun de Brettayne s'en partist; 
Cornent li Saxonays i vint, e remist : ^^ 
Cornent li rays Gormound Brettayne tost surquist,^^ 
E en vij. reaimes les countrës assist ; ^^ 
Coment li veuz Edward le régal en unist ; ^^ 
Coment li rays Harald le règne à tort prist ; ^* 
Coment li conquerur William sur li le prist ; ^^ 
Coment li ray Bichard Normondye joyst ; 
Coment son frère Jon la duché werpist ; '^^ 
Coment li rays Henry Deus amait ^^ e servyst ; 

^ Ali this introduction to the 
history of the reign of Edward I., 
doTvn to the next rubric, is omitted 
in B. C. and E. Robert of Briinne 
has not translated it. 

- £n le litre de Brutus, E. 

^ E puis de celé livre en ça, E. 

'* After this line E. adds, N'ad 
mestier tut détruire, car mon tens 
ne suffist. 

5 Corne, E., and so ail the way 

^ This and the two foUowing lines 
are omitted in E. 

7 Ne corne, E. The lines which 
follow begin with the same words, 

8 Galeis, E, 

^ son fiz Arthur les regiouns, E. 
^^ This line is omitted in E. 
^^ Gumiond Bretaigne pus sur- 
prist, E. 

1- E. has in place of this. Ne corne 
li rois Babes les contrées assist, D. 

^^ enhonist, E. 

^^ enprist, E. 

*^ William le conquerour sur li 
pus repristj E. 

^^ Ne corne Johan son frère de 
bouche la guerprist, E. 

^' corne son filz Henri Deu ama, 


Who desires to hear of the kings, how each lived 
In the isle whicli Brutus caused to be named Britain, 
And from that time to this who gained, who lost ; 
How king Belinus entirely conquered Italy ; 
How the Koman paid him tribute for Rome ; 
How the Roman afterwards took possession of Britain ; 
How the Dane laid a tribute upon Britons, 
And how at last he left the land quit ; 
How king Uther slew duke Gorlois ; 
How Arthur, his son, conquered kingdoms ; 
How the Briton departed from Britain ; 
How the Saxon came there, and remained; 
How king Gormond soon seized upon Britain, 
And arranged the countries in seven reahns ; 
How the old Edward united the regality ; 
How king Harold took the kingdom by wrong ; 
How the conqueror William took it from him; 
How king Richard possessed Normandy; 
How his brother John lost the duchy ; 
How God loved and preserved king Henry ; 

L 2 



Cornent sun fiz Edward, par aide de Jhesu Cryst,^ 
Le pople ad vencu ke vaindre Tentendist ; 
Ki vout saver ^ la geste de grand e de petit, 
L'apregne de dan Peres,^ ki l'ad mis en escrit. 
De uoster rays Eduuard Scaffeld li requist ^ 
Recorder la geste, escotez cum il dist. 

AnQio Domini M», cco. se^tv/igesmio secundo. 

Edward L 

Deatli of Le jur saint ^ Emoun le roy, ky ne sait oblie,^ 
anTacces- ^^^rust li rais Henry, home de sainte vye ; ^ 
sion of A Westmouster oii gist, Deus ^ li certifie. 

Son fiz Eduuard est rays, en la chauncelrye^ 

Son bref est comaundë parmy sa seygnurye.-^*^ 

En le an secunde suaunt, par un Dymayn, ws dye,^^ 

Après le Assumpcioun gloriuse ^^ Marye, 

Le erceveske Robert de Kylwardebye 

^ Instead of this Une and the fol- 
lowing, E. has thèse four lines : — 

Certes qui s'avisast mult tendrait 
Iiom petit, 

Quant à la conqueste de tuz cens 
desus dit 

Contre le roi Edward, henoit seit 
Jhesu Crist, 

Car ses enemis ad destruit, e par 
tut desconjit. 

- Qui vieil oir, E. 

2 Si Vapreigne de Perot, E. 

'^ Instead of thèse two concluding 
lines, E. has : — 

Car en cest livre parfurnir uns 
amis li requist, 

Pur recorder le procès de tut son 
tens parfist, 

Cornent il Vad contenuz, escultez 
cum il dist. 

^ de saint, B. C. D. 

^ qui gist en Pontenie, E- 

' de bone vie, E. 

^ Qui gist àWestmoster,queDeu,'E. 

^ si tient chancelerie, E. 

^" For thèse last five lines, B. C. 
and D. hâve, 

Le jour de seint Edmon,^ martir e 

Le rei Henri à Loundres termina 
sa vie, 

Sonfitz Edward'^ fu lors en Sulie, 

Quant vint en Engleterre resceut ^ 
la seignurie. 

Anno Domini m°.ce°. septuagesimo 

En Van secunde suant, etc. 

^^ En Van siwant après dreiz est 
que Vem vous die, E. 

^2 Tut dreit à VAssumpcion la 
gloriouse, E. 

1 Emoun, D. 

2 sire Edicard, C. D. 
^ rescayt, D. 


How his son Edward, by the help of Jésus Christ, 
Has vanquished the people who thought to vanquish 

him ; 
Who desires to know the history of great and little, 
Let him learn it from dan Pierre, who has put it in 

Of our king Edward, Scaffeld required him 
To record the history ; listen how he tells it. 

Anno Domini 1272. 

The day of St. Edmund the king, who let not be 
Died king Henry, a man of holy life; 
God certifies it at Westminster where he lies. 
His son Edward is king ; in the chancery 
His brief is directed through his lordship. 
In the second year following, on a Sunday, I tell you, 
After the Assumption of the glorious Mary, 
The archbishop Kobert of Kilwardby, 



Coronation Corouna le rays sire Edwarde en ^ le abbye 
^ war jy^ Westmouster,^ temoyne bamez e clergye ; 
Ausynt^ la rayne Elyanor, sa amye, 
Fu coronnë le jour ; unkes à Saint Dynye ^ 
Ne fu si grant feste,^ ne si grant noblye, 
Eays ne prince n'ad nul de Grèce en Orkenye,^ 
Ke taunt ad suffert de controversye ^ 
Cum ad^ sir Eduuard pour sa manauntye.^ 
En Escoce e Gales avait la mestrye, 
Cum après orrez ses fez en l'estorye. 
Pur nostre rays Eduuard cliescun de nus prye 
Ke Deu pur sa pyté ly sayt en aye. 
Son héritage conquere, Gascoyne e ISTormundye, 
Ke ly ray de Fraunce ad fausement saysye. 

^ Corona sire Edward à West- 
moster en Vahbeie, E. 

" Weymouster, B. Wemoustere, 
D. En jyresence del poeple, bamaye 
e cleryie, E. 

^ E tut ensi, E. 

^ Dyonie, B. 

^ si bêle feste, B. C. D. Meime 
le jor fu coronê à si tresgrant no- 
bleie, E. 

® à Orkeneye, B. C. In D., this 
and the twenty lines foUowing are 
omitted. E. suTbstitutes for this line 
the tTvo following : — 

N'avoit greignure feste de ci en 

N'onques nH oui rois en la Cris- 

"' Qui tant ad suffert de mais e de 
c, E. 

^ arf omitted in C. Corne fist, E. 
Robert of Bnmne translates, — 

" Was never prince, I wene, that 
" I writen of fond, 

" More had treie and tene than 
*• he had for his lond." 

^ After this line, E finishes the 
paragraph as follows : — 

" Liais en fin seit loez le fiz seinte 

•' Marie, 
" Que parmi e par tut ad conquis 

" seignorie, 
'• Cum jà vus endirroms en ceste 

" traité oie, 
" E cum son héritage, Gascoigne 

" e Normendie, 
" Par faus abet li ert tolue e 

" disseisie. 
*' Ore aidez, seint Thomas e Johan 

" de Beverleie, 
" E seint Cuthbert de Durem, 

" portez les compaignie, 
" E Thomas de Hereforde, qui 

" Deus out tant chérie, 
" E seint Eadmon li rois, n'est 

dreiz que l'en oblie, 
" E vous, seint Edward, en qui 

" mult s'affie. 
" Desore comenceroms de la geste 

" florie, 
" Si parleroms de sire Edward e 

" de sa chevalerie ; 
" Puis de Leulin de Gales, e de 

" sa surquiderie, 


Crowned king Edward in the abbey 

Of Westminster, in the présence of barons and clergy ; 

Likewise queen Eleanor, bis love, 

Was crowned that day ; never at St. Denis 

Was there so greafc a feast, nor so great nobility. 

Tliere is no prince from Greece into Orkney 

Who bas suffered so mucb dispute 

As Sir Edward bas for bis lordsbip. 

In Scotland and Wales be bad tbe mastery, 

As afterwards you will bear bis deeds in tbe bistory. 

For our king Edward let eacb of us pray 

Tbat God for bis pity be in aid to bim, 

To conquer bis inberitance, Gascony and Normandy, 

Wbicb tbe king of France bas seized falsely. 



Review of Qre avdez Thomas e Jon de Beverlye ; 

Duz sire Saint Cuthbert, partez ^ les compaynye ; 


Sir Edward de vus trais durement s'afye.^ 
Taunt cum en Gaskoyne la pees est defublye,^ 
Du rays voluras parler, e de sa curtaisye ; 
De Leulyn de Gales, e de sa surqu iderye,* 
De David soun frère, e ^ de sa felounye ; 
[Dresamiraduk,^ e de sa folie ;] ^ 
Du contek de Escoce, cornent fu sopye, 
Et coment de rechef se leva par sotye ; 
De Madok e Morgan, e de lur reverye f 
Du ray Jon Bayllo],^ e de sa musardye, 
E des xij. pères ke gyent Albanye. 

" Puis de la guerre d'Escoce, 

" coment fu sopie, 
" E puis coment de rechef se leva 

" par sotie ; 
*' Puis de Maddok e Morgan e 

" de lur rêverie ; 
" Puis des xij. piers d'Escoce qui 

" guient Albanie, 
" Cum firent lur eleccion à Skone 

*' en l'abbeie, 
" Pur guerreier sire Edward, 

" toldre sa seignurie ; 
" E cimi sire Edward les prist par 

" pure chevalerie ; 
" Puis coment la quarte foiz co- 

" mencent la hatie ; 
" Et cum se rendent après, pardon 

" chescuns enprie, 
'' Si li font fealté sovent, mal eit 

" qui contralie. 
" Assez en ai matire, si vus 

" dirrai partie, 
" De xlviij. chapitles la raison ai 

*' quillie ; 

" Pensez de l'escoter, car ne vus 

" mentirai mie, 
*' Car à meint baron ceo croi 

" jeo en ai garantie." 
1 portez, B. C. E. 
^ De vus treis à banere le rei 
Edward s'affie, B. C. 

^ defuhlie, B. defoblie, C. 

■^ *' And his hevjng hie," Robert 
of Brunne. 

^ e omitted in C. 

^ De ray Sameraduk, C. 

" This Une is omitted in A., but 
it is found in B. and C, and Robert 
of Brunne translates it ; — 

" Resaunraduk, an othere, how he 
" did foHe." 

^ " Of !Madok the Morgan, of 
" ther nice ribaudie," Robert of 

^ Johan de Bailliol, B. Johan 
de Balhjolfy C. 


Now aid him Thomas and John of Beverley ; 

Gentle St. Cuthbert, bear them company. 

Sir Edward has great confidence in you three. 

Until the peace is nndone in Gascony, 

We will speak of the king. and of his coiirtesy ; 

Of Llewellyn of Wales, and of his presumption ; 

Of David his brother, and of his felony ; 

Of Rees ap Meredith, and of his folly ; 

Of the strife of Scotland. how it was appeased. 

And how again it arose through fblly ; 

Of Madoc and Morgan, and of their raving ; 

Of king John Balliol, and of his vain designs, 

And of the twelve peers who rule Albany. 



Anno Domini M». cc<^. septuagesimo quinto} 

fi^Tw^n ^^ primer an après ke le ray ^ fu coroimë, 


Lewlyn, prince de Wales,^ en France ad mande 
Ke la feylle^ le counte^ de Mounfort nomez 
Vendrait en Snandon,^ en serraynt ^ esposez 
Li e la damoysele ; ses^ amys simt paez. 
Aymery ^ son frère e celé sunt en mer entrez ;^^ 
Un burgès de Bristowe,-'^^ ke vint of vins^^ chargez^ 
Pris les ad par force, à teiTe les ad menez '}^ 
Al rays en sauve garde sunt me^mtenaunt livrez. 
Quant Lewlyn l'oit dire, sa guère ad comencez. 
Le rays s'en va vers ly, e l'ad taunt cliacez, 
Ke pur sa folye de pees en ad ^^ parlez ; 

^ The rubric is taken from B. C. 

2 L'an privier après le rei fu, B. 

^ Leiceli?!, prince de Gales, 3. ad 
en France, E. 

* De lafidle, B. 

5 al conte, E. 

^ à Snoivedoun, B. en Snawedoun, 

7 où serrayt, D. 

^ ces, C. si sis amis, E. 

^ Almerik, B. C. Amerike, D. 
Sire Aymeris, E. 

^^ sont eschipez, E. 

1^ Un burgeys de Brestou, D. 
Mais lin b., E. 

12 des vins, E. 

1^ MS. E. gives the follo-^ing 
reading of this and the succeeding 
lines to the end of the paragraph : — 

" Les prent en mer à force, si's 
" ad à terre menez, 

" Si's ad en sauve garde à sire 
" Edward liverez. 

" E quant Leulin Tôt dii'e, ran- 
'* cour l'eucrest assez, 

'' E par surquiderie sa guerre ad 

" comencez, 
" E as Engleis fait gaiter tantz 

*" des iniquitez, 
" Les chasteals sire Edward tost 

" ad acraventez. 
" E quant sire Edward l'entent, 

" mult est amerveillez, 
" E sanz plus délaie vers Gales 

" s'est tumez, 
" Sur le prince s'apreste, si li ad 

" tant chacez, 
" Que Lewelin de fin pour pur 

" la pees ad priez, 
" E cinquante mil marz al roi ad 

" présentez, 
" Prent la dameisele, e tient ses 

" héritez, 
'* E sur ceo par bon escrit s'est-il 

" obUgez 
" Al parlement sire Edward par 

" an venir ij. fiez." 
I hâve not thought it necessary 
to collate MS. E. further, for rea- 
sons given in the préface to this 

1^ de pees ad, C. D. 


Anno Domini 1275. 

The first year after the king was crowned, 
Llewellyn, prince of Wales, bas sent into France, 
That the daughter of the eaii entitled of Montfort 
Should corne into Snowdon, where should be espoused 
Himself and the damsel ; her friends consent. 
Almeric, her brother, and she hâve put to sea. # 

A burgher of Bristol, who came laden with wines, 
Has taken them by force, has carried them to land ; 
They are now delivered to the king in safe keeping. 
When Llewellyn hears news of it, he has begun his 

The king went against him, and has chased him so far, 
That for his folly he has treated for peace. 


Peacewith Cynkaunte myle mars al rays ad donez 
<^we jn. -g^ prent la damoisele, e teent ses héritez. 
Sur ceo par bon escryt est Lewlyn obligez 
Al parlement le rays "^ venir par an deus fez. 

Statutes of L'an secunde suaunt ^ l'eneorounement, 

ster. °^^°" ^6 ^^7'^ ^ Westmouster tynt soim parlement, 
Estatuz fist fere par commune assent, 
Ke de Westmouster sunt dit proprement. 
A la Paske après le ray certainement ^ 
Fist maunder^ le prince par sun bref sovent, 
K'il veygne à sa parlaunce pur sun tenement.^ 

Second Leulvn cum musard despise le mandement,^ 

war with "^ _*^ 

the Welsh. Et guère de rechef sur le rays enprent. 

Le ray parmy sa terre fist ^ maunder sa gent, 
Ke servise ly dayvent venent prestement, 
Et courent ^ sur le prince si vigorusement, 
Ke venuz est al rays, e à sa pes^ se rent. 
David of le rays fu lors enterement ; 
Le rai^^ li dona pardurabelment 
Foderliam ^^ en fee, of le purtaynement, 
A Lewlyn pardona tut sun maltalent. 
Par covenaunt tayllë assez covenabelment, 
Lewlyn est dure lyë, si autre fez mesprent.^^ 
Abuses jjQ j-ays suTL chemyn devers Lundi'es reprent, 
coinage. Fet sa monoye chaunger,^^ ke fu trop-^^ vilement 
Roygnë de tuz pars, la plainte li veent ent.-"^^ 
[De] roygnurs-"^^ sunt traynez les uns, li altre pent. 
Esterling, maylle, ferthing,^^ fet forger roundement, 

^ Au parlement h rei, B. C. D. 

2 La secunde an après, B. C. D. 

^ curteisement, B. C. D. 

** Fet maunder, C. 

^ tenent, B. 

^ son maundement, C. 

1* Frodesham, B. D., and Eobert 
of Brunne. Fredesham, C. 
^2 This line is omitted in C. 
^^ Fet chaunger sa monêe, B. C. D. 
^^ trop omitted in C. D. 
^^ la pleinte vus vient ent, B. 

^ fet, C. D. ^^ De roignours,^. Desroygnurs, 

^ E corurent, B. C. D. 

^ à la pees, B. C. D. ,' i' ferliny, B. 

10 E le rei, B. 


Fifty thousand marks he lias given to the king, 
And takes the damsel, and retains his inlieri tance. 
On this Llewellyn is obliged by good charter 
To corne to the king's parliament twice a year. 

The second year folio wing the coronation 
The king held his parliament at Westminster ; 
Caused statutes to be made by common assent, 
Which are specially called of Westminster. 
At Easter afterwards the king courteously 
Caused the prince to be summoned by his writ often, 
That he come to his parliament for his lordship. 
Llewellyn, like a fool, despises the mandate, 
And again undertakes war against the king, 
The king caused his people to be summoned through 

his land ; 
They who owe him service come quickly, 
And attack the prince so vigorously, 
That he is come to the king and surrenders to his 

David was then entirely with the king; 
The king gave him for ever 
Frodesham in fee, with the appurtenance, 
And pardoned Llewellyn ail his ill-wilL 
By covenant expressed very sufficiently 
Llewellyn is hard bound, if he offends another time. 
The king retraces his way towards London ; 
Causes his coinage to be changed, which was too 

Clipped on ail sides ; the complaint of it cornes to 

Of the clippers some are drawn, another hangs. 
He causes sterling (penny), halfpenny, farthing, to be 

coined round, 



Refonn Et gTOs tornays Englays, ke valent"^ verrayment 

coinage. Quatre esterlyns en achate et vent. 

De reen se lo ly prestre ke le ofFrand attent,^ 
Ne ly chaitifs povres ke ren n'acP dount despent. 
En tote la monoye la croyce parmy s'estent,* 
Par quai l'esterling est rounde^ communément 
Offert e doné^ pur Deu omnipotent; 
L'esterling e la maylle i ^ venent rerement ; 
Sur Deu e sur les soens cheet l'enpirement.^ 

The statute Mil cc. et octaunt aunz ^ de l'Incarnacioun 

ofMort- gm^t passez par acounte, quant del re[li]gioun "^^ 
Est fet Testa tut, ke counte, ne baroun, 
Ne seygnur de terre, parmy la regioun, 
Face à seinte Eo-lise offrand ne doun 


De terre ne tenement, si par cungë noun 
Du rays e de son consayl ; ^^ tel est la resoun 
Ke frères of la croyce ^^ et moyne et chanoun 
Ount taunt des fez le rays tretes à lur ^'^ aumon ; 
Sustret ount^* son seruise par tel convencioun, 
Par quai li est fet^^ desheretisoun. 
Noun pur ço le rays ad grant devocioun, 


ï qevaut,'B.C. Robert of Brunne 
translates this : — 

" Edward did smyte rounde peny, 

" halfpeny, ferthyng ; 
" The croice passed the bounde of 

" aile thorghout the ryng. 
" The kynges side salle be the 

" hede, and his name -writen ; 
" The croyce side what cité it 

" was in coyned and smyten." 
2 This and the follo-wing line are 
omitted in D. Robert of Brunne 
translates them, — 

" The povere man ne the preste 

" the peny prayses no thiug ; 
" Men gyf God the lest, the feffe 

" him with a farthing." 
^ qe rien ad, B. C. 
•4 se tent, C. D. 

5 leferling round est, B. C. This 
and the three Unes following are 
omitted in D. 

^ Offert ou donné, B. C. 

' i omitted in B. L'esterling est 
la maille, C. 

"^ Vempayrement, C. 

^ Mil cc. quatre vinz anz, B- 
Mille cc. octaunte aunz, C. 

^^ quant de religioun, B. C. D. 

^^ e son c, B. D. 

^- od la ci'oice, B. ouf la croyce, 
C. oue la croyce, D. 

^3 tret à lour, B. taunt del fee le 
reis tret à lour, C. D. 

» est, B. C. D. 

ï5 fet li est, B. D. fet ly est tiel 


And great English tournais, which are wortli truly 
Four sterlings in buying and selling. 
The priest is nothing satisfied who expects his ofïering, 
Nor the wretched pauper who has nothing to spend. 
On ail the coinage the cross extends itself in the 

For which reason the sterling is round, commonly 
Offered and given for God Almighty ; 
The sterling and the halfpenny corne there rarely. 
Upon God and upon his falls the debasement. 

One thousand two hundred and eighty years from 
the Incarnation 
Are passed by reckoning, when of religion 
Is made the statute, that count nor baron, 
Nor lord of land throughout the kingdom, 
Make to Holy Church offering or gift 
Of land or lordship, unless by licence 
Of the king and of his council ; such is the reason 
That friars with the cross and monks and canons 
Hâve so niany fées of the king drawn to their alms. 
They hâve withdrawn his service by such convention, 
By which to the king is made disherising. 
Nevertheless the king has great dévotion. 



Ke sainte Eglise se prove saunz collisionn ^ 
De terres e des rentes- en possessioiin, 
Salve ses servises, saunz recoupisoun. 

Anno Domini M^. clucentesimo octogesimo secundo.^ 

L'an est temoyné en la rubriche avaunt* 
Quant David de Gales ala gopyllaunt ; ^ 
A Leulyn sun frère accordez est^ en taunt 
Déshériter le rays e sun punez enfaunt ; 
Enfraynt unt cil sa pees/ et rumpu covenaunt ; 
Courent sur les genz, ardent^ en passaunt, 
Abbatent ses chasteus ke trouvent en " esteaunt. 
Le rai fet sun barnë^^ maunder maytenaunt. 
Les barouns li venent ^^ de Northumberland, 
[Les Surreis i sunt, nul est recuillant,] -^^ 
Atyrent lur aler sur li deus tyraunt. 
Descendent en la Marche li baroun ^^ vaillaunt ; 
Leulyn et Davyd, et li remenaunt, 
Se donnent à la rage e vount^* la mort queraunt. 

Grevouse est la guère, e dure^^ l'endurer; 
Quant [aillours] est-^^ l'esté en Gales est yver.^" 
Snaudon, ke taunt est fort, Leulyn fet garder, 
Ke li rays Eduuard ne seet oii entrer.^^ 

^ collusioun, B. se pruwe, C. se 
prowe, D. 

2 de rentes, B, Des terres et des 
rentes, D. 

^ This rubric is given from B. and 

^ devaunt, B. 

5 gopoillaunt, B. 

^ est a cor dé, B. 

7 unt sa pees, B. C. D. 

^ ardaient, B. ces gentz ardent, 
C. sus ses gentz, D. 

^ en omitted in B. The whole 
line is omitted in D. 

^^ ses barons maunder y B. maunder 
oniitted in C. 

^^ vienent, B. 

^- This line omitted in A., is found 
in B. C. D. It is hère given from 

^^ ly barons, C. D. 

^^ i vount, C. 

1-5 dure est, B. C. D. 

^^' aillours est, B. C. D. 

^7 le yver, C. D. 

^^ Qe sire Edward ne siet quel part 
entrer, B. D. Qe sire Edward ne 
seet quel party entrer, C. 


That holy cliurcli prove without dispute 
In possession of lands and rents, 
Except liis services without recovery. 

Anno Domini 1282. 

The year is given in the rubric above, 
When David of Wales went about playing the fox ; ^ 
He is accorded with Llewellyn his brother in order 
To disinherit the king and his youngest child ; 
Thèse hâve transgressed his peace, and broken co venant; 
They invade his people, burn in passing, 
Cast down his castles which they find standing. 
The king now causes his barons to be summoned. 
The barons corne to him from Northumberland, 
The Southerns are there, nobody holds back. 
They prépare their expédition against the two tyrants. 
The valiant barons descend into the Marches; 
Llewellyn and David, and the rest, 
Act like madmen and go seeking death. 

Grievous is the war, and hard the suffering ; 
When elsev^here it is summer, it is winter in Wales. 
Snowdon, which is so strong, Llewellyn causes to be 

So that king Edward knows not where to make en- 




The En- Ke fount les barouns ? à un braz de mer ^ 
^ated. Barges et batels ensemble fount ^ nower 
En travers cel ewe, et parmy claer, 
Tut al foer de pount pur les gens passer, 
Chuvals as armes,^ ke vount assayer. 
Les [Waleis] survenent,* les cnacent arer ; 
La presse est si grand à lur returner, 
La charge fet le[s] bas e les barges^ enfoundrer 
Chuvalers sunt naez, je les oy nomer. 
Names of Naez [i] sunt,^ pur veirs, de la chuvalerye, 
thosesiain. j^^g^^, ^^ CUfford/ primer en la partye, 

Et le fiz Piielipe William de Lindesye/ 
Jon le fiz Robert, e Lucas de Tannye,^ 
Cels sunt les clievetayns, of Im^ esquyerye, 
Ke sunt naez cel houi'e en Gales par folye. 
Reflexions. Ki guyour est de guère, e ne seet de vaidye,^ 
Fet sovent damage à sa ^^ compaynye. 
Kar si nos Englays eusent eu espye 
Entre les Galais, e les eust^^ garnye, 
Cels ke sunt naez feusent unkore^- en vye. 

^ Robert of Brmme, wlio appears 
to hâve understood the language of 
Pierre de Langtoft but imperfectly 
hère, adding a little to the informa- 
tion it conveys, translates — 

" A ^v"ate^ in Snowdoun rennes, 

" Auber is the name, 
"An arme of the se men kennes, 

" the defines may non ame. 
" The kyng controved therover a 

" brigge for to make, 
" And of Leulyn to covere Snow- 
" doun for to take." 
Auber is of course Aber. 
- vount, B. 

^ as chevals, as armes. C, a chi- 
vais, D. 

■* Les Waleis survenent, B. CD. 
" The "Walsch com tham ageyn, did 
" our men aile arere." Robert of 
Bmnne. The word Waleis has been 
accidentally omitted in A. 

^ les batels e barges, B. les baz e 
barges, C les batz e barges, D. 

^ i sunt, B. 

' Li autres sunt nomez WUiara de 
Lyndeseie, B. C. D. 

s " Su- Lucas of Tame," Robert 
of Brunne. 

^ e ne siet voidie, B. CD. 

ïo à la, C 

^^ ke les eus, D. 

^- uncore fussent, B. C. unkor 
fussent, D. 


What do tlie barons ? at an arm of the sea 

They cause barges and boats to be tied togetlier 

Across that water, and place hnrdles over them, 

Just in the manner of a bridge for the people to pass, 

Mounted and -armed, who go to try it, 

The Welsh attack, and drive them back ; 

The crowd is so great at their return, 

That the load causes boats and barges to sink. 

Knights are drowned ; I heard them named. 

Drowned are there, for truth, of the knights, 
Roger de Clifford, the foremost in the party, 
And William de Lindsay, son of Philip, 
John fitz Robert, and Lucas de Tannye ; 
Thèse are the chieftains, with their esquires, 
Who are drowned that time in Wales through folly. 
Who is leader in war, and is unacquainted with craft, 
Often does harm to his company. 
For if our Engiish had had a spy 
Among the Welsh, and he had warned them, 
Those who were drowned would hâve been still alive. 

M 2 



Anno Bomini M^. ducentesirao octogesirtio tertio} 

Death of 

Foreign Kant li raj^s l'oyt- dire ke mort sunt Jes barons, 

auxiliaries. Yynt ^ Jcn de Vescy del ray des Arraguns ^ 

Of pitayle ^ saunz noumbre de Baskles e Gascons ; ^ 
Demorent of le rays, rescayvent ses douns, 
En mores e mountaynes ' raumpent cum lyouns ; 
S'en voun[t] of les Engieys, ardent les mesuns, 
Abatent les cbastels^ tuent les felouns ; 
Passez sunt la Marcbe, entrez^ en Snaudouns. 
David, frère le prynce, ke playn est de tresuns, 
S'en ala de sun frère cum 1ers ^ en tapisuns. 
Leulyn est trové covert en boyssuns ; ^^ 
Perduz ad la teste, n'ad mister de cbaperouns.^^ 

Leulyn est tuez, decolez vilement ; 
Ses beirs desberitez sunt par jugement. 
David va gopillaunt, e quide seurement 
Après la mort sun frère tenir le tenement. 
Les Waleys ad trete à son parlement 
A Xowel en Dinebetbe,^- e funt ordaynement 
La Walesserye ^^ defendi^e par assent. 
Le ray la fet ^^ cbacer, David se defent ; 
La vile ^^ saynt Marice, par poer de gent, 
Execution David est desmembrë moût trop ^^ilement ; ^^ 
La teste est maundë à Loundres pur présent, 
Et ses iiij. membres coupez plainement, 

of David. 

^ octogesimo ij"., C. 

- le rei oit, B. D. ly roys oit, C. 

3 Viant, B. Vent, C. Veent, 

^ Aragouns, D. 

•' pedaile, B. 

^ de bachelers e garsçons, B. 

~ e en m&iintaygnes, D. Pierre 
de Langtoft seems to hâve taken his 
notions of the movenients of the 
lion from the heraldic lion rampant. 

^ entrent, B. 

^ cum lever, C. 

•0 en busons, B. en busçons, C. 

^^ mester des chaprouns, D. 

^- en Denebeghe, B. C. D. 

13 Walescherie, B. C. D. 

» le fet, B. D. lyfet, C. 

15 veile, B. veylle, C. D. 

^^ Sire David i est démembrez or- 
deinement, B. C. Sire David i est 
desmembré ordenement, D. 


Anno Domini 1283. 

When the king hears say that tlie barons are dead, 
Cornes John de Vescy from the king of the Aragonese 
With footmen without number of Basques and Gascons ; 
ïhey remain with the king, receive his gifts, 
In moors and mountains they clamber like lions. 
They go with the English, burn the houses, 
Throw down the castles, slay the wretches ; 
They hâve passed the Marches, and entered into 

David, the prince's brother, who is full of treason, 
Went away from his brother, skulking like a thief. 
Llewellyn is found concealed in bushes ; 
He has lost his head, he has no need of a hat. 

Llewellyii is slain, beheaded with shame ; 
His heirs are disinherited by judgment. 
David goes skulking about, and expects in certainty 
To hold the lordship after the death of his brother. 
He has drawn the Welsh to his parliament 
At Christmas, in Denbigh, and they make an ordinance 
By assent to défend the Welshery. 
The king causes him to be hunted ; David défends 

himself ; 
On the eve of St. Maurice, by power of people, 
David is dismembered very disgracefully ; 
His head is sent to London for a présent. 
And his four members eut off completely. 



of Wales. 

En quatre cytez put homme ver cornent 
A chesun par say un des membres pent. 

Leulyn e David unt perdu grant honur ; 
Snaudone est saysi, e chastel e tliour ; 
Al rays est l'escheet cum al chef seygnur.^ 
Ke fount es Walays ke sunt de valour ^ ? 
Fount chevaunce al ray, cum à chef seygnur.^ 
Ly rays parmy la terre, pur norryr amour, 
Feet cryer sa pees al foer* de conquerour, 
Establye ses lays,^ fet Testât meUiour ; 
Il mette ^ en sun noun gardayn e guyour. 
[Quant la chose est fet, à Loundres fet retour,] ^ 
Fet maunder ses countes, baroun, e vavasour, 
Venir al parlement, assignez les ad jour ; 
Les monstre tut ^ coment li covent par clamour 
Aler en Gascoyne amender cel errour. 

King Ed- 
ward pro- 
ceeds into 

Anno Domini 7)iillesimo cc^. octogesimo vj^? 

Nostre rays Eduuard en Gascoyne alayt ; 
Ma dame la rayne là^^ of li menait. 
Li rays a sun aler-^^ la terre comaundait 
Al counte de Cornewaile, ke gardayn estayt. 
En pees e en bon ^^ amour le rays Eduuard passait. 
Et of le rays de Fraunce à Parys^^ parlayt. 
Quant vint en Gascoyne,^* fet^^ cryer le drayt, 
Adi'esça les torz ; ky meffet avait 

corn à son seignour, B. à chef, 


" de grant valour, C. 
3 com à govemour, B. C. D. 
* àfoer de compaignon, B. 
5 les lays, C. 
^ i mette, C. 

^ This Une is oniitted in A., but 
is found in B. C. and D. 
^ tut omitted in C. 

^ The rubric is given from B., 
C(f. octogesimo secundo, C. 

^^ là omitted in B. ouf ly là 
menayt, C. D. 

^1 al son aler, C. 

12 E71 pees e hon amour, C. D. 

13 al Parys, C. 

1"* en Engletere, D. 
15 vint .... fist, B. C. D. fet 
trier, D. 


In four cities a man might see how 

At each by itself one of the members hangs. 

Llewellyn and David bave lost great honour ; 
Snowdon is occupied, botb castle and tower. 
To the king is the escheat as to the chief lord„ 
What do the Welsh who are of valour ? 
They make chevance to the king, as to their chief 

The king through the land, to nourish love, 
Causes bis peace to be cried in the manner of a con- 

queror ; 
Establishes bis laws, makes the state better ; 
He appoints in liis name wardens and rulers. 
When the thing is done, to London he makes bis 

Summons bis earls, barons, and vavasors, 
To corne to bis parliament, bas assigned them a day; 
Shows them how he is obliged by tidings 
To go into Gascony to put right that trouble. 

Anno DomAni 1286. 

Our king Edward went into Gascony ; 

He took my lady the queen with him there. 

The king at bis departure entrusted the land 

To the earl of Cornwall, who was keeper. 

In peace and good love king Edward crossed the sea, 

And conferred with the king of France at Paris. 

When he came into Gascony, be caused justice to be 

And put right the wrongs; whoever had trespassed 




tion in 
Wales of 
Rees ap 

Jugement resceut tel cum la lay ^ volait. 

Taiint cum en Gascoyne ses gens justizayt, 

Rees Amyraduk,^ ne sai ke li devait,'^ 

Tuer des genz le rays en Gales comencayt.^ 

Noun pour ço la noyse primes se levayt 

Ke ly Tybetoft ^ à tort li grevait. 

Ly rays rescait la plainte, e as Rees^ maundait, 

K'il se tenayt en pes, e, quant repairerait,^ 

Le rays en bone fay ses resuns ^ orrayt, 

Et des tûtes choses equyte'^ li frait. 

Rees Amyraduk ^^ cum fol despisayt 

Le maundement le rays, le mal ke il poait 

Fist parmy la terre, à nul esparnyait,^^ 

Tuer fist-il tuz ke vaindre poait, •^- 

Ki par sir Eduuard en Gales se avowait. 

Anno gratiœ ^^ M», cco. lxxxq. nono. 

Corruption Quaunt li rais Eduuard ^^ avait demoré 
i? ^\f , Trays aunz delà la mer, Deu l'ad remené. 

Enghsh '' . 

courts. A sun repair trova, par plainte présente, 

Ses justises e ses clercs attaint de fauseté.'^ 
Les mis avaynt par douns les lays^^ besturné, 

1 coin lei, B. C. D. 

- Hesamiraduk. B. Rees Amere- 
duke, T). 

3 davait, D, 

■* Guère siir le rei ai Gales co- 
menceit, B. C. D, 

5 le Tiptost, B. ly Ttjppetoft, C. 
Iny Tipetoft, D. In Robert of 
Brunne the line is translated, 

" Men said the -wratli and cri 
" com thorgh the lord Tiptofte.'' 

6 al Rese, B. C. al Rets, D. 

' Q'e/i pes se tenist, e quant rc- 
paireit, B. Qe en pees se tenist, 

'^ Jrs rrsoiins. C. 

^ quite, D. 

i*^ Resamiradukylà. ReesAmera- 
duke, D. 

^^ ii^esparnieit, B. 

1- This line is omitted in B. C. D. 

^3 Domini, B. C. D. 

^^ Kaunt sire Edward, D. 

^5 atteyntz de maveistê, B. D. ses 
clers e ses justices attainz de mal- 
vayté, C. 

is La lei, B. C. D. Robert of 
Brunne translates thèse lines, — 

" For giftes som justice lete the 
" lowe go doun, 

" And som on other wise did 
'' Tvrong to the coroun." 


Received judgment such as the law ordered. 

While he was administering justice to his people in 

Rees ap Mereditli, I don't know what ailed liim, 
Began to slay the king's people in Wales. 
Nevertheless the report rose at first 
That the Tibetoft aggrieved him with wrong. 
The king received the complaint, and sent notice to 

That he remain in peace, and, when he returns, 
The king in good faith would listen to his complaints, 
And would do him justice in everything. 
Rees ap Meredith, like a foo], set at nought 
The king's injunction ; what evil he could 
He did through the land, he spared nobody ; 
He caused to be slain every one he could overcome, 
Who avowed himself for sir Edward, 

Anïio Domini 1289. 

When king Edward had dwelt 
Three years beyond the sea, God bas brought him 

On his return he found, by complaint presented to 

His justices and his clerks convicted of falseness. 
Some had for gifts subverted the laws, 


Punish- Les altres la coroune avaynt violé. 

thejudges. Thomas de Wilaund/ en baunk primer nome/ 
Par agarde de la court ^ le règne ad forjorë, 
Et en la terre de France sanz repairer * aie. 
Ses compaynons, ses clercs, sunt pris e mené 
A la thom' de Loundi-es, délivrés par moné ; 
Et sur ço de office chescun ^ est pry vé. 
Helis de Beckyngliam^ n'est pas entechelé/ 
Ne Jon de Metingham, ke chef est demoré. 
Sir Rauf de Hengham tant ad ^ desputé 
Ke del bank le rais perdu ad le sée. 
Sir Adam de Stretton^ est dure démené, 
Jo cray ke sanz déserte n'est-il poynt blâmé ; 
Or [et] argent ^"^ sanz nombre al rais ad doné,^^ 
Aver chaunta pur ly placebo Dorrdne, 
Dilexit quoniam fraude e fauseté. 

Anno gratiœ M^. cco. nonagesimo. 

Expulsion Des justis e clerz ^^ la plainte est chevye ; 

Je^s! ^^'® ^^^ ^^ ^^J enquere-^^ coment la Jurye^* 
Ad desceu sun popel par grand trescherye. 
Son privé parlement par taunt [ad] establye ; ^' 
Les barouns en parlent, ausint-^^ la clergye, 

1 Weland, B. Wayland, C. Wey- j ^ Strattoun, B. C. Robert of 
lande, D. Bninne translates thèse two lines, — 

2 primes fu nomê, B. " The first " Sir Adam of Stretton folle hard 
" justiseinbenk," Robert of Bnmne. " was be led, 

^ de courtz, B. C. D. " Noubt without encheson, I lay 

^ repeire, B. C. repair, D. " my glove to wed." 

^ sur ceo chescon d'office, B. C. j ^^ Or e argent, B. D. 

D. I " od-il donê, C. D. 

^ Elys de Bekyngham, C. D., and i ^- e des clers, B. 

Robert of Brunne. ^^ quere, C. 

7 enterthele, B. entylé, C. en- ^^ Juerye^ D. 

teclé, D. I ^'^ ad estahlie, B. 

^ ad taunt, B. D. ^^ en parleient, auxi, B. 


Others had offered violence to the authority of the 

Thomas de Weyland, named chief justice on the bench, 
By judgment of the court has forsworn the kingdom, 
And gone into the land of France never to return. 
His companions and his clerks are taken and carried 
To the Tower of London, set at liber ty for money : 
But thereupon each is deprived of office. 
Elis de Beckingham is not tainted, 
Nor John of Metinghani, who is remained chief justice. 
Sir Ralph de Hengham has so much disputed 
That he has lost his seat at the King's Bench. 
Sir Adam de Stretton is treated with severity ; 
I believe that he is not blamed without désert ; 
ïïe has given gold and silver without count to the 

For having chaunted for him Placebo Domine, 
Dilexit quo7iiam fraud and falseness. 

Anno Domini 1290. 

The complaint of the justices and clerks is settled ; 
Now the king makes inquiry how the Jews 
Hâve deceived his people by great deceit. 
He has established his privy parliament thereupon ; 
The barons propose, likewise the clergy, 


Voyder la terre de Jues ; ^ e le rays l'ottrye, 
Pur le quinzime dener al rays en aye 
Des clers e de lays ; ^ n'ad nul ke countre crye,^ 
Pur ouster les Jues de Ja^ mescréauncye. 
Ore sunt alez en France e en Pykardye ; 
Tûtes lur dettes e lur manauntye ^ 
Sunt salves al ray, dunt fere sa curtaysye. 
Capture Rees Amyraduk,^ alaunt en tapye, 
tion of Mêmes cel an en Gales fu pris '' par espye, 
Keesap Quant le rays l'oit dire, comande ke hom le lye,^ 

Meredith. J^^ /„ .,'... -^ ' 

JtLft me^Tie a ii<verwik, a la justiserye, 

Où primes fu traynez pur sa felonye, 

Et pus pendu cum 1ers ; desore n'ad nul ^ en vye 

Ke porte héritage de sa sucesserye. 

Anno gratiœ M^. cc°. nonagesimo primo. 
Capture of Le an suaunt après fu Acres saisye ; ^^ 

Acrebytlie t i '> ^ l 

Saracens. ^^ soudan par poer avait la mestrye. 

Prys est ^^ la cytë, mys sunt à Tespeye 

Tuz les Cristiens, la fay cheet en oblye. 

Ke fet l'apostoyle quant Acres est saysye? 

Mes donne à sir Eduuard parmy sa ballye 

Le disme dener de clers/ ^ nul li countre crye, 

De Engleterre, de Escoce, de Gales, de Irland; ws dye, 

A la verrai value ; molt est ore honye ^^ 

Tute saint Eglise, quant nul esparnye. 

^ des JueSf B. C. des Jwes, D. ■ '' prisj'u, B. C. D 
- Des clers ne des lais, C. et des s p(,jji n n^^ -q 

^«^^' ^- I 9 est nul, B. C. D. 

^ countredie, B. C. D 

^ et la. B. C. oste7' .... mes 

10 assaillie, B. D., and so Robert 

^ -nw of Brunue, "Acres was assaled." 

reaunty, D. \ ' 

5 manancie, B. «* The dettes that ' ^^ ^^^^ ^'^^' ^• 

" men tham auht, ther stedes, and | ^' La disme des hens à clers, B. 

'' ther wonyng," Robert of Brunne. I La dime des biens as clers, C. D. 

•^ Resamiraduk, B. Rees Ame- : ^"^ value, nul esparnye, D., oinit- 

raduk, D. ' ting the next Une. 


To clear the land of Jews ; and the king grants it, 

For the fifteenth penny to the king in aid 

Of clergy and laity ; there is nobody who opposes it, 

To expel the Jews of the misbelief. 

Now are they gone into France and into Picardy ; 

Ail their debts and their tenements 

Are reserved to the king, wherewith to do his courtesy. 

E-ees ap Mereditli, going skulking about, 

In Wales this same year was taken through a spy. 

When the king heard tell of it, he orders that they 

bind him, 
And carry him to York to the justices, 
Where first he was drawn for his felony, 
And then hanged as a thief; henceforward there is 

none alive 
Who carries the inheritance of his succession. 

Anno Doonini 1291. 

The year following after was Acre taken ; 
The soldan by force had the mastery. 
The city is taken, put to the sword are 
Ail the Christians; the faith falls into oblivion. 
What does the pope when Acre is taken ? 
But grants to sir Edward through his dominions 
The tenth penny of the clergy, not one opposes it, 
Of England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland, I tell you, 
At the true value ; greatly is now shamed 
Ail holy church, when he spares no one. 


Ma dame la rajme cel an en Lindesye 
Momst, à Westmouster son cors est sevelye. 
Vacancy in Avaunt morust Margarete, hair de Albanye.^ 
SVco^t^ Pur quay le ray maunda sa cliuvaleiye ; 
land. A Norham- s'en va, chasteP ben gamye, 

Et là fet^ venir de abbeye e priorye 
Tûtes les cronicles de ^ auncesserye. 
La gest examyne, trop ben certifie 
Ke sire Eduuard ad drait à la seygnurye. 
Ço fîst le evesk Auntoyne, par sen e grant vaydye 
Benette pusse-il estre de Deu le ûz Marye 1 

Anno Domini M», ce», noiiagesinio secundo. 

The dif- Desor est en Escoce " grand contencioun 

ferent p^j^. çg]g ]^q mettent claym en la resrioun. 

claimants , ° 

toit. Le ayr del règne est mort, le drayt dait par resun 

Revertir à Davyd quens^ de Hontyndon, 
Frère le ray William, ky saunk n'ad fnsomi. 
Passez est, par quay [la] reversioun 
Est as ajrrs Davyd, saunz deposicioun,^ 
Encountre tuz les altres ke clayment ^^ accioun. 
David avayt iij. fyllyes, chescun avayt baroun, 
Et ayrs gentils e riches de grant mansioun.^-"^ 
Baylliol,-*^^ Brus, Hastinges, cels sunt les iij. par noun 
Ke drayt ount à la terre par successioun ; 
Et à sir Eduuard, sanz dissensioun, 
Rendu est ^^ la teiTe de Escoce en proteccioun. 

^ heir en Albanie, B. j ^ counte, B. C. D., which is of 

" A Northam C. ' course grammatically more correct. 

3 h chastel, B. \ ' desputeison, B. C. D. 
^ /. 7 V T^ oi Tx ^° aveient, B. 

4/e^ là, B. C. D. I n T. V _ r -D * 1 * 

•^ ' 11 Eobert of Bruime translates 

5deZ, B. 

^ Antoyne, qe Dieu hj henye, D,, 
omitting the next line. 
" en Escoce est, B. 

this, " thorgh descent of blode." 
12 Balioï^B. D. Baliolf, C. 
1-^ est omitted in C. Renduz la 

tere <î Escoce est ew, D. 


My lady the queen this year in Lindsey 

Died, at Westminster her body is buried. 

Before lier died Margaret, the heiress of Albany. 

Wherefore the king sent for his knights ; 

He goes to Norham, a castle well furnished, 

And there causes to be brought from abbey and priory 

AU the chronicles of our forefathers. 

Examines the history, very clearly ascertains 

That sir Edward has right to the sovereignty. 

That did bishop Anthony by sensé and great subtlety ; 

Blessed may he be by God the son of Mary ! 

Anno Domini 1292. 

Henceforth there is in Scotland great contention 
Through those who lay claim to the kingdom. 
The heir to the kingdom is dead ; the title ought by 

To revert to David earl of Huntingdon, 
Brother of king William, who had no maie issue of 

his blood. 
He is dead, whereby the reversion 
Is to the heirs of David without dispute, 
Against ail the others who lay claim to it. 
David had three daughters, each had a husband, 
And heirs noble and rich, of great house. 
Balliol, Bruce, Hastings, those are the three by name 
Who hâve title to the land by succession ; 
And to sir Edward, without disagreement, 
The land of Scotland is surrendered in ward. 



KingEd- gii^. Edward est saisy du terre ^ e tenement 

ward is '^^ 

judge of Du reaime de Lscoce, cum a scygnur*- apent. 

the ques- j^gg jjj ]^g 3 claym i mettent par resun de parent 
Sunt venuz en courte demaunder^ jugement. 
Le rays ne volt fors drayt à son ascient ;^ 
Des Englays, des Escoce,^ fet venir la gent, 
Et saver volt de cyl ke melz la lay entent/ 
Ki ad drait, ki noun, à ceP governement, 
Par quel accioun e par quel descent. 
Li tryours^ ount fet examinement, 

Décision in Et moustrez ^^ au ray par lur entendement, 

John de -^^ ^^^ Bayllof,^^ saunz desturbement, 

Balliol. Dait aver de drait le règne playnement, 
A tenir e aver pardurabelment 
Du ray de Engieterre, par homage e serement. 
Ly rays de Engieterre/^ sanz contrariement,^^ 
Hors de [sa] saysine ^^ le reaime li rent ; 
Le jour saynt^^ Estefne sun homage prent 
A Nofchastel '^ sur Tyne ; escotez or coment. 

Forma homagii Johannis Boliolensis}"' 

Torm of Mon seygnur sir Eduuard, rais de Engleterre, e 

tX^^ ^\ soverayn seygnur del reaime de Escoce, je, Jon de 
liol. Ballyolle, ray de Escoce, deveygne vostre homme lige 

^ Sire Edward saisie de tere, C. 
Edward is omitted in D. 

- al seygnur^ C. 

■^ Les terres qe, B. 

^ demaundenty D. 

^ escient, B. C. D. 

^ de Escoce, C. 

' Par saver volt de ci/le qe melz lay 
entent, B. Kar saver voet . ... la 
lay entent, D. 

» à tiel, B. C. 

^ Les triours, C. D. 

'0 Unt moustrez, B. C. D. has one 
line instead of this and the next : — 

Et dient qe Jon de Balyol saunz 

^^ Bailliol, B. Johan de Baliolf, C. 
^■■^ Le rei sire Edward, B. C. 
^3 contriement, C. D. gives this in 
two Unes : — 

Bu reis d^Engletere par homage 

et serment, 
Luy rey sire Edward saunz con- 

^* de sa seisine, B. C. D. 
^5 de seint, B. 

^^ Newekastel, C. Novechastel, D. 
^^ Homagium Johannis Baliol, D. 


Sir Edward is seised of the land and lordship 
Of the realm of Scotland, as belongs to the superior 

The three who lay daim thereto hy reason of kindred 
Are corne into court to demand judgment. 
The king only desires right to the extent of his 

He Rends for people of the English and of the Scots, 
And desires to know of him who best understands 

the law, 
Who h as title, who not, to that government, 
By what claim and by what descent. 
The judges hâve made examination, 
And shown to the king, by their understanding, 
That John Baliol, without impediment, 
Ought to hâve by right the kingdom fuîly ; 
To hold and hâve permanently 
Of the king of England, by homage and oath. 
The king of Engkxnd, without hésitation, 
Restored to him the reahii ont of seisine ; 
On the day of St. Stephen he takes his homage 
At Newcastle-on-Tyne ; hear now how. 

The form of homage of John Baliol. 

My lord sir Edward, king of England, and sove- 
reign lord of the realm of Scotland, I, John de Baliol, 
king of Scotland, become your liège m an of ail the 




de tut le reaime d'Escoce of les apurtenaunces/ e 
quant ke apent/- lequel jo teng e dai tenir de 
drait e clayme ^ heritabelment de ws, e de vos heirs, 
ray[s] de Engleterre, de vye e membre,^ e de terrien 
honui', encountre tote ^ genz ke pount ^ vivi'e e morir. 
Et le rays ly resceut en la fourme, salve sun drait 
e autry. Cest homage fu fet à Nofchastel ^ sur Tyne 
en Engleterre,^ le jour sayn Estefne, l'an de grâce 
myl ce. nonauntyme secounde,^ et du règne le rays 
Eduuard xxi.^*^ 

returns to 

Anno gvatiœ ^^ m*^. cc°. nonagesimo tertio. 

Quant le rais Eduuard Escoce ad justizë,'^ 
Saint Cuthbert de Dureme,^^ saint Jon de Beuerlé, 
A soun^^ revenir ad molt lionurë. 
S'en va devers le sutli-^^ à Loundres sa cyié. 
Pus ^^ ke sa femme à Deu est comaundë, 
De trestuz ses fiz est nul demorë, 
Fors soûl sir Eduuard, ke Deus l'ad ^^ réserve. 
Jovenes est e tendre; molt serrait grant pité 
Si si grant seignur ne ust ayr engendré, 
Ke peust ^^ oprès ses jours estre corouné. 
Et si li rais Eduuard vers Acres [fjust^^ aie, 
Molt serrait en peryl le 


résine e reo-altë. 

^ of Vaportenance, B. 

" Vapent, B. et ouf qucuiqe apent, 
C. e oue quant qe apent, D. 

^ et doi de dreit tenir de vus e cîeim 
tenir heritahlement de vous, B. C. 
joe tenk de dreit e cîai/me à tenir, D. 

"* et de membre, B. D. 

5 entre totes, B. contre touz gentz, 
C- encountre qe pount viver ou 
7norir, D. 

•^ qe purrount, B, 

" « Nove Chaustel, C. Nove 
Chasteî, D. 

^ en Angleterre omitted in D. 

^ nonaunt et dous, B. 
^" viîit e vii., B. The numbers 
given in the text are correct. 

11 Domini, B. D. 

12 visité, B. C. D. 
1^ Durhem, B. 

1^ Al son, C. 

1^ va vers le sieu, B. vers la southe, 

'<^ Pense, B. CD. 

^' Dieu ad, B. D. 

15 Qe puit, B. 

^\fust, B. C. D. 

-0 le omitted iu B. C. D. 


reaim of Scotland with the appurtenances, and ail 
tliat belonga to it, whicli I hold and ought to hold 
of title and claim heritably of you, and of your heirs, 
kings of England, with life and member, and with earthly 
honour, against ail people who may live and die. And 
the king receives him in the form, saving his righfc 
and that of others. This homage was made at New- 
castle-on-Tyne, in England, the day of St. Stephen, the 
year of grâce One thousand two hundred and ninety- 
two, and of the reign of king Edward twenty-one. 

Anno Domini 1298. 

When king Edward has given judgment on Scotland 
St. Cuthbert of Durham and St. John of Beverley 
He has greatly hononred on his way back. 
He proceeds southward to London his city. 
He thinks that his wife is despatched to God, 
Of ail his sons none is left, 
Except only sir Edward, whom God has reserved to 

He is young and tender ; very great pity would it be 
If so great a lord h ad no heir engendered, 
Who might be crowned after his days. 
And if king Edward had gone towards Acres, 
Greatly would the kingdom and royal ty hâve been 
in péril. 

N 2 


War at eea Englays e Normaunz en mer ount comencé 
theFr°l'"sh Chescun guère sur altre, e batayle ount clone ; 
and Nor- Molt i ad de pople de ambepars tvvë, 
mans. -^^^ Norniaunz en mer ount perdu poustë ; 

Les cync porz ount liir bens ; lur navye ont mené 
A Gernemue/ à Dovre, e à Wincbelsë,- 
A Romenye, à Scliorham, e à Pevenesé,^ 
A Sandwice, à Gipwice,* à Suthamtoun plenté. 
Irays e Bayonays ount ^ grant partye Avaynë ; 
Les cync pors ount le mer par poer desrené.^ 
Parmy la terre de Fraunce la perte est publié ; " 
Devaunt le ray Plielippe la plainte est^ présenté, 
La cause est dit pur quay et la vérité. 
Li rays sir Eduuard ad grant volunté 
Edward Esposer gentil femme de haut parenté, 
mari-ia^^e I^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ engendrure pur sun hérité, 
to Blanche Pur reformer la pes, e norir amisté, 

'Et salver les ij. realmes,^ ke n'y ad ^^ medlé. 
De Blaunche sa cosyne sir^^ Eduuard ad parlé, 
Sore al ray de France, si ^- saint église l'ad gré ^'^ 
Par congé la pape quant plain sera le sée.^^ 
Sir Eduuard en France ad messagers ^^ maundé. 
Pur ver la ^^ damoysele, enquere •^' de sa bounté, 
Si ele sait avenaunte en face, en cors ^^ ta3dlé. 
Le messagers ^^ i vount, e la ont-^ refîguré, 

' Germente, B. C. Gentemeiie, D. ' ^^ sir ouiitted in B. C. I). sa soer, 

- à Schorham, e Pevenesché, C. C. 
"which omits the next line. j ^- et, B. 

3 This line is omitted in D. ^^ Vad grés, B. 

■* A Sundiciche, à Gijnciche, B. ^^ est la sêe, C. 

A Sandeswiche, à Gi/peswiche, C. ^^ messagers ad, B. 

A Sandwicite, à Glpewike, D. 

^ Li reis e barons sunt, B. 

c derayné, D. 

^'' Devers la, B. De vere, C. 

^'" e quere, B. 

'^ e corps B. avenant en cors hen 

' est ublyé, C. j taillé, C. The line is omitted in D. 
^ est omitted in B. C D. ^^ Les messagers, C. omitting i 

^ dons reis, B. ' voiiitt. Les messangers, D. 

10 n't ait, B. C. ' -" et Voinit, B. le /omit, C. 


Englisli and Normans bave commenced at sea, 

Each war upon other, and bave given battle. 

Much peo])le was killed tbere on botb sides ; 

Tbe Normans at sea bave losb their power ; 

The cinque ports bave tbeir goods ; tbey bave carried 

tlieir sbips 
To Yarmoutb, to Dover, and to Wincbelsea ; 
ïo Komney, to Shorebam, and to Pevensey ; 
To Sandwicb, to Ipswicb, and to Soutbampton, plenty. 
Irisb and people of Bayonne bave gained great sbare. 
Tbe cinque ports bave by power conquered tbe sea. 
TbroiTgh tbe land of France tbe loss is publisbed ; 
Tbe complaint is presented before king Pbilip. 
Tbe cause is stated wberefore and tbe trutb, 
Tbe kinof sir Edward bad cfreat désire 
To espouse a noble lady of bigb descent, 
Of wbom be migbt bave issue for bis beirs, 
To restore tbe peace and nourisb friendsliip, 
And save tbe two kingdoms, tbat tbere sbould be no 

Sir Edward bas spoken of Blancbe bis cousin, 
Sister of tbe king of France, if boly cburcb allow it 
By leave of tbe pope, wben tbe see sball be fîUed. 
Sir Edward lias sent messengers into France 
To view tbe darasel, inquire of ber goodness, 
If sbe be agreeable in face, well made in bod}^ 
Tbe messengers go tbere and bave brougbt baok a 

picture of ber, 



En corS; en façoiin, en jambe, en mayn, en pé.^ 
Al rays sount revenuz, e li ount nouncié, 
Pins bêle créature est nule part trovë. 
The match Sir Eduuard, allas ! devynt énamouré, 
agreedto. -g^ -^ j^ damo^^sele par lettre ad monstre, 
Et al ray Plielippe,^ sun quer e sa pensé. 

Terms of 
the mar- 

King Philip 
of Bor- 
deaux and 

Anno grcttiœ M^. cc°. nonagesimo quarto. 

De celé mariage unt parlé ^ si sovent, 
Ke la damoysele e Phelippe ensement 
Volent l'alyaunce, e ws dirray coment. 
Li rays Eduuard durra à Phelippe playnement 
Sa terre de Gascoyne, saunz retenement. 
Après xl. jours de celé feflfement, 
Phelippe redurra même le tenement 
A Eduuard e à Blaunche, e à lur descent 
Issuz de lur ij. cors,* engendré ligement. 
Et si dame Blaunche ne ait enfauntement,^ 
Et [ele] survive^ Eduuard, la terre enterement 
Li demora sa vye, e^ après son finement 
Revertira dont vint, saunz desturbement. 
L'escryt est jà fet, le seal Eduuard i pent f 
Antoyne ne lu pas à cel ordaynement. 
Phelippe ^ ad saisi Burdeaus, of quant ke apent ; 
[Par lettre ^^ sire Edward Gascoyne a li se rent,] ■'■^ 
Pur veir en Deu ws dye, encontre lour talent. 

^ En corps, e en faucons, en mein, 
enja7nbe,epé,'B. en fauschoun, en 
main,jaumh, e pée, C. eji mayn, en 
jaumhe, et pê, D. 

" Phelippe omitted in C. 

^ pensé, B. 

^ de lour corps, B. C. 

^ E si engendrure par eaus ne se 
présent, B. C. D. 

^ E ele survive, B. E, cel survif, 
C. Et ele survif, D. 

' e omitted in C. D, 

^ L'escrit Edward ad fet, e son 
seal i jycnt, B. 

9 A Philipe, B. 

^'^ Par lettres, D. 

1^ This line omitted in A., is found 
in B. C. and D. 


In body, in face, in leg, in hand, in foot. 

They are returned to the king, and hâve announced 

to him tliat 
A fairer créature is foimd nowliere. 
Sir Edward, alas ! fell in love witli lier, 
And has shown by letter to the damsel, 
And to king Philip, his heart and thought. 

Anno Domini 1204. 

They hâve talked of this match so often^ 
That the damsel and Philip likewise 
Agrée to the alliance, and I will tell you on what terins. 
King Edward shall give to Philip fully 
His land of Gascony, without réservation. 
After forty days of this feoffment, 
Philip shall give back the same lordship 
To Edward and to Blanche, and to their heirs 
Issued from their two bodies, begotten loyally. 
And if the lady Blanche hâve no children, 
And she survive Edward, the land entirely 
Shall remain to her for lier life, and after lier end 
It shall revert to wlience it came, without gainsaying. 
The writing is already made ; Edward's seal liangs to it ; 
Anthony was not présent at this treaty. 
Philip lias taken possession of Bordeaux, with ail that 

belongs to it ; 
Through sir Edward's letter Gascony submits to him, 
For trutli T. tell you in God, against their will. 


Ke fet le ray Phelippe après cel dalyement ? ^ 
A Parys, sa cytë,- va tenir parlement. 
Of son frère Charles, li quens cVArtoys se assent 
A une grant fausine par compassement. 
Des Pykars^ e Normauns Ibunt venir la gent, 
Ke ont perdu lur nefs, lur merce, e lur argent,^ 
Par contek of les porz en mer, ou par torment ; 
Retaius Appelent sir Eduuard del comaundement 
fafsTjudg- ^^® ^^ robberye e de la recettement.^ 
ment of his Le appelent en court assez sollempnement 
^*"^ * Devaunt les xij. pères; vent nul^ ke ly defent. 
Par controve fausine ^ unt doné jugement, 
Et pryvé sir Eduuard pardurabelment 
Des terres de Gascoyne, ke li et se parent^ 
Tenaynt del ray de Fraunce heritabelment. 
Ore aidez, Auntoyne, e overez sagement ; ^ 
En ço cas ^*^ sanz tay ne gist amendement. 

Home solait jadis counter en Romaunce,^' 
Ki perde par defaute, c'est sanz ^- apparaunce, 
Terre ou tenement en la court de Fraunce, 
Nul bref de drayt i court de la recoverauQce, 
Fors un afïbrce ^^ par espey et launce. 
Proceed- Ke fet li rays Eduuard quant seet la descayvance? 
Edward "^° Fet maunder Auntoyne venir à sa parlaunce, 
Ses countes, ses barons de sa ben voyllaunce, 

1 deîaiement, B. ceo daliement, C. C. en Gascoyne qc ly e si parent, 

D. I D. 

- Al Parys la cyté, C. j " This and the following Une are 

'^ De Pikartes, C. ' omitted in D. 

■' lotir niefs e lour argent, B. lur ^^ En ceo cause, C. 

neefs, lour mers, e lour argent, C- . ^' Robert of Brunne has certainly 

lour mers et argent, D. given his own interprétation of this 

^ e du rettement, B. e de retene* line, 

ment, C. et du recettement, D. " Men sais in thecoufte of France^ 

^ ne vint nul, B. pers, vint nul, *' among the doze pères." 

C. '-■ e saunz, B, ceo est saunz, C. 

î" " Of that fais controveyng," en la court de Fraunce,lL>.yQm\nï\xg 

Robert of Brunne. the next line. 

^ en Gascoyne qe ly e son parent, ^^ à force, C. 


What cloes kiiig Philip after that dealing ? 

At Paris, his city, he goes and holds parliament, 

Witli bis hrother Cliaiies, the coimt of Artois agrées 

ïo a great act of treachery by design. 

They send for tlie people of tlie Picards and Normans 

Who liave lost their sliips, their wares, and their 

By strife at sea witli the ports, or by storin ; 
They accuse sir Edward of commanding 
Tlie robbery, and of the receiving. 
They summon him into court very formally 
Before the twelve peers ; none cornes who défends him. 
By premeditated deceit they hâve given judgment, 
And hâve deprived sir Edward for ever 
Of the lands of Gascony, which he and his famiJy 
Held of the king of France by inheritance. 
Now assist, Anthony, and work wisely ; 
In this case without thee there lies no remedy. 

They used already to relate in French, 
Who loses by default, which is by non-appearance, 
Land or tenement in the court of France, 
No writ of right runs there for the recovery, 
Except b}' recourse to force with sword and spear. 
What does kino- Edward when he becomes aware of 

the fraud ? 
He sends for Anthony to coine to talk with him, 
His earls and barons who bave good w\ill to him, 



He consults Les prie de counsayl en la grant mescliance. 

his council. j^Q eveske de Dureme, Auntoyne, avaunt se launce 

E dist, " My sir rays, tu n'es pas enfaunce/ 

" Tu ne dais pas fere cliose sanz commun ordinance 

'• Ke pusse ^ à tun reaime turner à grevaunce ; ^ 

" Fa tost * par counsayl, si ne avérez repentaunce. 

'' Tu crays à cels ke plus doutent ta manaunce 

" Ke perte de toun reg-ne kant est en balaunce." ^ 

" Sir Auntoyn," dist li rays, " jo face aquitaunce 

'' Pur tuz mes privez e à ma noun savaunce ; ^ 

" Aretter devez" ceste^ contrariaunce/' 

Ad%-ice of " Pus ke tu l'as fet," dist le eveske Auntoyne, 
the bishop a ^^^i f Y^j, j^g j^'i. ^ ^^- ^^ ^^ bosoyne.^ 

oiDurhara, . '^ «^ 

" Si tu veus recoverer la terre de Gascoyne, 

" Et garder hen de Phelippe ^^ ke plus sur tay ne 

" Levez, si te movez, ne dormez pas cum moyne ;^- 
" Endossez les haubers,^^ defolës la karojnie, 
" Mountez le destreus,-^^ et pernez launce en poyne. 
'- Fa quere tay^^ amys par aver de coyne, 
" Le ray de Alemayne, le eveske de Coloyne,^^ 
" Le ray des Arragouns de tay ke ne s'eloyne,^'^ 
" Le counte de Sauvay,^^ le counte de Burgoyne, 
'' E puys dailez à Phelippe, sanz autre assoyne."-'^ 

^ enfaunz, C. " Sir kyng, thou 
'• Nvas a man, be not now hold a 
'• childe," Robert of Bnmne. 

- Qe peus, C. 

3 en grevaunce^ D. 

•* Fai tut, B. Fas tost, C. 

^ en bayllaunce, C. 

^ e ma non sachaunce, B. 

' i devez, B. 

^ ceoy C. 

^ Nul ne deit f ailler ■ à tel en tiel 
hosoigne, B. C. D. 

10 E rehoter Philip, B. C. Et 
rebuter P., D. 

" feyne, B. 

1- movez, pernez launce en por/gne, 

13 liauberkes, C. 
1^ des tr ers, C. 

1' Fai fere tei, B. Face quer tay, 
C. Fa quere tes amys, D. 

1'' des Alemans, li sire de C, B. C. 

i'' de Arragon de tel q^il ne s^a- 
loigne, B. de Aragouns, de tay qiCil 
ne s'eloyne, C. D. 

1^ Salvay, C. 

1^ daillez partut od Philip sanz a., 
B. D. daillez par tout ouf Philippe 
saiinz essoygne, C. Robert of 
Brunne translates this Une as fol- 
lows, '•' Than is tyme to bikere "^ith 
" the kyng of France." 


Asks them for advice in tlie great mischance. 
The bisliop of Durham, Anthony, steps forward 
And says, " My lord king, thou art not a child, 
" Thou oughtest, without resokition in common, to do 

'^ nothing 
" Which may turn to injury to thy reahn ; 
" Act immediately by counsel, and you will not hâve 

" repentance. 
'' Thou believest in those who fear more thy threat 
'* Than loss of thy kingdom when it is in danger" 
" Sir Anthony/' says the king, " I make acquittance 
" For ail my private advisers and to my want of know- 

" ledge ; 
" It is for you to fînd a remedy to this misfortune." 

" Since thou hast done it/' said bishop Anthony, 
" No one ought to fail thee in thy need. 
" If thou wilt recover thy land of Gascony, 
" And take good care that Philip dissimulate with thee 

*' no longer, 
*' Arise, and bestir yourself, sleep not like a monk ; 
" Put on the hauberks, trample down the carrion, 
'^ Mount the steeds, and take spear in fist. 
'* Seek for thyself friends with power of money, 
" The king of Allemaigne, the bishop of Cologne, 
^' The king of the Aragonese, that he keep not aloof 

" from thee, 
*' The count of Savoy, the count of Burgundy, 
" And then deal with Philip, without further difficulty." 



Advice of 
the English 

sends an 
embassy to 
Germany : 

and mes- 
sengers to 

Quant le eveyke Auntoyne sun consail ad monstre, 
Dient les barouns, " Sir rays, escotez ; 

''Tuz les granz seygnurs ke cy sunt ^ nouiez 
'• Par le ray de Fraunee sunt déshéritez, 
" Les uns de boues - viles e de grant cytez, 
'•' Les altres de grant terres ke countrevaleut countez. 
" Al ray des Alemauns messagers maundez, 
" Et al ray ^ des Arraguns par lettres escry vez, 
*' Et à tuz ly altres ke sunt avaunt nomez;^ 
" A vivre e [à] morir ^ ensemble ws lyez. 
'' Si tu veus ben fere, argent ne esparn3xz. 
'' Taunt ad le ray de Fi-aunce poer e poustez, 
" Ke tu n'as autre vaye dont recoverir te [s] fez." ^ 
Le ray e sun counsayl à ço sunt acordez ; 
Par commune consail Auntoyne est alez, 
Et li erceveske de Dyvelyn sacrez, 
Huge le Despenser, baroun renoraez, 
Et Jon de Craucombe,' clerk ben av3^sez. 
Auntoyne en Alemayne tant ad ^ procurez, 
Ke les Alemanz as Englays sunt jorez ; 
Le ray en prime chef lad ben a,sseurez, 
Erceveske, eveske, e tuz li barnez. 
Les Englays ausint se sunt obligez 
Ayder as Alemaunz en adversitez. 
Escriz de ambeparz de çoe sunt enselez. 
Antoyne est hors de terre, le rays ad enveyez '^ 
Messagers en France tels cum ws orrez : 
William de Gaynesburge,^^ un frère Cordiller, 
Et un Jacobyn, ke been seet^^ sun mester, 

^ ke cy ne sunt, D. 
- des hones, D. 
^ Al rey, C. D.,omitting Et. 
^ avant parlez, B. C. D. 
^ A morir e à vivere, B. D. Al 
morir, C. 

6 tesfeez, B. C. D. 

' Crawecombe, B. Crawecitmbe, 

C. Cracoumhc, D. Hobert of 
Brimne translates this, *' Of Krawe- 
" combe sir Jon, a clerke gode and 
'^ wys." 

s ad taunt, B. C. D. 

^ Vad envaiez, C. 

^^ de Gayneburge, C. 

'' fet, C. 


When bisliop Anthony had declaied bis advice, 
Say the barons, '' Sir king, listen ; 
" AU the great lords who are hère named 
" Are robbed of their inheritance by the king of France, 
'•' Some of good towns and of great cities^ 
" Otliers of extensive territories which are équivalent 

" to counties. 
" Send messengers to the king of the Alemains, 
" And Write by letter to the king of the Arragonese, 
" And to ail the others who are before named ; 
" Bind yourselves to live and to die together. 
" If thou wilt succeed, spare no money. 
" So great force and power lias the king of France, 
" That thou hast no other way of recovering thy 

" fées." 
The king and his council are agreed to tliis ; 
By the gênerai advice Anthony is gone, 
And the archbishop consecrated of Dublin, 
Hugh le Despenser, a baron of renown, 
And John de Craucombe, a very skilful clerk. 
Anthony has so far prevailed in Gerinany, 
That the Germans hâve sworn fidelity to the English ; 
Tlie king in the fîrst place lias well assured it, 
Archbishop, bishop, and ail tlie barons. 
The English similarly bind themselves 
To aid the Germans in adversity. 
Writings to this effect on both sides are sealed. 
Anthony is ont of the land ; the king has sent 
Messengers into France, sucli as y ou will hear : 
William of Gainesborough, a Franciscan friar, 
And a Jacobin, who knew well his business, 



Thelatter Huge de Mauncestre/ sunt passez la mer. 
prisoned at ^7 qu.ens d'Art ovs les prist, e ^ les fist demorer 
Calais. J^ Kalays en prisun la ^ semayn enter ; 
Puys venent à Parys Phelippe^ saluer, 
Lettre de creaunce ly fount présenter, 
Pus dyent lur message, ly prient escoter. 
Their mes- Li Jacobyn parla, et dist al ray coment 
king -^ prince et à prélat^ obéir covent,^ 

Philip. Et pur seygnnr lige fere comaundement, 
A petiz e [à] granz ^ fay porter lealment. 
" Pur quay nus sûmes cy venuz par maundement ^ 
'' Nostre rays sir ^ Eduuard, ke Deu de mal défend 1 
'' Il te signyfye par nus apertement, 
" Ke il ad fet homage-^^ à tay certainement 
" Pur tute Aquitayne, à tenir frauncliement, 
" Soloum la pees tayllë à l'acordement 
'' Entre vos ^^ deus auncestres par commune assent, 
'■ Quant lur grand contek fu sopye fynalment. 
" Tu ne l'as pas tenuz, mes rumpu malement. 
'' Et à Sun drayn aler on Gascoyne à sa gent, 
" Feust un covenaunt fet assez sollempnement 
'•' A tenir entre vus pardurabelment ; 
'■' Tu ne l'as pas tenuz un an enter ement. 
" Sur ço te certefye du drayn dalyement 
" [Entre ^^ vus e li fu fet privëment,] ^^ 
" Pur quay^^ de Aquytayne te fist un fefFement, 
" Pur li refefFer de mesme le tenement. 

^ Mamecestre, B. C. Robert of 
Brunne translates hère, " Frère 
" Hugh of Malmcestre was a 
" Jacohyu." 

- e omitted in B. C. D. 

3 une, B. un, C. 

•* vount Philippe, C. D. 

^ Al prince e al prélat, C. 

^ i covent, B. 

" à granz, B. Al petitz e al 
grantz, Q. et à grantz, D. 

^'^ comandcment, B. 

5 sir omitted in B. C. D. 

^^ Qe homage ad fet, B. D. Qe 
hommage à tei ad fet, C. 

^' en vos, C. 

'- Qe entre, C. D. 

^^ This line is omitted in A., 
but foimd in B. C. D. 

^^ Par quay, C. 


And Hugli of Manchester, hâve passée! the sea. 

ïhe count of Artois took them, and caused them to 

At Calais in prison the whole week ; 
Then they corne to Paris to sainte Philip, 
Cause to be presented to him their letter of crédit, 
Then say their message, and pray him to listen to them. 

The Jacobin spoke, and said to the king how 
It is proper to obey prince and prelate. 
And for a liège to exécute commands for his lord, 
To hold faith loyally to little and to great. 
' Wherefore we are corne hère by command 
• Of our king sir Edward, whorn God défend from evil ! 
' He signifies to thee by us openly, 
•' That he has strictly performed homage to thee 
' For ail Aquitaine, to hold freely, 
' According to the peace arranged at the agreement 
' Between your two ancestors by common assent, 
' Wh.en their great strife was fînally appeased. 
' Thou hast not held it, but broken it maliciously. 
' And at his last repair to his people in Gascony, 
' A covenant was made very solemnly 
'• To be held between you for ever. 
' Thou hast not held it quite a year. 
' Upon that I remind thee of the last dealing, 
' Between you and him it was made privately, 
' Whereby he made thee a feoifment of Aquitain, 
' To refeoô' him of the same tenement. 



Theyre- '^ 
proach a 

Philip with 
his faith- '• 
lessness. .- 

^lessage of 
prince ce 

Edward's '' 
brother. , . 

Quant ta^ saj^sine estayt conu playnement, 

Par les xij. pères te maunda gentement " 

Restorer li sa terre sanz reteneinent, 

Cum covenant le volt, clount testmoyne ne ment.^ 

Tu resceuz sa terre ^ par tel abbatement ; 

A tenir li covenant tu n'as pas talent ; 

E, sire, tu solays assez curtaysement 

Escrivre en tun bref à ly cum â tun parent,^ 

A tun leal et féal et duk ^ nomëinent 

De la duché" de Aquitayne of le honur^ ke apent. 

Pus cel houre en ca ren est^ touché ent. 

Par quai avys ly est ke tu certaynement ^^ 

Le teens ^^ pas tun homme, ne il estre l'entent/'- 

Ne des ore à tav serra obedient;^"^ 

Mes quant avéra sa terre ^* recovré proprement, 

Tenir la clamera de Deu omnipotent. 

'• Pur nostre rays sir Eduuard, ke Deu li benye!^^ 

Avoms nent plus à dire ke n'as paroye ; ^^' 

Mes sire Edmoun sun frère par nus te signifj'e, 

Sun frère est sun seygnur, par quai nul hom en 

'^ vye 
Taunt ayme, ne tant doute, ne en k}- tant s'affye. 
Sire, trop ben seet Edmoun '" par quele controversye 

' Qe ta, B. Quant tafansm, C. ' 
'* Thi selsyn is wele knowen," Eo 
bert of Brunne. 

- gentyllement, D. 

^ " As lawe wild aud right, and 
" covenant was in scrite," Robert 
of Brunne. 

■^ Tu 7-etiens la tere, B. C. D. 

^ en tes bref fi à li cum à parent, 
B. C. D. 

^ A ton féal e leal e duc, B. C, 

" Du duché, C. T>. 

^ ouf honur, C. 

^ n'est rien, B. reen tochez ent, 
C. en cya est rien, D. 

'° sûrement, B. 

" Ne teens, C. 

^- ne il estre le tent, C. 

^•^ Ne des ore ne serra ù toi ohedient, 
B. des or ne serra à tay, C Ne 
des ore serra à tey, D. 

^^ sa tere avéra, B. C. D. 

^^ Par nostre rei Edward, qe 
Dampnedeu beneie, B. C. D. 

"' ke en as paroye, D. 

'" 5//'<? Edmon trop bien set, B. 


'' When thy seizure was known full}^ 

*' Througli the twelve peers he summoned thee in 

" courteous manner 
" To restore him his land without réservation, 
" As the co venant willed it, of which there is truthfnl 

^' witness, 
" Thou retainest his land by such abatement ; 
" To hold the covenant thou hast no will ; 
" And, sir, thou art accustomed very courteously 
*' To vrrite in thy letter to him as to thy kinsmau, 
" To thy loyal and faithful and duke by name 
" Of the duchy of Aquitaine with the honour which 

" appertains. 
" Sinee that time to this it is discontinued. 
" For which it is his opinion that thou certainly 
" Holdest him not thy man, nor does he mean to be so, 
" Nor will he henceforward be to thee obedient ; 
But when he shall hâve recovered his land to him- 

'' self 
' He v/ill claim to hold it of God Almighty. 

*' For our king sir Edward, may God bless him ! 
*' We hâve no more to say which thou hast not 

" heard ; 
'• But sir Edmund his brother by us signifies to thee, 
" His brother is his lord, wherefore there is no man 

*' alive 
** He loves so much, or fears so much, nor in whom 

" he puts so much trust. 
" Sire^ Edmund knows full well through what disagree- 

'^ ment 

YOL. II. o 



" Son frère e sun seygnur par tay est dissaysye;^ 
'* Te rende ^ sun homage, wayne ta seygnurye, 
" E bye sun héritage recoverir par aye. 
'' Pur quay ^ sir Edmoun de tut à ly se lye, 
*' Des ore ne put ne volt ^ tenir ta compaynye ; 
" Mes totes les granz terres ke tynt ^ en ta ball3^e 
" Te rend sus of le homage dont il se desplye, 
" Salve al verray ayr [e] à ^ la remenauncye 
" Le drait ke cyl en ount par auncesserye. 
" Nus sûmes povre frères, ren avoums^ fors de autrie, 
" Et messanger ne dait ^ rescay vre vilainye ; 
'' Condut parmy ta terre et avouerye 
'' Grauntez nus, pur Deu e pur ta curtaysye."^ 
Reply of Phelippe ray de Fraunce respouns les fet douer 
Philip. Par un de sun counsayl, averty chuvaler ; 

Lur dist ke les covenaunz fez de zà en arer^^ 
Sunt tenuz en tuz poynz, sanz ren violer, 
Par le ray de Fraunce, et par ly xij. per ; 
Et par li rays Englays et ly ^^ mariner 
Rumpu sunt covenaunz par terre et par mer. 
Paroles ke sunt dites de terres '- resigner, 
Des^^ homages rendre, de seygnur refuser, 
Le ray Phelippe rescait en mesme la maner 
Cum els sunt nunciez ^^ par ly messager ; 
Et parmy sa terre condut les fet aver. 
Returnof Les messagers s'en vount à Dovre aryver, 
sengers* "^ ^^^i revenuz al ray '^ à Westmouster. 

^ defailye, C j ^ ^ mesangers ne deivent, C. 

2 Tad rendu, B. C. D. 

^ This line and tae precediug are 
transposed in B.,by which, however, 
tlie sensé is net affected. 

^^ de ça ne arer, C. 

3 Par quel, B. C. 

^ ne veut ne peut, C. 

■' q'il teent, C. q'il tynt, D. 

" heirs e à la, B. al verrais \ ^ P^'' "? ^- C. 

heyres à la, C. an verreys heyrs ' "^ tere, C. 

e la, D. '' Se^, B. 

" povers frères, riens n'avoms, B. nomez, C. 

riens avotns, C- ^ " ^^^^> ^' 


" His brother and liis lord is by thee dispossessed ; 
" He returns thee his homage, relinquishes thy seignoiy, 
" And intends to recover his héritage with aid. 
*• Wherefore sir Edmund entirely binds himself to him, 
" Henceforth he neither can nor will hold thy com- 

" pany; 
" But ail the great lands which he held in thy lord- 

" ship 
'' He renders up to thee with the homage which he 

'' refuses, 
" Saved to the true heirs and their descendants 
" The right which they hâve in it by ancestry. 
'' We are poor brothers, we possess notliing but that 

" of others, 
" And messengers ought not to receive ill-treatment ; 
" Conduct through thy land and récognition 
" Grant us for God and for thy courtesy." 

Philip king of France causes a reply to be given to 

By one of his council, a wise knight; 
He tells them that the covenants made from that 

time back 
Are kept in ail points, without breaking anything, 
By the king of France, and by the twelve peers ; 
And by the English king and the mariners 
Are broken the covenants by land and by sea. 
"Words which are spoken of resigning lands, 
Of giving back homages, of refusing lord, 
King Philip receives them in the same manner 
As they are announced by the messengers ; 
And he causes them to hâve conduct through his land. 
The messengers départ to arrive at Dover, 
And hâve returned to the king at Westminster. 

o 2 



calls his 

The taxes 
granted to 

from a 

Respouns le ray ^ de Frauiice kant sir Edward sa- 
Ses clercs et ses barons à Londres assemblayt, 
E Jors^ de rechef il mesme les moustrait 
Cornent Aquitayne fu perdu par descayt^ 
Ke saunz aide des genz ^ recoverir ne poayt. 
De tuz les bens as clers la maitf^ ^ demandait, 
E de la demaunde départir ne volayt ; 
De cytesayn et burgës/ le syme dener aurait;^ 
Li barné pur le pople le disyme le grauntait/ 
Issi ke de cel an tut paez serrayt f 
Molt est ore Engleterre plus povre ke n'estayt.^ 
Non pur ço cliescun à Deu prier dait 
Ke nostre rays Eduuard face bon esplayt, 
E jDusse par nos aydes recoverir sun drayt.-^*^ 
Si il fust utraë, cum ne voyl Deus k'il sayt,^^ 
Le église de Engleterre si mal mené serrayt, 
Ke clerk^- ne lays homme dount vivre troverayt. 
Ly novel conquerour ke sur nus vendrait ^"' 
Ly counte et ly baroun de honur priverait ; 
Erceveske, eveske, estât chaungerait ; 
Ly abbë, ly priour terre perderait ; 
Parsone et vicare sa rente voiderait, 
Et li fraunkelayn vilayn demorrait.^'^ 
Cytayn ne burgë ^^ nul part irrayt 
Fere sa marchaundise, cum avaunt solayt. 

^ du roy, C. 

- hors, T). 

3 de gentz, C. 

"* la moite, B. ù clers la hun/lé, 

C. Des tout les biens as clers mayté, 

^ De citain e de luryeis, B. C. 

•^ aveteit, B. D. 

' li ûtrieit, B. le dime le octraif, 


Issint qe deinz cel an home la 

paiereif, B. Issi qe dedeinz cel an 
homme la paereit, C. D. 

^ M ait est Engletere qe n^esteit, 
B. Midi est Engletere, C. 

^^ This line is omitted in D. 

" cum Dieu ne veut qe seit, B. C. 
cu7n Dieu ne voet q'il sait, B, 

ï- Ne clerk, D. 

^2 This and ihe seven foliowing 
liues are omitted in D. 

^"* devendreit, B. 

^^ e hurgeis.^ B.C. 


When sir Edward learnt the reply of tlie king of 

He assembled his clergy and barons at London, 
And tlien again he himself explained to them 
How Aquitaine was lost by treacbery, 
Which witbout aid of the people he could not re- 

Of ail the goods of the clergy he demanded the nioiety, 
And would not départ froni the demand ; 
Of citizen and bnrger he would hâve the sixth 

penny ; 
The barons granted liim the tenth for the people, 
So that it should be ail paid in that year ; 
England is now much poorer than it was. 
Nevertheless ought every one to pray to God 
That our king Edward be quite successful, 
And that he may by our aids recover his right. 
If he were overcome, as may God not will him to be, 
The church of England would be reduced to sucli an ill 

That neither clerk nor layman would fînd wherewith 

to live. 
The new conqueror who would corne upon us 
Would deprive of honour the earls and barons ; 
Archbishop and bishop would change his condition, 
Abbot and prior would lose his lands ; 
Parson and vicar would be deprived of his rent, 
And the freeinan would remain a villain. 
Citizen nor burger would go anywhere 
To make his market^ as he did before. 



dors sent 
to Eome. 

sent into 

Li Frauncays orguUous à [si] bas ^ nus mènerait, 
Et nent plus ke mast}Tis^ honurer nus frayt. 
Argent put hom quere, argent vent ^ et vayt ; 
Donk vaut melz doner le tant cum home l'ayt, 
Ke vivre cum chaitif en payne si estrayt. 

Quant par clers et lays les aydes sunt grauntez, 
Le eveske de Dureme al rays est repayrez^ 
Et"^ en Alemayne ad fet ses voluntez ; 
[L'esvesqe de Divelyn à Dieu est comaundez ; ] ^ 
Huge le Despenser est sayn et haitez. 
Le erceden^ de Ricliemund est la mer passez, 
Mestre Jon de Craucombe " li est associez ; 
Il sunt alez à Rome, par le rays chargez 
Dire à lapostoyle les playnes veritez. 
Li ray à Portesmue ^ avaunt fust alez, 
Sur le ray de Fraunce sa guère ad comencez.^ 
De sa chuvalrye en Gascoyn ad maundez : 
Sir Jon ^^ de Brettayne est ly primer nomez ; 
Sire Jon de Seyn Jon, ke conust les countrez ; 
Robert de Typetoft,^^ et sun fiz aynez ; 
Sire Laurence de Sauvay,^- et autres genz assez ; 
En le ylle de Ollyroun^'^ sunt tuz aryvez. 
Le counte de Nycole fu laundrait aprestez ; 
Par maundement le rays le counte est returnez ; 
La resun pur quai ws diray, escotés.^"^ 

1 si bas, B. C. D. 

- qe mastyyi, D. 

3 vùit, C. 

"^ Et omitted in B. 

^ This Une is omitted, evidently by 
accident, in A. ; but it is found in 
B. C. D. 

^ L'ercedeken, B. 

" Craicecomb, B. 

^ vers Portesmue, B. vers Portes- 
mewe, C. vers Portesmojce, D. 

^ ad ordeinez, B. ordenez, C. 
ordinez, D. 

^0 Sire Johan, B. C. Sire Jon, D. 

11 Tiptoft, D. 

1- Sauvcie, B. D. Salvevay, C. 
1^ A Burgh sur la mare, B. A 
Burge super mare, C. D. In place 
of the following lines, Robert of 
Bnmne translates :-- 

'•' Thei aiyved aile o weye at 

'' Burgh sur la ^Mare, 
" Thiderward as als he vrent, sir 

" Henry tbe Lacie, 
" The kyng oft for him sent, I 

" salle telle you "whi." 
i-» Vescotez, B. 


The proud Frencliman would bring us so low, 
And cause us to be honoured no more than dogs. 
One may seek money, money cornes and goes ; 
Then it is better worth to give it as long as one bas it, 
Than to live like a caitifF in suffering so extrême. 

When tbe aids are granted by clergy and laity, 
The bishop of Durham is returned to the king, 
And has efFected in Germany the object of his mission. 
The bishop of Dublin is despatched to God ; 
Hugh le Despenser is safe and sound. 
The archdeacon of Eichmond has passed the sea, 
And master John de Craucombe is associated with 

him ; 
They are gone to Rome charged by the king 
To tell the pope the full truth. 
The king was before this gone to Portsmouth, 
Has begun his war against the king of France. 
He has sent part of his chivalry into Gascony. 
Sir John of Britany is the fîrst named ; 
Sir John de St. John, who knew the countries ; 
Kobert de Tiptoft, and his eldest son ; 
Sir Laurence de Savoy, and other people enough ; 
In the isle of Oleron are they ail arrived. 
The earl of Lincoln was already there ; 
By command of the king the earl is returned ; 
I will tell you the reason why, listen. 



tion in 

error in 
regard to 

En la Walesserye ^ un rybald est ^ mountez, 
Ke quidayt ke ly rays fiist outre mer alez;^* 
Snaudon * ad saisy cum ses herytez, 
Se fet apeler prynce par noun des parentez.^ 
Mort ad les Englays kant ke sunt trovez, 
Les chastels le rays à terre cravauntez. 
Le ray ne put sufFrir ses irdquitez ; 
La guère de Gascoyne ad jà ^ délayez, 
Et desuth Snaudon '^ en Gales est entrez. 
En Abyrconeway,^ chastel affermez, 
Tint-iP ses Noelez of muz de ses barnez. 

Jekes après la Paske de Noël avaunt 
Dura la guère en Gales, '^ al ray trop grevaunt. 
Escotez [ore] coment^^ pyté ly fist perdaunt. 
Sun pople al primour estait assez ^^ pussaunt 
Aver conquis la ten-e, saunz arester passaunt ; 
Et si li rays à cel houre^" eust fet sun avenaunt, 
Et as tuz'* donë lur wayne à rernenaunt, 
Terre et tenement à tenir par garaunt 
De li e de ses liayrs le servise fesaunt, 
Gales fust gayné tost^^ par tel covenaunt, 
Et Gascoyne recovrë sur cyl ke^^ est tenaunt. 
Mes taunt ad targë^" la pees en covaitaunt,^^ 
Ke la^^ chuvalrye, ke ala conqueraunt 
Sun drayt en Aquytayne, est pris mayntenaunt. 

1 Walecherie, B. D. 

' e^^omittedin B. The translation 
of this line by Robert of Brunne is 
as follo^s, " In Wales is a schre- 
" ward to werre rises on." 

3 passez, B. C. D. 

^ Snawedoun, D. 

^ de par entez, C. D. 

c ad là, C. 

" Snawedoun, D. 

^ Ahhrettoumcaye, C. Abrecone- 
icaye, D. 

'' il oraitted in B. C. D. 

1'^ de Gales, C. D. 

^^ Escotez ore roinent, B. Escotez 
ore cornent deknj l y fist perdaunt,. C. 

'- assez estoit, B. C. D. 

^^ le rei cel hoiire, B. ly reis cel 
houre, C. D. 

'^ à touz, D. 

15 tut, B. tost par cel, D. 

1^ q'en, B. D. 

^7 Mes ore ad tant targé, C, D. 

*^ la pes coveitaaty B. 

1^ Qe à la c, C. 


In the Welshery a ribald is arisen, 

Who believed tliat the king was gone beyond sea ; 

He lias seized Snowdon as his héritage, 

Caused himself to be entitled prince by name of 

He bas put to death the English, as many as are 

Has broken down to the ground the king's castles. 
The kiûg cannot sufFer his iniquities ; 
He has alread}^ delayed the war in Gascony, 
And has entered under Snowdon into Wales. 
Jn Aberconway, a castle well strengthened, 
He held his Christmas with many of his barons. 

From Christmas forward till after Easter 
Lasted the war in Wales, very troublesome to the 

Listen now how pity made it losing : 
His people at first was sufficiently powerful 
To hâve conquered the land, without halting in the 

And if the king at that time had made his terms, 
And had given to ail their gain for ever, 
Land and tenement to be held by warrant 
Of him and of his heirs by doing service, 
Wales would hâve been won soon by such covenant, 
And Gascony recovered from him who is holding it. 
But he has delayed so long in his désire for peace, 
That his knights, who were going to conquer 
His right in Aquitaine, are now captured. 


Capture of Sir Charles à Ryouns les prist en combataunt,^ 

knights in En fyrges les menayt à Parys tôt ^ chauntaunt. 

Aquitaine. Saint Severe est renduz, ou est en rendaunt;'^ 
Burdeus est bayllë as Frauncays^ et Normaunt : 
Pur veirs ly Pykard nus'^ va desore mokaunt, 
Gascoyne*^ retenir quide ben^ par taunt. 

Nos Englays quidaynt aide de Ai-ragoun, 
Et du rays Eduuard par sun frère Edmoun, 
Du counte de Nicole of sa^ garnisoun ; 
Mes tuz lui' fayllirent^ de promissioun. 
Kar taunt cum sunt de là en tribulacioun, 
Comence la guère en Gales saunz resim; 

Defeat of Et tost après la Paske li rays et li baroun 

the Welsh. _ ^ 

Enchacent les A^ alaj^s, et saysent Suaudon. 

Pus vount à Angieseye,^^ estendent pavylloun. 

Le ray kant là vent^^ fet cryer enviroun 

Sa pees à tuz ke volent^^ venir à pardoun.^'* 

Le counte de Gloucestre, ne say la chesoun,^'* 

A perdu en Sutli Wales more et^^ mansioun ; 

Morgan Morgan li surquert, li fet^*^ destruccioun. 

andMadoc. ;^^g ^1 rays Eduuard volt^'^ Morgan si ben noun ; 
Par ly et sun consail, Madok^^ en tapisoun, 
Ke prince se noma à sa confusioun, 
Est pris et menez à Loundres en prisoun. 
Sachez par sa folye et sa mesprisioun 
Ad le ray perdu la possessioun 

' le prist combant, B. les irova '^ en Angleseie, B. D. en Engle- 

cumbatauntfC. les prist combataunt, i terre, Q. 

D. ! 11 vint, B. C. t). 

- tôt omitted in B. C. D. I '- voleient, B. 

3 reddant, B. j ^^ al pardoun, C. D. 

■* Burdels est baillé à Franceys, C. ; '■* Tenchesoun, B. le achesoun, C. 

' «us omitted in B. '^'' Ad perdu Soutkgales,mees e,'B. 

s Car Gascoine, B. C. 
" ben quide, C. This line is omitted 

8 od la, B. 

9 lour /aillent, C. 

en Sittwales moose e mansioun, C. 
en Souzicales meos et,!). 

i« efet, B. 

lî" veut, C. voyl, D. 

13 Maddoc, D. 


Sir Charles took them in bcattle at Kioms, 

And carried them to Paris in fe tiers, ail singing. 

Saint Severe is surrendered, or is in the act of sur- 

rendering ; 
Bordeaux is given up to the French and Normans : 
In truth the Picard goes henceforth making mockery 

of us, 
And expects to retain Gascony in conséquence. 

Our English expected aid from Aragon, 
And from king Edward by his brother Edmond, 
From the earl of Lincoln wifch his garrison ; 
But ail failed them of their promise. 
For while they are beyond sea in tribulation, 
Begins the war in Wales without reason ; 
And immediately after Easter the king and the barons 
Drive out the Welsh, and seize Snowdon. 
Then they go to Anglesea, spread pavillons. 
The king, when he comes there, causes to be pro- 

claimed everywhere 
His peace to ail who will come to pardon. 
The earl of Gloucester, I know not the reason, 
Has lost in South Wales moor and dwelling. 
Morgan attacks him, and does him destruction. 
But to king Edward Morgan means nothing but well ; 
By him and his counsel, Madoc in hiding place, 
Who called himself prince to his confusion, 
Is taken and carried to London into prison. 
Know through his folly and his misbehaviour 
The king has lost his possession 


THE chro::tcle of 

caused by 
the Welsh 

of John 
Baliol and 
ment of 
the war 
in Scot- 

De tote Aquytayne, fors soûle ment Bayonn.^ 
Kar si il eust alë^ par aide de Gascoun 
Aquitayne défendre de Phelippe et Carloum, 
Kant il alayt en Gales sur Madok li felun;^ 
Tulouse et Tolousan par grant affeccioun 
Fussent tuz_^* venuz à sa subjecciouu, 
Sun estre eust sauve Saint Severe et Ryoun,^ 
Burdeus li fust renduz saunz occisioun, 
Et^ tote Aquitayne eust eu en baundoun. 
[Guales seit maudit de L)ieu et de seint^ Simoun ! 
Qar touz jours ad esté plein de tresoun.] ^ 

Escoce sait maudite de la mère De,^ 
Et parfound ad deable^*^ Gales enfoundré!^^ 
En l'un ne-^^ l'autre fa unkes vérité. 
Kar si tost en Gales guère est comencé, 
Et de Aquitayne le^^ covenaunt tayllé 
Fu par le ray de Fraunce rumpu et refusé, 
Et sir ^^ Eduuard et Phelippe comencent^^ medlé, 
Li fol ray de Escoce, Jon Bayllolf^^ nonié, 
Ke par le ray Eduuard al règne est approché,^' 
Par le counsail de sun fol^^ barné, 
Encountre sun homage ne^^ encountre sa fealté, 
A la court de Rome ad messagers maundé, 
A Celestyn la pape ke à Thoure^*^ tynt le se, 

' Baroun, B. 

" Car a^il fust alée, B. D. Kar 
soûl fust aie, C. 

•^ lefeloun, C. 

4 tost, B. C. D. 

* This and the following line are 
omitted in D. 

6 Et omitted in D. 

'' et seint, D. 

^ Thèse two lines are not found 
in A., but B., C, and D. bave tbem. 

^ del meere Dée, C. 

i« al deable, C. This and the fol- 
lowing line are omitted in D. 

^1 Guales soit e., B. 

^- n''eîi, B. ne en Ij/ altre, C. 

^■' le omitted in C. 

^^ .S7>, omitted in B. and D. JÉl 
sir, omitted in C. 

'^ coinenscait, C. 

16 Baliole, D. 

'7 This line is omitted in D. 

1^ Par V enticemeiit de son faus, 
B. C. D. 

13 ne omitted in B. C. D. 

'" cel houre, B. D. omits the rest 
of this line and the first three words 
of the next. 


Of ail Aquitaine, except oiily Bayonne. 

For if lie had gone witîi aid of tlie Gascons 

To défend Aquitaine against Philip and Charles, 

When he went into Wales against Madoc the félon, 

Toulouse and the Toulousain througli great affection 

Would ail hâve corne to his subjection. 

His présence would hâve saved Saint Severe and Riom ; 

Bordeaux would hâve been surrendered to him without 

And ail Aquitaine would hâve been in his power. 
May Wales be accursed of God and of St. Simon ! 
For it lias ahvays been fuU of treason. 

May Scotland be cursed by the mother of God, 
And may Wales be sunk deep to the de vil ! 
In neither was there ever truth. 
For as soon as war is coramenced in Wales, 
And the co venant which had been made for Aquitaine 
Was broken and rejected by the king of France, 
And sir Edward and Pliilij) begin combat, 
The mad king of Scotland, John Baliol l)y name, 
Who had been promoted to the kingdom by king 

With the advice of his mad barons, 
Contrary to his homage and contrary to his fealty, 
Has sent messengers to the court of Rome, 
To Celestine the pope, who at that time held the see. 


Par suggecioun ount^ fausement monstre 
Ke le règne d'Escoce, of la digneté, 
Dayt de ly tenyr par antiquité ; 
Et le rays Eduuard par poer et poesté 
Li fist fere homage encountre voluntë; 
Et prye ke il sait assoiis et desvolupë 
De la fay le ray, à ky il fii joré. 
Conduct La pape Celés ty en [fa] trop - desavysë, 
p^^^ Assont le ray d'Escoce par lettre enbullë. 
Si tost cum en Escoce la chose est noncië, 
Les barnez^ omit fet, à lur liountetë, 
Duze pers en Escoce,* et sunt counsayllë 
Déshériter Eduuard de la ^ soveraintë. 
Pur le grant honur ke Eduuard le senë 
Fist à Jon Bayllof,^ tel est la bountë 
Dount li rays ' Eduuard 
Du ray Jon musard 

Est rewerdonë. 
De Escoce sait cum pot; 
Parfurnyr nus estot 
La geste avaunt parle. 
Endofthe Quant Morgan est renduz, et Madok^ est pris, 
Welshwar. j^g ^^y revynt à Loundres par consayl des amys. 
Deus chardinals de Rome la pape i ad^ transmys, 
Ke of le ray de Fraunce parlaint à Parys ; 
De l'amur entre eus la pape est entremys. 
Les chardinals al rays ^^ ount dit lur avys ; 
Sir Eduuard ^^ et Phelippe ount durement requys 
Reposer une pece chescun en sun pa^^s, 
Issi ke bone gent de poer et de prys,^^ 

' suggestioun ad, B. C. " raijs omitted in B 

2 fu trop, B. 5 Maddoc, C. 

3 Les barons, B. C. D. 

4 d'Escoce, B. C. D. 
^ sire Edward à îa, C. 

^ la pape ad, C 

10 Je rcis, C. 

1' E Edward, B. C. D. 

^ Baliol, D. ' 1- This line is omitted in B. 


They hâve by prompting falsely explained 

That tlie kmgdom of Scotland, with the dignity, 

Ouglit to hold of him by ancient riglit ; 

And that king Edward by force and power 

Made him do homage against his will ; 

And prays that he may be absolved and dissolved 

From fidelity to the king, to whom he was sworn. 

Pope Celestine w asvery ill-advised, 

He absolves the king of Scotland by writ with bidl 

As soon as the thing is made public in Scotland, 
The barons hâve made, to their shame, 
Twelve peers in Scotland, and they hâve taken cou n sel 
To disinherit Edward of the sovereignty. 
For the great honour which Edward the wise 
Did to John Baliol, such is the goodness 

With which king Edward 

By king John the fool 
Is rewarded. 

Of Scotland be it as it may 

We must continue 

The history before told. 

When Morgan has surrendered, and Madoc is taken, 
The king returned to London by the advice of his 

Two cardinals from Eome the pope has sent thither, 
Who conferred with the king of France at Paris ; 
The pope has interfered to restore love between them. 
The cardinals hâve said their opinion to the king ; 
They hâve earnestly required sir Edward and Philip 
To remain quiet a while eacli in his country, 
Until good people of power and worth, 



Attack , 
by the Nor- 
mans and 

of tlie ne- 

Ke à nule part se facent enemys, 

Ou la pape mesmes sait par là justiz 

A parfere l'acorde de kant^ ke sayt mespris. 

Taunt - ciim les cliardinals de la pes parlaynt, 
Les gens de Normendye sutli ^ Dover aryvaynt, 
En la compaynye les Kalays estaynt ;"* 
En la vile de Dovre sodaynement entraynt, 
Et partye du burge arder comencaynt, 
Des jovenes et des velz xiij. homes i tuaynt.^ 
Quant vindrent à l'acounte, x. pur ^ un lessaynt, 
Li gardayn del chastel et cel ke là" manaynt, 
Et moynes de la celle, ke ben se guyaint, 
Se pristrent à defens et les escryaint. 
Normaunz et Pikard ke forfet avaynt 
Furent desgagez, les chapels deniorraynt 
Of les chefs des uns, les autres s'en alaynt.^ 
Un moyne de la celle, à ky vjnt enclinaynt,^ 
Et cyl les assoit, mot plus ne sonaynt. 
Les chardinals après à Parys repairaynt, 
Ne sai quels respouns ^^ du ray enportaynt/^ 
Nun pur ço plusurs entre els disaynt 
Ke totes les parlaunces al darayn descendaynt ^- 
Ke Eduuard et Phelippe lur genz suthrayeraynt,'^ 
Issi ke gens par terre et mer *^ irraynt 
Et ^^ suffraunce de pees, ke amys purraynt 

^ et qauntz ke sunt^ T). 

•' Kant, C. 

3 sur, B. suz, C. D. 

'^ " And men of Caleis camen 
** with tham I wene," Robert of 

-' De jovens e de veltz xiij. homme 
tuaynt, C. i tueijnf, D. 

^ Quant ù la court vindrent x.r. 
pur, C. 

7 /à omitted in B. e cels qe là, 

** les altres demoraint, C. 

^ Un inoigne i fu pur veir, ù qi 
viiit encUjiecent, B. C. D. It may be 
remarked tbat Pierre de Langtoft's 
account of the monk seems to bave 
been entirely misunderstood by 
Robert of Brunne 

^'^ N'e sey le quele respouns, D, 

^' reporteient, B. 

^'- descendraint, C. 

'^ sustreraynt, C. D. 

^^ par mer e par tere, B. D. par 
meer ou par tere, C. 

15 En, B. C. D. 


Wlio sliould act witli enmity to neither side, 
Or the pope himself sliould be over there judge 
To complète the accord of whatever may be done 

Wliile the cardinals were conferring on the peace, 
The people of Normandy made an attack upon Dover, 
The people of Calais were in the company ; 
They entered snddenly into the town of Dover, 
And began to burn part of the burgh, 
Of young and old they slew there thirteen men. 
When they came to the reckoning, they left ten for 

The keepers of the castle, and those who dwelt there, 
And monks of the cell, who behaved themselves well, 
Took to their defence, and raised the cry upon them. 
Normans and Picards who had forfeited 
Were let out of pledge, their hats remained 
With the heads of some of them, the others went 

A monk of the cell, to whom twenty bowed, 
And lie assoils them, they uttered not a word more. 
The cardinals afterwards repaired to Paris, 
I know not wliat answer they carried from the king, 
Nevertheless many among them said 
That ail the conférences in the end came to this, 
That Edward and Philip should withdraw their men, 
So that people might go by land and sea 
In peaceful armistice, that friends might 



Parfournyr l'acorde ; les Englays le volaynt,^ 
Si les Alemaunz à ço se assentiraynt. 
Treason of Taunt ^ cum les chardinals se sunt entremys 
Thomas de j)^ refourmer ^ la pees et fere les rays amys, 
Thomas de Tourbevyle, ke à Ej^ouns fu prys, 
En taunt ad parlé of le provost* de Parys, 
Ke fet l'ad sun homage, et hostage^ mys 
Ses deus fîz en garde, et seurement promys 
Aler en Engleterre espyei' ^ le pays ; 
Et dire al rays Eduuard ke il vynt futifs, 
Eschapé ' de prisoun parmy ses enemys. 
Le provost l'ad grauntë, et fet ent^ ses escryz, 
Cent liverez de terre par autel ^ devys ; 
Et Thomas l'affiaunce sur les Evangeliz, 
Ke tut Engleteri'e et Walays et Marchiz, 
Et du règne de Escoce kant ke '^^ sunt de prys, 
Serrount enclynaunt -à Phelippe fis Lawis. 
rf.^^g_ Escotez ore cornent la grâce Jhesu Krist 

ville's pro- Ly gentiz ray Edward de la tresun garnyst. 
Thomas en Engleterre vint al ray, et dist 
Ke hors de la prisoune nuytauntre ^^ issist, 
[E pur l'amour Edward à tiel péril se prist.]^^ 
Curtaisye assez li rays ly countrefist, 
Et Turbevyle après de jour en jour enquyst 
L'estat de la terre, et sun aler purvyst 
De leu en leu enquere de graunt et de petyt,^'^ 
Coment as Englays pout fere tel despyt 
Ke li rays Eduuard sa terre perdesist.^* 

^ la volaint, C. ; " And granted him with scrite tuo 

2 Kaunt, C. " hundreth pounde of lond," Robert 

^ parfournir, C. reforner, D. of Brunne. 

^ à /jroyos^, B. C. al provost,!). ^^ qauntz qe,!). 

5 hostages, C. D. " nuctauntre, D. 

^ à espier, B, ^- This line, omitted in A., is 

' Eschapa, A. given from B., C, and D. 

^ eust, D. 13 e petit, B. 

^ Cent Uvere de tere par an tel, C. ^^ perdist, C. pei'dissist, D. 


Complète the accord, the Englisli willed it, 
If the Germans would give their assent to it. 

During the time that the cardinals are interfering 
To restore the peace and make the kings friends, 
Thomas de Turbeville, who was taken at Riom, 
Has so long conferred with the provost of Paris,' 
That he has performed his homage to him, and placed 

as hostages 
His two sons in ward, and faithfully promised 
To go into England to spy the country ; 
And to say to king Edward that he came as a fugi- 
Escaped from prison among his enemies. 
The provost has agreed to it, and made his writings 

of it, 
A hundred pounds of land for this plot ; 
And Thomas pledges his faith to him on the Gospels, 
That ail England and Wales and the Marches, 
And ail of the kingdom of Scotland who are of worth, 
Shall be subject to Philip the son of Louis. 

Listen now how the grâce of Jésus Christ 

Warned the noble king Edward of the treason. 

Thomas came into England to the king, and said 

That he had escaped out of prison by night, 

And had encountered this péril for the love of 


The king showed him in return courtesy enough ; 

And Turbeville afterwards from day to day inquired 

The state of the land, and provided his journey 

From place to place to inquire of great and small, 

How he could do such mischief to the English, 

That king Edward should lose his land. 

p 2 



ville's de- 
signs dis- 

His cap- 
ture and 

sent to re- 

Les estât ^ de tote parz - tele ciim cntendist 
Of les ehardiuals par ud de sons transmyst ^ 
Al provost de Parys, ke joye assez en fis t. 
Li clerk ke la lettre à ^ Tourbe vylle escryt 
Al plus prive le rays Tentente descoverist. 
Li 1ers le ^ aparceust, à fuste ^ tost se myst ; 
Un sergaunt as armes, ke plus près^ suyst, 
Le terce jour après le traytour ^ soupryst. 

Li traitour est pris, à Loundres remenë, 
Of molt grant fausine ke sur ly fu trové. 
Choses ke sunt dites quels il ad graunté. 
Par volunté le rays sunt mys de ^ sutli pë 
Jekes à co ^^ sekle sait autrement chauno-ë. 
Turbevyle en court cum traitour est jugé ; 
[Parmi la vile ^^ de Loundres primes fu trainë,] ^- 
Et pus ^^ pendu cum 1ers pur sa malvayté. 
Pur nostre rays Eduuard molt ad Deus overë/^ 
Ore et altre fez, à sa salvetë. 

Quant de Tourbevyle est fet ^^ le vengeaunce, 
Les chardinals de Rome repairent ^^ en Fraunce, 
Ount of le ray Phelippe sovent eu parlaunce, 
Et sovent requys ly ray des Alemaunce,^^ 
Et par clers et lays ount fet demoustraunce 
Al gentil rays Eduuard, ke dure est [la] destaunce ^^ 
Dount ly et Phelippe sunt en descordaunce. 
Par ount il unt fet^^ un tel ordinaunce 
Ke ly et les ij. rays^^ enverrount sanz targaunce 

1 L'estat, B. C. D. 

' de tôt part, C. de tote part, D. 

3 tramist, C. 

4 de, B. 

^ îe omitted in B. Zy leers tost 
Vaparceust, C. 
"5 àfute, D. 
" prest, C. 
s le Turbevile, B. C. D. 

9 de omitted in B. C. 

10 qe ceo, B. 0. 
" la cité,D. 

1- This line is wanting in A, but 
found in B. C. D. 

'" pus omitted in C. 

i'* This and the following line are 
omitted in D., the scribe of which 
probably thought them superflucus. 

15 fet est, B. 

1^ repairez, B. C. D. 

1' de VAlmaimz, C. 

1^ est la d., B. la distaunce, C. 

1^ Parount ount-ilfete, C. 
Qe li e li autre, B. C. D. 



The condition of ail parts, as lie learnt it, 

He sent by one of his men with the car dînais 

To the provost of Paris, wlio made joy enough of it. 

The clerk who wrote the letter for Turbeville 

Eevealed the purport of it to the king's most con- 

fidential attendant. 
The thief got a hint of it, and immediately took to 

flight ; 
A serjeant at arms, who folio wed him nearest, 
Surprised the traitor the third day after. 

The traitor is taken, carried back to London, 
With very great treason which is found upon him. 
Things which are aforesaid which he had stipulated, 
By the king's will are placed under foot 
Until the world be otherwise changed. 
Turbevile is condenmed in court as a traitor ; 
He is first drawn through the town of London, 
And then hanged as a thief for his malpractices. 
For our king Edward much bas God worked, 
Now and at other times, for his préservation. 

When the pnnishment is done upon Turbevile. 
The cardinals from Eome return into France, 
They hâve often had conférence with king Philip, 
And often required the king of the Germans, 
And by clerks and laymen hâve made démonstration 
To the gentle king Edward, that hard is the dispute 
About which lie and Philip are in discord. 
In conséquence of which they hâve made such order 
That lie and the two kings shall send without delay 


The nego- A Kaumbray clers et lays de graunt conoysaunce, 
cïmbray* ^ treter de la pes/ et juger la grevaunce, 
Et fere^ les amendes de la contrariaunce. 
Le rays Eduuard se assent en bon afEaunce ; 
A Kaumbray ad maundé, saunz nul delayaunce, 
Eveskes et barouns de graunt apparaunce ; 
Les garde de tresoun Deu par sa pussaunee ! 
Engiish Taunt cum cels seygnurs sunt alez cel messages, 

into^G ^^°* ^^ counte de Nicole, of tote ses ménages,^ 
cony. Sir Edmoun frère le rays, de gentil corage,^ 
Sir William de Vescy, chuvaler prus et sage, 
Barouns e vavasours de gentil lynage,^ 
Chuvalers et serjauns of lur cosinage, 
Gens à pé^ sanz noumbre de more et boscage/ 
Et Galays^ ke sevent combatre par usage, 
Sunt alez en Gascoyne, [et] entrez^ en passage, 
Of xxvj. baneresce del melliour^^ escuage | 
Ke fust en Engleterre, salve le vasselage 
De cels ke or ne fayllent à lur seygnurage ; 
Kar cels ke sunt remys garder lur héritage 
Ad le ray requis, et pris en sun vayage 
Sur le ray d'Escoce et sun fol barnage,^^ 
Ke al rays Eduuard dedyent lur homage. 
Edward in Le primer jour de Marce, en tôt le grant orrage,^^ 
ceeds^to^^' ^J^^ ^^ TSijs Eduuard à trop grant coustage 
Newcastle. A Nofchastel ^^ sur Tyne, par ^^ le grant outrage 

^ ireter la pes, C. \ ^ al pée, C. 

2 Afere, B. C. \ "» e de boscage, B. C. This Une 

3 soun ménage, B. C. D. " Of | is omitted in D. 
" Lyncoln the erle another, sir I s Gualeis,B. Galaijs^C. Galeys, 

** Henry the Lacy," Eobert of D 

Brunne. o e entrez, B. C. D 

^ This line and the preceding are 
transposed in B. C. D., and in V obert 
of Brunne. 

3 The last three words of this ! 12 horage, D. 
line, and the first three of the line i^ jSfeivechaustel, C. 

following, are omitted in D, lu ^j^;-, B. Q, 

^" Ouf XX. et vj. baners de meilhir, 
C. baners de meliour, D. 
^^ e son fais b., C. D. 


To Cambray clerks and laymen of great knowledge, 
ïo treat of peace, and give judgment upon the cause 

of dispute, 
And make amends for the injury. 
King Edward assents to it in good faith ; 
ïïe has sent to Cambray, without any delay, 
Bishops and barons of great account. 
May God by his power préserve them from treason ! 

While thèse lords are gone on this message, 
The earl of Lincoln, with ail his household, 
Sir Edmund, the king's brother, of noble spirit, 
Sir William de Vesci, a prudent and wise knight, 
Barons and vavasors of noble descent, 
Knights and serjeants with their kindred, 
People on foot without number from moor and bush^ 
And Welshmen who know how to fight by use, 
Are gone into Gascony, and entered on the sea, 
With twenty-six banerets of the best scutage 
Which was in England, except the vassalage - 
Of those who now fail not to their duty to their lord ; 
For those who are left to guard their inheritance 
The king has called up, and taken in his expédition 
Against the king of Scotland and his mad barons, 
Who hâve withdrawn their homage from king Edward, 
The first day of March, in ail the great storm, 
Came king Edward with very great purveyance 
To Newcastle-on-Tyne, for the great wrong 



Ke les fols^ mastyns ount bracë par folage. 
Nostre rays ^ sir Eduuard ayt la maie rage, 
S'il ne les preygne et teygne si estrait en kage, 
Ke ren lur demorge ^ après sun tayllage,"^ 
For soûl le[s] rivelinges et la^ nue nage. 



Anno Domini millesimo dueentesimo nonagesimo vj^/ 

Eobert de Ros^ de Werk des Englays s'en fuyst, 
Et^ of les gens de Escoce à la guère se myst.^ 
Ly rays sir Eduuard sun chastel saysist, 
Sa feste de la Paske ^^ i tynt, après s'en partist ^^ 
Devers Berwyk^^ sur Twede, et la vile assist. 
Le pople maluré al primour surprist 
Deus navez ^^ des Englays, et tuer les fi st. 
Li rays Eduuard l'oyt dire, les portes assaylist, 
Les fossez passaint ^* les Englais saunz respit. 
Le vendredi de Paske al relevé ^^ conquyst 
La vile de Berwyk, li Englays i occyst '^^ 
Quatre mil de Escoce, et aukes plus perdist. 
Chuvaler un saunz plus sir Eduuard i perdist, 
EicharcT de Cornewaile, un Flemang li ferist 
Hors du sale ^^ rouge du quarel ke il tendis t ; 

1 lesfels, B. C. les fais, D. 

2 rar/s omitted in B. This and 
the three following lines are omitted 

3 demore, B. 

* après son dallage, C. 

^ à la, C. 

^ This rubric is inserted from B. 
C. and D. 

' de Reos, B. 

^ Et omitted in B. Et les gentz, 

^ od. le rei se mist, B. 

10 de Pasqe, B. D. 

^' s'en departist, C. 

^2 Vers Berwike, C. 

13 nefz, B. 

^•* passeit, B. passait ly Englais, 

'5 révèle, C. 

16 les Engleis occist, B. li/ Englais 
occist, C. Robert of Bnmne trans- 
lates this passage : — 
*' In Pask weke it was, the Friday 

" thei it wan, 
" In the non tyme felle this cas, 

" that slayn was ilk a man 
" That were in Berwik, fourti 

" thousand and mo, 
" Was non of tham left quik, 

" bot aile to dede ^ede tho." 
1" delà sale, B. C. D. 


Which the mad dogs hâve worked in their folly. 
May our king sir Edward be struck with madness, 
If he does not take them and hold them so close in 

Tliat nothing remain to them after his taxing, 
Except only their rivelings (shoes) and their bare 


Anno Domini 1296. 

Robert de Ros of Wark fled from thc English, 
And entered into the war with the people of Scotland. 
The king sir Edward seized his castle ; 
His feast of Easter he held tbere, afterwards he de- 

parted thence 
Towards Berwick-on-Tweed, and besieged the town. 
The ill-fated people at the beginning surprised 
Two ships of the English, and cansed them to be slain. 
King Edward heard tell of it, attacked the gâtes; 
The English passed the fosses without halting. 
On the Friday of Easter in the afternoon he conquered 
The town of Berwick ; the Englishman there slew 
Four thousand Scots, and some more perished. 
Sir Edward lost there one knight and no more, 
Richard de Cornwall, a Fleming struck him 
With a boit which he sliot out of the Red Hall. 


Tost fu la sale prise, le fu en fist tut quit. 
Le gardayn du chastel, quant la force vist, 
Le chastel saunz assaut à li ray rendist.^ 
William de Duglas dedenz estayt elyt, 
Et Richard Freser,- pur fere al ray despit ; 
Le ray les ad prisouns, mercy Jhesu Cryst ! 
Scottish Li quens de la Marche, Patrik le^ renomë, 

nobles who ai ^ j* j. j ' 

submit to -^ ^^ P®^ ^^ rs^ys se renoist de gre. 

the Eng- Gilbert de Umfrainvile ^ avaunt fa demore' 
Al ray s ^ Eduuard, à ky il fu joré. 
Sir Robert de Brus, of tote sa mené, 
Vers le rays Eduuard tynt tuzjours sa fealtë, 
Encountre les Escoz amour l'ad^ moustré. 
Kant Berwik fu prise, dedenz estayt trové 
Or [et] argent assez, des autres metals plentë,^ 
Et tote la noblye ke appendayt al cytë. 
Ly Balliolf ad perdu le issu et le entre 
De la plus noble vile ke fust en sa poestë. 
Li rays Eduuard la teent conquis par espë,^ 
[Le fet environer de fosse large e lee.] ^ 
En reprovaunt le Escot, ke ad de ly chauntë, 
Et par mokerye en Englays rymeyë : 

fcor:?" pykithin,, 

the Scots. An diket hym, 

On scoren sayd he ; ^^ 
He dikes, lie pikes,^^ 

^ al reis Edward rendist, C . metals pIenté,T>. assez, A., eorrected 

^ E Simon Fresele, B. C. Si- I in the margin to plenté. " Golde 

vwund Fresele, D. " Symon Fre- " and silver thei fonde, and other 

" selle ther \vas," Eobert of Brunne. '• metalle plenté," Eobert of Brunne. 

^ le omitted in B. D. ! ^ par Vespêe, C. D. 

■* Umfrevile, B. Umfrayvile, C. ^ This line is omitted in A., but it 

Umfravylle, D. ' is supplied from the other MSS. 

■5 Od le rei, B. Ouf le reis, C. ^o /^ scom seiden, B. C. D. In 

oue le reys, D. hoker seiden he, E. 

6 amour lyad,C. amours ly ad,!^. } " he pikes, he dikes, B. C. D. 

"^ Or e argent saunz numbre, j Nu pikes he it, and dikes he it, his 

d'autre metals plenté, B. C. Or, owenfor to be, E. '^ He pikes and 

argent saunz noumbre, des altres I " dikes," Hobert of Brunne. 


The hall was immediately taken ; fire cleared it ail 

The warder of the castle, when he saw the necessity, 
Surrendered the castle to the king without assaiilt. 
William de Douglas was appointed within it, 
And Richard Fraser, to set the king at défiance ; 
The king has them prisoners, thank Jésus Christ! 

The earl of Mardi, Patrick the renowned, 
Of his own will surrenders himself to the king's peace. 
Gilbert de Umfravile had before remained 
With king Edward, to whom he had taken his oath. 
Sir Robert de Brus, with ail his followers, 
Held always his faith towards king Edward, 
Has shown him love in his wars against the Scots. 
When Berwick was taken, within it were found 
Gold and silver enough, of the other metals plenty, 
And ail the nobility which belonged to the city. 
The Baliol has lost the issue and the entry 
Of the noblest town that was in his power. 
King Edward holds it conquered by the sword, 
Causes it to be surrounded with a wide and broad 

In reproval of the Scot, who had sung of him, 
And in mockery made rhymes upon him in English : — 

Let him pike. 

And let him dike, 
In scorn said they ; 

He dikes and he picks, 



The Scots 



and burn 
and Laner- 

On lenche ^ als liym likes, 

Hu best may be. 
[And thou bas for tbi pikyng 
Mykille ille likyng, 

Tbe sothe is to see, 
Witbout any lesyng, 
Aile is tbi hetbino* 

Fallen opon tbe.] - 
Skaterd be tbe Scottes/ 
Hoderd in tbar bottes, 

Never tbay ne tbe. 
Eytb if"* I rede, 
Tbai tumbed^ in Twede, 

Tbet^ woned by tbe se. 

Tant cnm sir Edunard of countes et barouns 
Fist Berwyk enclore de fossez ^ envirouns, 
Issuz sunt de Escoce iij. countes par nouns, 
De Mare, de Eosse, de Menetbet,® of xl. mil felouns. 
Estaynt en la route alaunz ^ en tapisouns.-^*^ 
Tindal ount destrut en cendres et carbouns,^^ 
La vile de Corbrige, et ij. religiouns, 
De Hexbilesbam et ^- Lanercost, ennentiz par arsouns ; 
Del pople du pays unt fet occisiouns, 

^ On leghe, D. 

- Thèse lines are found only in 
Eobert of Brunne. 

2 Scatered are tlie Scottis, B. 
er the, C. er ye, D. Skiterende 
Scottes, E. " For scatred er thi 
'•' Scottis, and hodred," Robert of 

-• yif, B. Hikt yif, D. " Right 
" als I rede," Robert of Brunne. 

^ thai toumbe, C. tluiy tumheld, 
D. tumhled, E. tomhled, Robert 
of Brunne, 

6 That,aD. 

' ouf fossés, C. 

^ De Ros, Ascète! , de Menetest 
B. De Ros, Assetîe, de Menetz, C. 

De Ros, Ascetle, de Menetez, D. 
" Rosse and ^Meneteste, Assetelle, 
" thise erles thre," Robert of 

^ alant, C. alaunt, D 

^^ en papisouns, D. 

^^ En passaunt unt destrut en cen- 
dres, en carbons, B. C, "which latter 
reads e charbouns. En passaunt 
ount destructe en cendres et car- 
bouns, D. 

^- De Exilham, de, B. De Exils- 
hani e Lavertoft, C. De Exilles- 
ham, de Lavertost,T>. ''Leyner- 
«tofte and Hexham," Robert of 
Brunne, according to the édition of 
Thomas Hearne. 


In length as it pleases Inm, 

How best may be. 
And tliou hast for tliy picking 
Mucli ill liking, 

The truth is to be seen, 
Without any untruth, 
AU is thy mocking 

Fallen upon thee. 
Scattered are the Scots, 
ïïuddled in their huts, 

Never do they thrive. 
Right if I read, 
They are tumbled into Tweed, 

Who dwelt by the sea. 

While sir Edward with earls and barons 
"Was causing Berwick to be inclosed with fosses around, 
Are issued from Scotland three earls vvhose names are 
Marr, Ross, Menteith, with forty thousand félons. 
They were on their way going in concealment. 
They hâve destroyed Tindale to cinders and coals, 
The town of Corbridge, and two monasteries, 
Of Hexham and Lanercost, they hâve annihilated by 

burning ; 
They hâve made slanghters of the people of the country, 



They take 
the castle 
of Dunbar. 

The car- 
dinal re- 
turns to 

King Ed- 
ward sends 
relief to 

Emporte les bens/ enchacë les chanouns. 

Après la ravye,^ cum fols et bricouns, 

Sunt alez à^ Dumbar à lur confasiouns ; 

Le cbastel unt pris, estendent^ pavyllouns. 

Al counte de la Marche estajmt les mesouns. 

[Le rei Edward l'oit dire, feit fere ^ somons] ^ 

Dumbar pur rescure, et prendre les larouns, 

Ke de saint eglyse ount fet destrucciounsJ 

Poy avaunt cel houre, parmy les regiouns 

Revynt le chardynal de Kaumbray of respouns ; 

Et del ray de Fraunce, cum après orroums,^ 

Sir Emery de Sauvay,^ quens de graunt renouns, 

Vynt en la compaynye, et Otes ^^ de Grauntsouns. 

Cil Yjnt hors de Cypre de ses compaynouns, 

Ke quant Acres fu prise, la mer as avyrouns 

En passaunt escbapaynt sanz altres achesouns.-^^ 

Avaunt ws ay counte quels mais et quels tresuns 

Sunt fet à saynt église à tort et saunz resouns ; 

Et oy avez sovent en les saynt sermouns,-^^ 

Ke Deus est draitureus en tuz ses werdouns ; '^ 

Or oyez de Dumbar, ù saunz evasiouns 

Les enemys Deu sunt pris en faude cum motouns. 

En le mays de May le mardy primer, 
A Berwyk sur Twede oyst le rai parler, 
Coment les fols felouns ke fesaynt arder 

^ Robert of Brunne seems to hâve 
read this beus, cattle, for he trans- 
lates : — 

" Thei chaced the chanons out, 

" ther godes bare a-svay, 
" And robbed aile about, the 
" bestis tok to pray." 

2 la ravine, B. la ravyn, C. 
This line is omitted in D. 

3 Pus ahynt o, D. A MS. at 
Cambridge reads de Dunbar. 

'* estendi, C. 

^ /e^ feere les somouns, C. D. 

^ This line is omitted in A., but 
is restored from B. C. D. 

' This line is omitted in D. 

^ France, après en orroms, B. 

^ Sire Amy de Sauveie, B. C, 
'w^hich reads the name Sauvaye. 
Sire Amy de Salvey, D. " Sir 
" Amys of Saveye," Eobert of 

10 Sire Otes, B. Othes, C. 

11 aître chesons, B. 

'"- This and the following line are 
omitted in D. 

1^ This line is omitted in B. 


Carried off the goods, driven away the canons. 

After tlie plimder, like fools and rognes, 

They are gone to Dunbar to tbeir mishap ; 

They hâve taken the castle, and spread ont their 

The houses belonged to the earl of March. 
King Edward heard tell of it ; caused his summons to 

be made 
To rescue Dunbar, and take the robbers, 
Who hâve made destructions of holy church. 
A little before that time, through the kingdoms 
The cardinal returns from Cambray with answer ; 
And from the king of France, as you will hear after- 

Sir Amery de Savoy, an earl of great renown, 
Came in his company, and Otho de Grauntsoun. 
The latter came ont of Cyprus with his companions, 
Who, when Acre was taken, the neighbouring sea 
Escaped in crossing without other accidents. 
I hâve before told you what evils and what treasons 
Are done to holy church wrongfully and without 

reason ; 
And you hâve often heard in the holy sermons, 
That God is just in ail his dispensations ; 
Now hear of Dunbar, where without fail 
God's enemies are taken in a fold like sheep. 

In the month of May, the fîrst Tuesday, 
At Berwick-upon-Tweed the king heard say 
How the mad félons who burnt 



Hexlesham ^ et Lanercost, n'esparnayut mouster, 
Prys avaynt Diimbar, cliastel sur la mer,^ 
Où ly quens^ Patrik tynt sa inulier. 
Ly rays sir Ediiuard ^^^ir taimt i fist ^ maunder 
Le counte de Garenne, of tut sun poer, 
Le counte de Warwj^k, et Huge le ^ Despenser ; 
Barouns et vavassoui^s, cliuvaler, esquyer, 
Surays et Norays, i alaynt ^ de bon quer, 
Assez de genz à pe' et mènent ' al mes ter, 
Et venent à Dumbar^ le chastel asseger, 
Se attyrent à l'assaut, ne volent esparnyer.^ 
The trick- ^^^ ^^^^ feluns dedeynz espayi^ent aide a ver, 
eryofSir Ses sotillent ^*^ coment les Englays engyner. 
Siward. ^^^^ Richard Syward,^^ ke solayt demorer 
Of nostre rays Eduuard à robe et à dener, 
Maunde[n]t ^^ par descayte à nos ^^ Englays treter 
Cyl les "synt ^^ et dist ke molt trevolunter 
Les fra le chastel rendre, si il volent ^^ graunter 
Trays jours de respit, k'il pussent counsayler 
Le ray de Bayllof,^^ et lur [estât] maunder;^' 
Et si cel houre ne veygne le sege remuer, 
Le chastel rederount^^ saunz plus par là targer. 
Hostage par taunt i mette, et fet nouncier 
Al hoste de Escoce^^ en mesme la maner 
Cum vus orrez après le fet recorder. 

1 Exilham, B. Exilsham e La- 
vertoft, C. Exillesham e Lavercost, 

" sur meer, C. 

3 Ouf le quens, C. 

^ ilfist,B. 

^ Warwik, sire Hughe le, C. 

« il alaint, C. This line 
omitted in D. 

' gentz al pêe il mènent, C. 
mènent y D. 

^ al Dunbar, D. 


^ reposer, B, C. D. 

10 Se sotile, B. Se sotillent, C. D. 

Suard, B. 
'2 Maundent, B. C. D. 

od nos, B. ouf nos, C. oue 
nos, D, 

Si les vint, B. S'il, D, 

si voillent, B. si volent, C. 

Baliol, B. 
^' e lour estât in., B. C. D. 
18 rendrunt, B. C. D. 
1^ de PEscoce, C. des Escotz, D. 


Hexham and Lanercost, iior spared any monastery, 
They liad taken Dunbar, a castle on the sea, 
Where earl Patrick kept his wife. 
The king sir Edward forthwith caused to be sent 

The earl of Warenne, with ail his power, 
The earl of Warwick, and Hugh le Despenser ; 
Barons and vavasors, knights, esquires, 
Southerns and Northerns went there with good will, 
They lead to the need plenty of foot-men ; 
And corne to Dunbar to besiege the castle, 
Prépare for the assanlt, will not spare. 
The foolish wretches witWn hope to hâve aid, 
They study how to deceive the English. 
Sir Kichard Siward, who used to live 
With our king Edward at robe and pay, 
They send in deceit to treat with our English. 
He came to them and said that very willingly 
He will cause the castle to be surrendered, if they 

will grant 
Three days respite, that they m^y consult 
With the king Baliol, and inform him of their con- 
dition ; 
And if at that time he corne not to raise the siège 
They will give up the castle without further delay on 

their side. 
Thereupon he gives hostages, and sends an announcement 
To the army of Scotland in the saine manner 
As you will hear the fact recorded afterwards. 



Informa-"' ^i messager s'en va, et tost aprochayt 
to Bailiol Al ray Jon Bayllof, là où il estay t ; ^ 

^. ^^' „ Lur dist cum ly Syward ^ enfoiirmez l'avayt, 
Richard's ^. i -, i i j^ «^ 

messen- " oir ray S, VOS barouns demorent en dur espiayv 

ger. u ^^ Ye chastel "* de Dumbar, en chauns les cliascait ; ^ 

" Kar quant li rays Eduuard lur estre là savayt, 

" Paiiye de sun host ilokes maunder fesait. 

'^ Ly Englais, quant [là] vint,^ le chastel assegait ; 

" Sir Richard Syward, ke tuz les conussait, 

" Issist du chastel, et taunt cum il porrayt ^ 

'' Pur trewe de iij. jours, li Englays li grauntayt.^ 

" Par quai ^ la compaynye ke ilokes par ws alayt, 

" A ws, cum à seygnur,-^^ aler me comaundayt, 

" Et dire verraiment ke home ne seet^^ ne vayt 

" Dunt ws les pourrez vaindre, si noun par descait.^^ 

" Dedenz trewe le terme^^ ke le Englais nus ^^ grauntait, 

" A demayn cel houre-^^ k'em mangeust et bait, 

" Alez de cest part hastivement laundi^ait,-^^ 

" Les voz du chastel ws vendi'unt-^" par agayt, 

" Istrount sur les Englays ke lur venii- ne crayt ; -^^ 

" Happez les entre vus,^^ tenez les si estrayt 

'' Ke mes en chaump ne venent pur fere les voz sur- 

" fayt.20 

^ A rei Johan e à Vost qe od li ^- This Une is omitted in B 

estait, B. Al rey Jolian, et à Vhoste 
qe ouf ly estait, C. D. 

^^ Dedenz le terme de treu, B. C. 


2 Z,i dit cum sire Siward, B. \ '^ vus, D. 

2 en dur plait, B. D. 1 ^5 J)ernein à tel houre, B. tel houre 

•* En chastel, D. j qe home m., D. Robert of Brunne 

5 où chance lour chaceit, B, en \ translates it, " To moru in thé none 
chaunce, C. D. " tide, -wlian thei ère at the mete." 

6 quant là vint, B. C, D. i« hastez vus laundrait, D. 
" e tant bel parleit, B. C. D. , ^"i vus verront, B. D. 

^ Qe treu pur treis jours VEngleis \ ^^ l'Engleis qe lour ne cr.eit, B. ly 

l'otrieit, B. C. Qe trewe pur iij. j Englays qe lour venir ne a'ayt, D. 

jours luy Englays ly ottrayt, D. I ^^ " lap tham bitnex ^o-sr," Robert 

^ Pur quayj C. 
'° com seignur, C. 
'- qe home set, B. 

of Brunne. 

-® venent fere à vus surfeit, B. ne 
venent fere à les vos surfait, J). 


The messenger départs, and soon approaclied 
The king John Baliol, and the army who were with him. 
He told them as the Siward had instructed him, 
" Sir king, your barons remain in hard case 
'^ In the castle of Dunbar, where chance drove them ; 
" For when king Edward knew of their being there, 
" He caused part of his army to be sent thither. 
" The English, when he came, laid siège to the castle ; 
" Sir Richard Siward, who knew them ail, 
" Issued from the castle, and pleaded so well 
" For a truce of three days that the English granted 

'^ it. 
'* Wherefore the company who went thither on your 

'* account 
^' Commanded me to go to you as to their sovereign, 
'' And to say truly that one neither knows nor sees 
" How you can vanquish them, except by deceit. 
'' Within the term of truce which the Englishman 

" granted us, 
" To-morrow at the hour when people eat and drink, 
" Go in that direction hastily thither, 
" Your people of the castle will see you by their 

" watch, 
" Will make a sally upon the English who expect not 

*' their coming ; 
*^ Snap them between you, hold them so tight 
*^ That they corne no more in field to do you damage. 

Q 2 



Their ex- " Yous ne avez altve vaye ke valer ws dayt ; ^ 
utation. i( Q^.^ armez-vus, si alouins, nul aime se 2 retrayt. 
" De nos^ enemys, 
" Kant serount pris, 

" Mercy nul en ait.* 
" Ferez du braund 
" Northumberlaund, 

" Le vostre ert^ de drait. 
" Tut Engleterre 
" Par ceste guère 

" Voyliez ke perdu saj^t ; 
" Unkes Albanye 
" Par coup d'espeye 

" Fist si bon esplayt. 
'^ On grene^ 
'' That k}Tiered kene 

" Gadered aLs gayt ; ^ 
" I wene^ 

" On summe it es^ sene 
« Whar the byt bayt/'^^ 
SirRichard Alayt li messager al route -^^ de raskayle, 
seekïto ^'^nger se comence al fore ^- de bataylle ; 
deceive the Sir Richard Sywar[d], ke dona le ^^ counsaylle, 

Veent à nos Englays, et dist,^* '' Si Deu me vaylle,^^ 
" Jo vai genz venir ^^ de molt graunt apparaylle, 
" Cum batayller vousisent, saunz nombre de jDytaylle, 
" Jo voys, si ws loez, fere i-^'' destoui'baylle, 


1 TMs Une is omitted in D. 

2 7ie se, B. 

^ Des vos, D. 

* nul n'eit, B. 

5 est, B. 

^ On the grene, B. On grene, D. 
" Ther on that grene," Robert of 

' als the gait, B. and Robert of 

^ " Right, as I wene," Robert of 

^ is it, B. "-n-as it sene," Robert 
of Brunne. 

10 .-i -pher the bit bayte," Robert 
of Brunne. 

^' Au dit la messager la route^ B. 
Al dit le messagère la route, D. 

^- àfoer,B. alfoer,!). 

^3 celé c, B. cel c, D. 

'* les dist, D. 

^* 7n^availe,3. 

'^ Jeo vei venir geni, B. 

»" un, B. 


" You have no other way likely to avail you ; 
" Now arm yourselveS; and let us go, let no sonl hold 
'' back. 

'' Of our enemies, 

" When tliey shall be taken, 

'^ Let no one have mercy. 
" Strike with the sword 
" Korthumberland, 

" It will be yoiirs by right. 
" Ail England 
" By this war 

" Résolve that it shall be ruined; 
" Never Albany 
" By sword's blow 

" Did so great exploit. 
" On green 
" That sharp race 

" Are gathered like goats ; 
^' I am of opinion 
'^ On some it is seen 

" Where the bit punishes." 

The messenger went to the army of low people, 
It began to arrange itself in order of battle. 
Sir Richard Siward, who gave the advice, 
Cornes to our English, and says, '' If God protect me, 
" I see people coming with very great appearance, 
" As though they intended to give battle, with innu- 

" merable foot, 
" I go, if you approve it, to put an impediment among 

" them, 



He is ^' Ke pi^g Tpres ne venent ; " le[s] noz dient, '' noun 
^^ested. „ kayUe/^i 

Et prenent ly Syward ke plus avaunt n'y aylle ; 
Establyent gardayns al port et al ^ muraylle. 
Umfray de Bonn le joven tent la ^ garde en baylle/ 
Ke aide du chastel lure reregard ne ^ assaylle, 
Et mountent les destrers, les brochent al mountaylle ; 
E ^ ke plus tost pot coure, devaunt ^ ly altre saille. 
Les Escoce^ les vait venir, la cowe les torne cum 
quayle ^ 
Battle of YtU enfuaunt s'en vole '^^ al vent cum fet la paylle. 
and entire I^es Englays après les chacent cum owaylle, 
defeat of j^^ fuyst quant vait le low venir de boskaylle.^^ 
Ly surquiders Escote^- quide ke countrevaylle 
Le duk sir Coryné ^^ ke conquist Cornewaylle. 
Des taunz de gens armez ^^ mult ayt grant mervaylle 
Ke nés un de tuz al fet vait une maylle, 
For[s] Patrik de Grabam, ke demort et daylle 
De l'espeye fourbye, mes tuez est saunz faylle. 
Dis mil cynquant et quatre sunt tuez al travaylle ; 
Trestuz sunt d'Escoce, le noumbre est par taylle.^^ 
Cels furent les cheftayns ke demaglerent ^^ le aumaylle 
Parmy Northumberland, al cbens lessaynt -^^ l'entraylle ; 
Escomengez estayent de ly vre -^^ et chaundaylle, 

^ non kaihy B. noun kaylîe, D. 
- à port e à, B, 

3 n'eut îa, B. 

4 layïïe, D. 

^ leur rereward ne a., B, lour 
reregarde, D. 

6 Et omitted in B. D. 

7 avant, B. D. 
^ L'escoez, B. 

^ Z,a cowe se turne cum quaile, B. 

^^ En suant se vole, B. Et en 
fuaunt se vole, D. 

^^ Ço fust quant veit venir le loude 
boscaile, B. This line is omitted in 

'- Li surquider Escot, B. D. 

^^ Le duc Corinêe, B. 

^^ De tanz des genz as armes, B. 
De taunz des gentz as armes mult 
ay grant, D. 

^•^ ai par taile, B. The last five 
■u-ords of this line and the first four 
of the next are omitted in D., so as 
to make only one line. 

^^ les cheitifs qe demagleient, B. 
This line is omitted in D. 

^'' à chiens lessent, B. as chens 
lessaynt, D. 

^® od livere, B. al lumere et al, 


'^ That they corne no nearer ;" ours say ' ' Care not," 
And take Siward that he may go tliere no further ; 
They place keepers upon gâte and upon wall. 
Humphrey de Bohun the young has the ward in charge 
That aid from the castle attack them not in the 

rear ; 
And they mount their steeds, spur them to the hill ; 
And he who can go quickest, springs before the others. 
The Scots see them corne, turn tail upon them like as 

a quail 
In fleeing away Aies before the wind like straw 

The English after chace them like sheep 
Which Aies when it sees the wolf come out of the 

The presumptious Scot believes that he is worth more 

The duke sir Corineus who conquered Cornwall. 
Of so many armed men it was very great wonder 
That not one of them is worth a farthing in deed, 
Except Patrick de Graham, who remains and fights 
Witli the furbished sword, but he is slain without 

Ten thousand and fifty-four are killed in the engage- 
ment ; 
They are ail of Scotland, the number is by count. 
Thèse were the chieftains who slaughtered the cattle 
Through Northumberland, they left the entrails to the 

dogs ; 
They were excommunicated by book and candie, 



Purço ke à seynt église, à prestre ne^ clergaille, 

Nent plus esparnaynt ke four ou torraylle ; ^ 

Pechë les ad chacë à tel aiyvaylle, 

Ke perduz ount en le chaump les chefs of le oraylle.^ 

mockeryof The fote folk * 

the Scots. p^|3 the ^ Scottes in the polk, 

And nackened^ thair nages. 
Bi waye^ 
Herd i^ never saye, 

Of prester pages, 
To pyke 
The robes of the rike, 

That^ in the felde felle.^^ 
Thay token ay tulke ; 
The roghe raggy sculke 

Rug ham in helle.^^ 

1 qe seint église, ne prestre, ne, 

2 qefour en toraylle, D. 

3 en champ le chief ovesqe Voraile, 
B. en chaumpe le chef oveke Voraylle. 
D. Robert of Brunne has abridged 
the preceding lines, and has pre- 
faced the English verses with the 
following — 

" The Scottis had no grâce, 
" To spede in ther space, 

" For to men ther nisse, 
" Thei filed ther face, 
" That died in that place, 

" The Inglis rymed this." 

4 Wel ivrth a fote folk, That 
put the Scottes in the polk. And 
paied theni theire wages, E. Robert 
of Brunne reads, " Oure fote folk." 

5 that the, B. putte ye, D. 
" putte tham in," Robert of Brunne. 

6 and nakid, B. nakkend, D. 

7 Be wai, B. Robert of Brunne 
has, " Bi no way." 

Bi wode ne bi weie, 
Herdi nevere seie 

Of prestere pages, 
To pulle and to pike 
The robes of the rike 
That in the feld f elle. 
Howferd the ivrechcs thenne, 
The devel I them bikenne 
That ragged sit in helle. — E. 

8 Her I, B. 

9 And, B. D. 

^0 the dik sonne, B. the dike syonne , 
D. Robert of Brunne gives thèse 
lines as follows : — 
" Purses to pike, 
" Robis to rike, 
" And in dike tham schonne ; 
« Thou wiffin 
" Scot of Abrethin, 
" Kotte is thi honne." 
" Instead of this, B. has — 
Tliou wiffin, 
Scot of Abrenityn, 
Cloutid is thi honne. 
and D., 


Scot of Abernithin, 
dut es ty honne. 


Because to holy church, to priest nor clergy, 
Did tliey show mercy more than to oven or barn ; 
Sin has driven them to such a resuit, 
That they hâve lost in the field then* heads with the 

The foot folk 

Put the Scots in the poke, 

And bared their buttocks. 
By way 

Never heard I say 
Of readier boys, 
To rob 
The robes of the rich 

That fell in the field. 
They took of each man ; 
May the rough ragged fiend 
Tear them in hell ! 



of the 
at Dunbar. 




Disposai of 
the pri- 

Du bataylle ne poygniz^ fust unkes recordez 
Ke taunz de genz si tost estayent outrayez, 
Ne issynt- saunz défense les renés retornez ; 
Corfs unt ^ les cors, les aimes à malfez * 
De trestuz ke issint gueres ^ ount guyez ! 
Car de celé part fnst unkes une fez,^ 
Denz vile ne dehors, un bon fet esprovez. 
Mes for gopillier et robber les vilez, 
Arder seint eglyse, tuer les ordinez. 
Cil Deu sayt loé ke ad Durabar l'ad vengez ! 
Les countes ke avaynt fet les malveistez, 
Si tost cum savaynt^ et furent avysez 
De la descomfitui'e sur lour^ parentez, 
As Englays, quant repaient, le chastel ount liverez, 
Et sauns condiciouns^ els mesmes obligez 
Al ray sir Eduuard, dount fere ses volentez. 
Li rays lendemayn i vynt à ses ^^ barnez, 
Les prisouns ke sunt pris li sunt présentez, 
Trais countes, iij. barouns, iij. banerez nomez, 
Saunz els xxviij.^^ chuvalers adubbez, 
Of V, vynz ^^ gentilshommes ke ilokes sunt trovez ; 
Deus clers et ij. Pikars par entre els sunt ^^ noumbrez. 
A la thour de Loundres les countes sunt maundez, 
Les uns de [s] barouns les [sunt] associez ; -^^ 
Et ^^ à diverse chastels les altres enveez, 
Par deus et ij. ensemble un hakenay mountez, 
Les uns en charettes, enfergez les pez. 

1 De bataile Jie de pnnlce,^. De 
hataylle ne punyce, D. 

2 Ne ensi, B. This line is omitted 

3 eient, B. et/ent, D. 

4 les aimes seient sauvez, B. les 
aimes les viaufez, D. 

5 qe ensint guère, B. q'ensint 
gweres, T>. 

^ This and the four following lines 
are omitted in D. 

' cum aveient, B. 

^ de lour, C. 

^ condicion, B. 

"^ od ses, B. e ses, C. 

^^ £ sa7is eaus xx. et viij., B. 

^2 Oue XX. V. C. 

^3 parentre sont, C. D. " Tuo 
" clerkes, tuo Pikardes )it were 
" among tho," Robert of Brunne. 

^^ les sunt associez, B. C. D. 

15 Et omitted in B. C. D. 


Of battle or combat was never recorded 
That so many people were so soon slain, 
Nor thus without résistance turned their backs ; 
Ravens hâve their corpses, their soûls to the fiends 
Of ail those who hâve thus conducted wars ! 
For on that side was never once, 
Within town or without, a good deed sliown, 
But only to sneak about and plunder the towns, 
Burn holy church, slay the clergy. 
May that God be praised who at Dunbar has avenged 

The earls who had committed the offences, 
As soon as they knew and were informed 
Of the discomfiture upon their kindred, 
They hâve delivered up the castle to the English when 

they corne back 
And without conditions obliged themselve^ 
To the king sir Edward to be at his will. 
The king came there next day with his barons, 
The prisoners who are taken are presented to him, 
Three earls, three barons, three bannerets of name, 
Besides them twenty-eight knights addubbed, 
With five score gentlemen who are found there ; 
Two clerks and two Pikards are numbered among 

The earls are sent to the Tower of London, 
Some of the barons are associated with them ; 
And the others sent to différent castles 
By two and two together mounted on a hackney, 
Some in carts, with fetters on the feet. 


En tel plait de karole lur ^ jeu est terminez ; 
[Parmi Engletere en totes les cuntrez,] ^ 
De lur surquiderye à touz jours ert ^ parlez, 
Taunt cum le secle dure lur fet les ad * mokez. 
For Scottes^ 
Telle i for sottes,^ 

And wrecclies unwar ; 
Unsele "' 
Dintes to dele 

Tham droliu^ to Dumbar. 
Negotia- Ore ® est tens à dire du compassement 
tions of Lgg ;xy^ pères de Escoce, ke quidaynt sûrement 
for an al- Engleterre destrure, ben ws diray ^^ coment. 
hance with Quant le ray de Fraunce après le dallyement 
De cel maryage dount fu parlé sovent, 
Volayt tenir Gascoyne par abbatement/^ 
Et le ray s Eduuard ilokes maunda sa gent, 
Et partye par guère sur Frauncays reprent, 
Le ray Jon de Escoce, par l'entycement 
De countes^^ et barouns, et clers ensement. 
Ad maundez en Fraunce par commune assent 
Le eveske de saint Andreu, par ki procurement 
Frère le ray de Fraunce, Charles nomément, 
Pur le fîz^^ le ray de Escoce ad fet alyement, 
Dount marier sa feylle, et après par serement, 
Frauncays et les Escoz ^* iraj^nt uniement 

^ leur omitted in C. 

2 This line is omitted in A., but 
it is found in B. C. D. Robert of 
Brunne bas bere, — 

" Tborgbout Inglond men said of 

" tbam scbanie, 
" And tber tbei were in bond men 

" scomed tham bi name." 

3 ert touz jours, B. C. D. 
■* leur fet ad, B. 

•^ For the Scottis, B. Skiterende 
Scottes, E. " The Scottis," Robert 
of Bnmne, 

<5 " I telle for sottis," Robert 
of Bnmne. 

<" Mikel unsele, E. 

s droght, C. drog, D. them drof 
to Dunhar, E. Drouh, Robert of 

'-' Des ore, C. D. 

10 dirra, C. 

^1 ahatement, C. 

'2 Des countes, B. D. De countes 
e de barons e de clers, C. 

13 Purfitz, B. C. D. 

'^ e Escoce, B. 



In such a style of dance their game is ended ; 
Tlirouo'hovit Eno^land in ail tlie countries 
There will be for ever talk of tlieir presumption, 
Their deed lias turned them to mockery as long as the 
world shall last. 
For the Scots 
I reckon for fools, 

And wretches unvvary ; 
Want of luck 
In dealing blows 

Drew them to Dunbar. 

Now it is time to tell of the conspiracy 
Of the twelve peers of Scotland, who thought surely 
To destroy Engiand, I will tell y ou exactly how. 
When the king of France, after the dealing 
About that marriage which was often spoken of, 
Sought to hold Gascony by abatement, 
And king Edward sent thither his people, 
And retakes part of it from the French by war, 
King John of Scotland, by the enticement 
Of earls and barons, and likewise of the clergy, 
Has sent into France by common assent 
Thé bishop of St. André w's, by whose procuration, 
The brother of the king of France, Charles by name, 
Has made an alliance for the son of the king of Scot- 

For a marriage with his daughter, and afterwards by 

French and Scots should go conjointly 



Engleterre destrure de Twede jekes en Kent ;^ 
Et ke le ray de Fraunce prendrayt aryvement, 
Quel houre k'il vousist, en Twede prestement, 
Par ount Northumberland prendraynt sodaynement, 
Et pus la terre tote saunz nul - desturbement, 
Ne lerraynt^ homme en vye, père ne parent.* 
La fause purparlaunce saunz esplayt atent. 
Le senescal de Escoce est venu fa^Titement ^ 
Al rays sir Eduuard, of quant ke à ly appent, 
Countes et barouns, [et] eveskes playnement, 
Sunt venuz à sa pes encountre lur talent,^ 
KingJohn Le ray Jon et sun fiz, saunz terre et tenement, 
ried°a prL" ^^^^^ menez à Loundres attender jugement, 
soner to Ore ad le rays Eduuard Escoce enterement, 
Cum Albanak ]e avayt al comencement.'^ 
Calays, Yrays/ 
A nos Englays 

Aident durement ; ^ 
Dount les Escoz 
Ount par le[s] noz 
Et celé terre, 
Par ceste guere,^^ 

Est perdu finalement. 
Les Walays ^^ sunt repairez, 
Et les Yrays retornez^ 
Al sigle et al vent. 
Ws Englays [i] demorez^- 


1 à Kent, B. 

- nul omitted in B. CD. 

3 Ne lerreit, B. C. D. 

4 ne frère ne p., B. ne père ne 
parent, D. 

5 venu bonement, B. venuz bone- 
ment, C. D. 

^ tut à son talent, B. C. D. 

7 This line is omitted in B. 

^ Galeis, Irreis, B. 

9 " halp douhtily," Robert of 

'" par cel gwere, C. 

1^ Galeis, B. Les Galais qe sont, 

12 i demoreZf B. C. D. 


To destroy England from Tweed into Kent ; 

And that tlie king of Fi-ance shonld make arrivai, 

At wliat time he would, into Tweed ready, 

Whereby they would take suddenly Northumberland, 

And then ail tlie land without any hindrance ; 

They would leave no man alive, father nor kinsman. 

The treacherous conférence remains without effect. 

The steward of Scotland is corne with dissimulation 

To king Edward, with ail that belongs to him, 

Earls and barons, and bishops openly, 

Are corne to his peace against their will. 

King John and his son, without land and tenement, 

Are carried to London to wait judgment. 

Now has king Edward Scotland entirely 

As Albanak had it at the beginning. 

Welsh and Irish, 

To our English, 

Give aid courageously ; 

Whereby the Scots 

Hâve from ours 

And that land 

By this war 
Is lost finally. 

The Welsh are gone home, 

And the Irish returned, 
With sail and wind. 

You English remain there. 



tions to 
klng Ed- 
ward to 
judge the 
"with seve- 

Doucement prier devez ^ 

Ke Dampnedeu omnipotent ^ 
Aman recounciller, 
Et Mardoclieum exiller, 

En régal parlement. 
Eduuard, parmy tuz ^ vos resuns, 
Voilliez penser des arsouns^ 

Du temple Deu^ omnipotent, 
A Hexelesham, où cel host^ 
De la croice fesaint^ rost, 

Figure de liumayn ^ salvement. 
Herodes i fert, l'emplile mourt,^ 
En ceste angusse Rachel plurt ; 

Eduuard, or fa la vengement.^^ 
Tu auras -"^^ jugé, jugez à drayt, 
SufFrez k'il pend^^ ke pender dait, 

La lay le volt ^^ certainement, 
La pain est dm'e et molt cruele/* 
Kar ele est perpetuele, 

A tuz^^ ke jugent altrement. 
Vos enemyz or chastiez, 
K'il ne se movent altre fez 

En un novel torment.^^ 
Homme dait mercy aver ; 
Mes à traitur^^ ne dait valer, 

Iloke la lay la '^ suspent. 

^ Devoutement Dieu priez, "B. Dé- 
votement prier devez, C. 

- qe Dampnedieu defent, B. C. D. 

" tuz omitted in B. 

'' de arsouns, C. 

* Deu omitted in B. 

^ Qe à Exilham en cel host, B. 
A Exihham ouf cel hoste, C. A 
Excellesham, D. 

' feseit, B, fesaunt, C. 

^ de un mayn, C. 

^ Herodes fertyV enfant murt, B. 

Herodes i fert, ly emphile mourt, C. 
ly emfts, D. 

^^ E fai jugement, B. Edward, 
fa le vengement, D. 

'^ avéras, D. 

^■- Suffrez pendre ce pendre, B. 

^^ La lei voet, B. 

" ecruel,B.T>. 

15 A tuz omitted in B. 

^^ Un novel turnement, B. C. tour- 
nayment, D. 

lî" Mes traitour, C. 

'8 les, B. 


You ought gently to pray 

That the Lord God forbid 
To take again into favour Aman, 
And to exile Mardocheus 

In royal parliament. 
Edward, among ail your reasons, 
Deign to tiiink of the burnings 

Of the temple of God Almighty, 
At ïïexham, where that army 
Made roast of the cross, 

The figure of man's salvation. 
Herod there strikes, the child dies ; 
In this anguish Eachel laments ; 

Edward, now do the vengeance. 
Thou wilt hâve judged, judge rightly ; 
SufFer that lie hang who ought to hang, 

The law wills it certainly. 
The punishment is hard and very cruel, 
For it is everlasting, 

To ail who judge otherwise. 
Your enemies now chastise, 
That they rise not another time 

In a new trouble. 
Man ought to hâve mercy, 
But it ought not to avail a traiter ; 

There the law suspends it. 




against the 

Pur amy ne pur dener, 
Ray ne dait esparnier, 

K'il ne juge owelemenfc. 
Si li rays volt Deu servir, 
La lay ly covent mayntenir ; 

Si noun, il pecche et molt mesprent.-^ 
Pur veir quant Jon de Balliol- 
Lessa sun liver à ^ l'escol, 

Desceu fu tremalement.* 
For boule bred in bis bok, 
Wen be tint tbat be tok 

Wibt ye kingedome.'' 
For be baves ^ overbipped, 
His tipet is tipped, 

His tabard is tom. 

rule esta- 
blished in 

De oninistris et statutis in Scotia? 

Orgoyl en payse est urtil en berber, 
Ke suztret ^ la rose, et la bout ^ arer. 
Ensint est du Balliol,^^ ke par li duze per 
Perduz ad [le] realme/^ et va sojourner 
A la tbour de Loundres sur autri dener. 
Li rays sir Eduuard Escoce fet garder ; 
Li quens [Jon] de Garenne i est ^^ cbef justiser, 
Et^^ Henry de Percy ad Galway à guyer.^* 
A Berwick sur Twede assise est^^ le escbeker, 

^ il pecche e mespreni, B. 

2 Pur veir Johan le Baliol, B. 

^ et Vescol, B. D. en Vescole, C. 

"^ fu malment, B. trop malement, 

5 " Aile his kyngdome," Robert 
of Bmnne. 

^ lias, B. 

' This rubric is taken from B. 

^ surcrest, B. C. D. 

^ reboute, B. 

10 de Baliole, C. 

11 le reaume, B. 

^"^ Li quens Johan de Garenne esty 
B. Li quens Johan de Garenne i 
est, C. Ly quens Jon de Garenne 
il est justicer, D. " Sir Jon of 
" Warenne he is chef justise," 
Eobert of Brunne. 

1^ Et omitted in B. 

1^ à garder, C. 

1' assis ad, B. CD. 


For friend nor for money, 
A king ought not to spare, 

So as not to judge equally. 
If the king will serve God, 
He must maintain the law ; 

If not, he sins and acts wrong. 
For truth when John de Baliol 
Left his book at the school, 

He was very ill deceived. 
For baie bred in this book, 
When he lost what he took 

With the kingdom. 
For he has overhopped, 
His tippet is tipped, 

His tabard is empty. 

0/ the ministers and statutes in Scotland. 
Pride in a country is a nettle in a garden, 
Which overgrowes the rose and pushes it back. 
So is it with the Baliol, who by the twelve peers 
Has lost the realm, and goes to take his lodging 
In the tower of London at another's expense. 
The king sir Edward places Scotland under guard ; 
The earl John of Warenne is there chief justice, 
And Henry de Percy has Galway to rule. 
The exchequer is established at Berwick-on-Tweed, 

R 2 



in Scot- 

Energy of 
the bishop 

Et Huofe de Cressino-ham ilokes est tresorer, 
Et ly Hamundesliam ^ Walter est cliauneeler. 
Le ray pur pes norrir baunk i fet - crier, 
Et justizes cynk la lay à governer, 
Vescountes et baillifs sunt mvs al mester^ 
Des Englais ke sevent et volent drait juger. 
La garde est establye si bon et si enter, 
Ne Flemang ne Frauncais desore n'avéra^ poer 
Entrer en Escoce, si noun pur marcliaunder. 
De tuz les melz vanez ke dayvent demorer^ 
Pris sunt^ les bornages, le ray les fist jorer 
Ke leaus ly serraynt par terre et par mer. 
Ke comencaynt la guère et li counsayler 
Sunt maundez delà Trent en sewe reposer, 
Taunt cum la guère en Gascoyne ^ dayt durer. 
Issint dait li sire ses hommes cbastier. 
Le eveske de Dm*eme, ke molt fet à loer,^ 
En conqueraunt la terre fat tuz jurs le primer ; 
Ne fussent ses ^ emprises et hardiement de quer, 
Choses ore chevyes serraint ^^ à comencer. 

Les xii. pères 

S'e[n] vount à freres,^^ 
Pur ^^ els confesser ; 

Le jugement 

Ke les atent 

Porrount il doter.^^ 

^ Amundisham, C. D. Robert of 
Brunne translates, — 

" Sir Hugh of Cressyngham he 

" -vras chancelere, 
" Walter of Admundesham he 

" -was tresorere." 
'^fist, D. 

^ à îy mester, CD. 
** des ore avéra, B. C. D. 
^ This and tlie t-vro following lines 
are omitted in D. 

'^ Pris unt, B. 

" en Gascoine la guère, B. C. D. 

s This and the three following 
lines are omitted in D., the scribe of 
vhich often seeks to abridge. 

9 ces, C. 

^^ fusent, B. furent, C. 

^^ Vunt à les frères, B. S^en von 
à frères, CD. 

1- Pur omitted in C. D. 

'^ Porrount douter, C D. 


And Hugh de Cressingliam is treasurer there, 

And Walter de Hamundesham is chancellor. 

The king to nourisli peace causes Lis bench to be 

proclaimed tliere, 
And five justices to administer the law. 
Slierifîs and bailiffs are appointed to office 
Of the English who can and will judge right. 
The guard is established so good and so complète, 
Neither Fleming nor Frenchman will henceforth hâve 

To enter into Scotland, except for merchandize. 
Of ail those of most account who are to remain, 
Taken are the homages, the king makes them swear 
That they would be loyal to him by land and by 

They who began the war and they who counselled it 
Are sent beyond Trent to dwell in the South, 
So long as the war may last in Gascony. 
Thus ought the lord to chastise his men. 
The bishop of Durham, who did much to deserve 

In conquering the land was always the first ; 
Were it not his energy and boldness of heart, 
Things now completed would be to begin. 

The twelve peers 

Go to friars, 

To confess them ; 

The judgment 

Which awaits them 
They may fear. 



against the 

Se tent tut coy,^ 

Ne volt aider ; 
La sorcerye 
De Albanye 

Ne put valer. 
Andreu est mort,^ 
Ou il se dort^ 

Al mouster. 
Le Escote ke fra, 
Kaunt il orra 

Le ray parler 
A saint Edmoun, 
Et de tresoun 

Appeler ^ 
Counte et baroun, 
Ke par arsoun 

Destrut l'alter?^ 
Plus loynz ne pot, 
Ilokes estot^ 

Estre cum 1er; 

Camhyn oie, B. Kaumbynhoy, 


2 tynt en coy, C. 
2 Andreu se dort, B. C. D. 
4 Ou il est mort, B. C. D. Ro- 
bert of Brunne, who was perhaps 
scandalized at the notion of St. 
Andrew being dead, or even asleep, 
translates thèse lines as follows : — 
" Andrew is wroth, 
" Tho wax him loth, 

" For ther pride. 
" He is tham fro, 
" Now salle thei go 
" Schame to betide." 
5 Le appeller, B. 
c Vautrer, C. 

î" Vestut, C. Testoet, D. Robert 
of Brunne, after omitting some 
lines hère, alters so nmch to the 
end of the paragraph, that I prefer 

giving it ail as it stands in his 
translation, to taking only the Ta- 
rions readings : — 

" Thou scabbed Scotte, 
" Thi nek thi hotte, 

" The develle it breke ! 
" It salle be hard 
" To hère Edward 

" Ageyn the speke. 
" He salle the ken 
" Our lond to bren, 

" And werre bigynne ; 
" Thou getes no thing, 
"But thi rivelyng 

" To hang therinne. 
" The sete of the Scone 
" Is driven over Done, 

" To London led. 
" A hard wele telle 
" That bagelle and belle 

" Be filchid and fled." 



Holds himself ail coy, 

Will not aid; 
The sorcery 
Of Albany 

Cannot avail. 
Andrew is dead, 

Or he sleeps 

At the minster. 
What will the Scot do, 
When he shall hear 

The king speak 
At St. Edmund's, 
And of treason 

Earl and baron, 
Who by burning 

Destroys the altar ? 
No further can he, 
Thither he must 

Stand as a thief ; 



rhymes ou 
the Scots. 




union of 


and Scot- 


Et par agard 
Le rays Eduuard 

And swa may men-^ kenue 
The Scottes to renne 

And werre biginne ; 
Somme is left na tliing, 
Bot his roiigh ryveling^ 

To hippe tliarynne. 
Thair kinges sette of Scone ^ 
Es driven over done, 

To Lunden i-ledde ; 
In tonne herd I telle, 
Thair bao-hel and thair belle "* 

Ben filched ^ and fledde. 

Be unione Angliœ et l^cotiœ^ 

Ha, Deus ! ke ^ Merlyn dist sovent veritez 
En ses prophecyes, [si]cum ws les lisez ! ^ 
Ore sunt les ij. e^ves en un aryvez, 
Ke par graunz mountaynes ^ ount este severez ; 
Et une^*^ reaime fet de [deus] diverse ^^ régnez 
Ke solaint par deus rays estre governez. 
Ore sunt les insulanes trestuz assemblez, 
Et Albanye rejoynte à les regaltez ^- 
Des quels li rays Eduuard est seyo'nur clamez. 
Corne waylle et^^ Wales sunt en ses poustez, 
Et Irelaunde la graunde à ses voluntez. 

^ man, C. D. 

" But the riven riveliny, B. Bot 
his riven ryveling, C. D. 

3 ous Scone, C. 

4 That baghel and belle, B. C. 
and the belle, D. 

5 Bienfliched,C. 

^ This rubric, omitted in A., is 
given from B. C. and D. 

<" O Dieu ! cum, D. 

^ sicum lisez, B. sicum vous lisez, 

^ grant mountaigne, B. 

^^ En lin, D. 

^' est fet dedous divers r., B. est 
fet, C. de deus divers. D. 

^'- This line is omitted in D. 

^3 et omitted in D. 


And hy juclgment 
King Edward 

Condemii liim. 
And so may men teach 
The Scots to run 

And begin war ; 
To some is left nothing, 
But Lis rough riveling (slioe) 

To hop in. 
Their king's seat of Scone 
Is driven over downs, 

Carried to London ; 
In town I heard tell, 
Their jewels and their bells 

Are stolen and fîed. 

Of the union of England and Scotland. 

Ah, God ! how often Merlin said truth 
In his prophecies, if you read them ! 
Now are the two waters united in one, 
Which hâve been separated by great mountains ; 
And one realm made of two différent kingdoms 
Which used to be governed by two kings. 
Now are the islanders ail joined together, 
And Albany reunited to the royalties 
Of which king Edward is proclaimed lord. 
Cornwall and Wales are in his power, 
And Ireland the great at his will. 



great for- 

The saints 
who help 

Rays n'y ad ne prince de tuz les countrez^ 
Fors le ray Eduuard, ke ensi les ad joustez f 
Arthur ne ava3^t "unkes si plainement les fez. 
Desore n'y ad ke fere for purver ses alez 
Sur li ray de Fraunce, conquere ses héritez, 
Et pus porter la croyce où Jhesu Cryst fu nez. 
Ses enemys,^ 
Deus mercys ! 

Sunt chastiez; 
Trestuz sunt ^ maz. 
Et pris cum raz 

Il ad coruz, 
Et combatuz 
Ben assez, 
Of deus rays 
A une fays, 

Et utrayez. 
Cely descà 
Ore aylle delà 

Of ses barnez.^ 
Jon et Thomas 
Li lerrount pas 

Chuthbert ly vent, 
Ke of ly teent 

En ses medlez.^ 
En Deu ws dy, 
Merlyn de ly*^ 

Ad prophetez. 
ïrays regiouns 
En ses baimdouus 
Serrount waygnez ; 

1 This and the following Une ai'e 
omitted in D. 

2 Cl ensi les adjiistisez, B. qe en- 
sint H adjusticez, C. 

3 Son enemys, C. 

^ sunt omitted in B. 
^ This and the two preceding 
lines are omitted in D. 
'^ les mcdlez, C. 
' le dy, A. 


There is neither king nor prince of ail the countries 
Except king Edward, who has thus united them ; 
Arthur had never the nefs so fully. 
Henceforward there is nothing to do but provide his 

Against the king of France, to conquer his inheritances, 
And then bear the cross where Jésus Christ was born. 
His enemies, 
Thank God ! 

Are chastised ; 
They are ail defeated, 
And taken like rats 

In trap. 
He has run about, 
And combated 

Quite enough, 
With two kings 
At one time, 

And overthrown them. 
Let the one on this side 
Now go over there 
With his barons. 
John and Thomas 
Will not leave him 

Without aid. 
Cuthbert comes to him 
Who holds with him 

In his battles. 
In God I tell you, 
Merlin of him 

Has prophesied, 
Three régions 
Into his power 
Shall be gained ; 


Ne sayt blemye ^ 
La propliecye 

Par peccliez ! 
Sire ^ Deus omnipotent, 
A saint Edmoun al parlement ^ 

Li counsayllez; 
Et sui' li faus * Plielippe de Fraimce, 
Par ta vertu, aver vengaunce 

Li graimtez.^ 

De iKi/diamento apud Scf/iictuni Edmundum.^ 

The Par- Al burg Saint " Edmoun, le jour establye, 
SL^d- ^^ Sunt venuz les eveskes, of la compaygnye ^ 
mund's. Des ercedenes ^ et clers, ad quels ^'^ li rays jorie 
Des bens de saint église aide et curtaisye, 
Ensi cum il ^^ promistrent auntan en le abbye ^^ 
De Westmouster, par quai li rays de ço -^^ s'aâye 
En soecour^^ de sa guère, ke n'est pas fînye.-'-^ 
Countes et baronns et la chuvalerye 
Pur els et pur le pople li grauntent ^^ en aye 
Le disime dener/^ et pur la marcliaundye 

1 Langtoft's translator, Eobert of - Sire omîtted in D. 
Bninne, Tvho wrote at a later date, ! ^ à parlement, C 
■when the hopes hère expressed -vrere 
overthrown, and the Scots "were 
again troublesome, adds on this 
passage the following reflections of 
his own. 

" That Pers said, 

" Me think it is laid, 
" The pes so trewe ; 

'• Now ilk )ere, | ^^ al quels, D. 

" Bi tymes sere, ^^ Ensint cum eh, C. D 

^ sur le rei Ph., B. 

^ This line is omitted in D. 

^ This rubric is omitted in A. but 
is found in B. C. D. 

' de Semt, B. C. D. 

^ od ma companie, B. 

^ ercediakenes. B. 

" Thei gynne aUe newe. 12 ^vant en Vahheie, B. C. 

" JHesu so meke, 13 ^„ ^.^^ c. 

" I the biseke, , , _ 

,, „ . 1 . j 1 ^^ en socour, B. 
'• On croice that was -wonded, 

'' Grante me that bone, '' ^^^ line is omitted in C. 

" The Scottes sone 1 ** ^1/ yrant, C, 

" Aile be confonded." I -' Le xij. dener. C. D. 


Let not be blemislied 
The propliecy 

By sin ! 
Lord God almiglity, 
At St. Edmund's at the parliament 

Give him counsel ; 
And iipon false Philip of France, 
By tliy virtue, to hâve vengeance 

Grant him. 

Of the Parliament at St. Edmunds. 

At the town of St. Edmunds, on the day fîxed, 
Are corne the bishops, with the company 
Of the archdeacons and clergy, whom the king has 

For aid and coiirtesy of the goods of holy church, 
Accordiûg to the promise they made formerly in the 

Of Westminster, for vvhich the king trusts to it 
In aid of his war, which is not fînished. 
Earls and barons and the knights, 
For themselves and for the people, grant him in aid 
The tenth penny, and for the mercantile class 



Le setime parmy à sa tresorye. 
Thearch- j]^ j| erceveske, ke teent la primacye 

bishop oi-rxi/T/^- 

Canterbury JJel Se de Caunterbyre, sur repouns estodye, 
refuses the j]|^ p^^, ^g^g eveskes al rays siafnifye 

aid on tne ^ ^ . , j o j 

part of the L'estat de saint église, ke moût est enpoverye. 

church. j^^ arceveske après al ray va et dye, 

" Sir, pur Deu là sus, ne te gi'evez mye, 
'' Pur tute saint église je te certefye, 
'* Desuz Deus ^ en terre est nul aime en vye 
" Ke ad sur saint église poesté et mestrye ^ 
" Fors la pape de Rome, ke teent la vicarye 
. " Ke saint Père le apostoyle avayt en sa ballye.^ 
^' La pape est nostre chef, il nus ^ garde et guye ; 
" Estatute ^ ad fet ke durement nus lye, 
" Sur privacioun de rente et prelacye, 
" Ke disme, ne vintyme, ne maité, ne partye, 
'' Ad tay ne à ly altre^ nul de nus ottrye, 
'' Saunz Sun maundement en avowerye.'' 
" Sur ço solempnement escomenge et maudye 
" Trestuz les fiz de mère, ke par seygnurye 
" Asservent saint église, ke Deus ad frauncliye. 

The king's '' Sir clers," dit le rays, " tu as parlé folye. 

reply. a Promesse est dette due,^ si fay ne sait ublye. 
*' Mes ke jo te vays de [la] bulle saysye,-"^^ 
*' Ausint tuz les altres,^^ par le fiz Marye ! 
" Ke purryez ^^ de eeste aide estre defublye ! " 

" 8 

^ Qe south Dieu en tere, B. 

2 poer ne mestrie, B. C. D. 

^ en haillie, B. C. D. 

4 vuSi B. This line is omitted in 



5 E estatut, C. Estatut cul-il fet, 

^ ne à altre, B. 
7 e arnowericy B. 

^ ad enfranchief B. C. qe Dieus 
enjraunchie, D. 

9 dieu, C. 

^° Mes qe jeo vei de la bulle seisie, 
B. Mes jeo te vaise de la bulle, C. 
Mes kejeo te veysse de la bulle, D. 

'^ Ensint touz H aiitre, B. C. D. 

^- Ne purrai, B. Ne purrez, C. 


The seventh among them for his treasniy. 

And the archbishop who holds the primacy 

Of the see of Canterbury, studies an answer, 

And by two bishops signifies to the king 

The state of holy church, which is much impoverished. 

The archbishop afterwards goes to the king, and says, 

'^ Sire, for God there above, do not be angry, 

" I certify thee for ail holy church, 

" Under God on earth there is no soûl alive 

" Who has over holy church power and mastery 

" Except the pope of Eome, who holds the vicarate 

" Which St. Peter the apostle had in his trust. 

'' The pope is our head, he keeps and rules us ; 

" Ile has made a statute which binds us strictly, 

'' Upon privation of rent and prelacy, 

'' That tenth, nor twentieth, nor moiety, nor part, 

" No one of us give to thee or to other, 

" Without his commandement as our authority. 

" Upon that he solemnly excommunicates and curses 

" AU the sons of mother who by lordship 

" Put in subjection holy church, which God has freed." 

" Sir clerk," says the king, "thou hast spoken folly. 

'^ Promise is debt due, if faith be not forgotten. 

" But let me see thee possessed of the buU, 

'' As well as ail the others, by the Son of Mary ! 

" You will not be able to escape this aid." 



The arch- 

reply to 
the kiuff. 

The king's 

Responsio clerici sv/per auxilio petito. 

" Sire," clist li erceveske, " mult trevolunter 

" A tay, cum à seygnur, volumes tuz ^ aider 

" Par congé de la pape, si tu vols^ maunder 

" Par un de tes clers of nostre^ messao-er, 

" Ke toun estât et nostre porrount - raoustrer. 

'' Et soulom ço ^ ke la pape nus fra remaunder, 

" Yoloums souloum nos eses volunters aider/' ^ 

" Sire clers/' redist " ly rays, " jo n'ai pas mester 

" De ço ke tu me dais la pape counsayller. 

" Mes si tu voes respit en ço kas ^ aver, 

'' Fa quant tu vodras^ tes clers assembler, 

" En parlez du promesse, en parlez ^^ ent de quer ; 

'^ Après le saynt Hyllere venez à Westmouster, 

" Parfournir la promesse '^ saunz plus en parler." 

" Sir," dist le erceveske, "pur Deu et saint Pyclier, 

" Yoylliez cy et là tes ^- gens comaunder, 

'' Ke sunt tes ministres al duzime dener,^^ 

" Ke nus ne nos tenaunz ne facent molester, 

" Xes nos tempérais of les lays taxer."" ^^ 

" Sir," ço dist le rais, ''ço^^ n'estot doter, 

" Kar ben ne mal ne frount ^^ â nul de toun poer." 

Noun pur ço li rays li prie-^" et requer, 

'' Parmy ta dyocise comaundez pryer 

" Pur may et les mens,^^ et Deu mercier 

^ nus, B, 

- si tu le voes, B. C. 

^ à nostre, D. 

"* li purrount, B. The line is 
omitted in D. 

^ E SU)- ceo, B. C. T). 

^ Voloms nous de nostre prester e 
aider, B. aider et prester, C. Vo- 
lums nous du nostre eyder et prester, 

7 Sire clers dit, B. D. 

^ en ceste cas, B, 

9 tu vorrasy B. C. D. 

1^ e tretés, B. D. 

^^ E fêtes là respons, B. C. D. 

^- ses,'B. 

'•^ « xij. dener, C. 

^^ This line is omitted in D. 

'•' Sire, respount li rpi, de ceo, B. 
Sire, respont ly reis, ceo, C. D. 

^•^ lie maie front, C. 

'" I^oun pur ceo, beau freine, jeo 
pri, B. JS^oiin pur ceo, beat sire, jeo 
prie, C. D. 

^^ e pur les meens, C. 


The reply of the clergy on the demancl for aid. 

'' Sire," says the bishop, " very willingly 
" To tliee, as to our lord, we are willing ail to give 

'' aid 
" By leave of the pope, if thou wilt send 
" By one of thy clerks with our messenger, 
'' Who shall be able to state thy condition and ours. 
" And according to the message vvhich the pope shall 

" send us back, 
" We will aid voluntarily according to our capabi- 

" lities." 
" Sir clerk/' replies the king '' I hâve no need 
*' Of thy sending to consult the pope. 
'^ But if thou désire to hâve respite in this case, 
'^ Cause when thou wilt thy clerks to assemble, 
" Talk with them of the promise, talk of it heartily ; 
" After St. Hillary's day corne to Westminster, 
" To perform the promise without more talking of 

" it." 
*^ Sire," says the archbishop "for God and St. Richer, 
" Deign to give order hère and there to thy people, 
" Who are thy ministers for the twelfth penny, 
" That they cause not to be molested us or our tenants, 
" Nor tax our temporal goods with the laity." 
" Sir," says the king, '' that need not be feared, 
" For they will do nor good nor evil to any one ol 

' thy power." 
Nevertheless the king prays and requires him, 
" Throughout thy diocèse give orders to pray 
" For me and mine, and to thank God 




Return of " Ke largement pur nous ad fet scà ^ en arer/ 
the cardi- Lg erceveske l'ottrie, et fet sun dever. 
Waiter de Poy avaunt cel houre revynt le tresorer, 
Langton. "Walter de Langetoun, ke fu passé ^ la mer 
* Of les cliardinals'^ de la pes treter. 

Respouns quel il porte put* nul home saver, 

For eels du counsayl, ke ne l'osent ^ révéler.^ 

Messagers après vindrent nouncyer 

Al rays, sir Eduuard, forme de amourer 

Du contek du Gascoyne/ et fere acorder 

Li of le ray Phelippe saunz plus guerrayer, 

Si com les cliardinals ount fet ordiner. 

Li rays Eduuard par taunt ad fet rethorner 

Walter de Langetoim et Huge le Despenser, 

Et Jon de Beruuyk, clerk, averty ^ ber ; 

Condure les face Deus et ben remener ! ^ 

The king's 
the Scots. 

De respedu concesso Scotis}^ 

Des ^^ barouns de Escoce à cel parlement 
Ne fu resun renduz, ne doné-^^ jugement. 
Li rays est si curtays, de [si] pitouse^^ talent, 
Et de si graunt mercy, jo cray certaynement -^^ 
Ke sa miséricorde serra salvement 
A cels ke ount la mort deservy playnement, 

* pur nous feit de sceà, B. This 
line is omitted in D. 

2 qe passé fu, B. 

3 Od le cardinal, B. Ouf le car- 
dinale, C. D. 

'^ queus i porte^ ne puit, B. quels 
iportpoet, C. 
^' qe n'osent, B. 

^ relever, C. Robert of Brunne, 
in his translation, says hère ; — 
*' Nouther of som no aile ne -vdst 
" what thei ches, 

*' Bot tho that were privé, other 

" myght not witen, 
" Tille my maister no me "vras 

" not told no writen." 
' de Gascoygne, D. 
^ clerk e averti, B. 
^ This line is omitted in D. 
^^ This rubric,notfound in A., is 
taken from B. C. D. 
" Les, B. C. 
^" nefu donc, C. 
^3 de si pitus, B. C. D. 
^^ This line is omitted in D. 


" Who has do ne largely for us hitherto." 

The archbishop grants it, and does his duty. 

A little before tliis time returned the treasurer, 

Walter de Langton^ who had passed the sea 

With the cardinals to treat of peace. 

The reply which he brings no man can know, 

Except those of the council, who dare not reveal it. 

Afterwards messengers came to announce 

To the king, sir Edward, a form of conciliating 

The strife of Gascony, and of reconciling 

Him with king Philip without further hostilities, 

Accordingly as the cardinals hâve caiised to be ar- 

King Edward thereupon has sent back 
Walter de Langton and Hugh le Despenser, 
And John de Berwick, clerk, a prudent baron ; 
May God give them good guidance and bring them 

back successfully ! 

Of the respect yielded to the Bcots. 

Of the barons of Scotland in this parliament 
Was no account rendered, or judgment given. 
The king is so courteous, of such charitable feelings, 
And of so great compassion, I believe veritably 
That his mercy will be the salvation 
Of those who hâve fuUy deserved death, 

s 2 


Et de fez ataynt -^ felonessement. 
La graunt pitë de quer k'il ad eu sovent 
Des felouns de Gales, en parlent tote gent ; 
Quant plus ad eu à fere pur sun avauncement, 
Meu li oiint la guère, et fet - destourbement, 
Dount ses alez aylliouvs lesser li covent. 

De auxilio 'petito e clero supradicto.^ 

Obstinacy Après la saint Hillere, kant li rays quidait 
^^?v' 1, Parlement tenir ^ à Londres eum ordinez avait, 

arcnbishop ^ , . 

of Ganter- Xoveles ly vindrent par cil ke lors estait 
^^' Yenuz de Kaumbray, et li nunciait 

Ke la parlaunce de pes se fist pur nul esplait. 

Pur quai ^ li ray Eduuard dennort et se purvait, 

Par terre et par ^ mer, ke tray ne sayt ; 

Et ad AVestmouster de ses gens envayt 

Treter sur quele aide la clergye li frayt." 

Li sire de Caunterbire sur ço se tynt estrayt, 

Pur ly et pur sa ^ parodie à saint Thomas wowayt 

Ke nul de sa^ église tayllë plus serrayt, 

Ne mys en servage, taunt com il viverayt, 

Saunz maundement la pape, ke governer les dait.^*^ 

King Li sire de Nichole à taunt se acordait, 

quari^ei ^ Oly ver ^^ le eveske, ke flecclier ne solayt. 

with the Li rais vers la clergye par taunt se coroucait, 
^^^* Et Lors de [sa] pees^- juger les comaundait ; -^^ 

^ E des fez attaintz, C. The ' ' liferroit, B. 

line is omitted in P. I ^* ^ *^' ^' ^' ^' 

- efere,B. ^ delà, C. 

2 The nibric is taken from B, ^'•' h doit, D. 

It is omitted in A., but it is i ^^ Olivier, C. This line is omitted 

De conditione auxilii petiti a clero, in D. 

in C. D. , 1- de sa pes, B. C. D. " Out his 

•* tenir, omitted in B. C. i " pes did tham deme," Robert of 

5 Parquei, B. C. , Brunne. 

^ 7ie par, B. Par meere e par ; i^ j^^g^j. j^ comandait, C. D. 
tere, CD. I 


And attainted of acts of felony. 

Of the great generosity of heart wliich he lias often 

To the félons of Wales, ail people talk. 

When lie liad most work before liira for his own 

They hâve raised war upon him, and given him trouble, 

Through which he was obliged to abandon his expé- 
ditions elsewhere. 

Of the ahove aid sought from the clergy. 

After St. Hillary's day, when the king thought 
To hold a parliament in London as he had ordained, 
News came to him by him who was then 
Corne from Cambrai, and announced to him 
That the conférence on peace was carried on without 

Wherefore king Edward remains and provides, 
By land and by sea, that he be not betrayed ; 
And he sends some of his people to Westminster 
To treat on the aid which the clergy would give him. 
The lord of Canterbury held himself inflexible on that 

For himself and for his diocèse he vowed to St. Thomas 
That no one of his church sliould be taxed in future, 
Nor put in servage, as long as he lived, 
Without command of the pope, who ought to be their 

The lord of Lincoln agreed to the same, 
Bishop Oliver, who was not used to give way. 
The king thereupon became angered against the clergy, 
And ordered tliem to be judged out of his peace 



with the 
count of 

Mes maintenaunt après cel fet repelait.^ 
The clergy Çq fesavnt les eveskes ke voluntë chascayt 

relent and ! . -, v , i , . i . , 

consent to Aider a lour seygnur, dount recovenr sun drait, 
give taxes. j]t saint église défendre de hoimte et surfayt.^ 
L'elyt de Everwyk, ke pees desirayt, 
Dist ke volunters, pur quant ke ly tuchayt, 
Dunt saint église défendre le quint dener mettrayt. 
Des Escotes chaitifs nul aime en parlayt,^ 
Demorez sunt uncore suz garde en autel esplait * 
Cum avaunt estayent ; escotez ke ço dayt. 

An^ taunt cum li rays et si^ counsayllers 
En débat estayent of les ordiners, 

Ly quens William de Flaundres ad maundé ^ messagers, 
Le seygnur de Blaunkmount, cliuvaler pruz et fers, 
Et li sire de Keu,^ et li tresorers, 
Rescayvour de Flaundres, ke volent volenters 
Des Englays et Flemangs fere amys enters, 
Ke en Tune terre et l'autre, en totes les cousters, 
En bon. amour et pees pussent les mercers 
Ary ver of lur merce, et vendre ^ pur deners. 
Et quant ly rays^*^ Eduuard enliaucera-^ baners, 
Li quens et ses Flemengs '^^ serrount ses suters ^^ 
Sur le ray Phelippe et sur les^^ xii. pers, 
Ke à tort se deforcent ^^ la terre of les maners ^^ 
Ke ly rays Arthur al duk sire Beduers^^ 
Douait en Aquitayne, cum à si -^^ botellers ; 

1 cel fait repeîleit, B. 
- e de surfait, B. C. 

2 ?i'i parhif, B. / parlait, C. D. 
4 Demorez sunt en garde, tut à 

lour desheit, B. Démarrez sont en 
garde molt à lour deshait, C. D. 

" En, C. D. 

^ e ces, C. 

" manda, B. 

'"^ " With thre lordes pers of 
" Blankmonte and of Kewe," Ko- 
bert of Brun ne. 

^ à vendre, C. D. 

10 Si li rei, B. C. D. 

11 eshaucera, D. 

'^ e les Flemins, B. 

1^ ses soters, C. 

" ses, B. D. 

15 li deforcent, B. C. D. 

1^ Gascoygne eue les maners, D. 

1" à duc de Bedewers, B. This 
and the three Unes foUowing are 
omitted in D, 

i'^ com à ses, B. 


But soon afterwards he repealed that act. 

That caused the bisliops, who showed willingness 

To give their lord aid, whereby to recover his riglit, 

And protect holy cliurch from shame and injury. 

The elect of York, wlio desired peace, 

Said that willingly, for as mnch as touched himself, 

He would contribute the fifth penny for the defence 

of holy church. 
No soûl spoke of the wretched Scots ; 
They are remaining still in custody in the same position 
As they were before ; listen what caused that. 

While the king and his counsellors 
Were in debate with the clergy, 
Count "William of Flanders has sent messengers, 
The lord of Blancmount, a prudent and bold knight, 
And the lord of Kew, and the treasurer, 
Eeceiver of Flanders, who will willingly 
Make entire friends of the English and FlemiDgs, 
That in one land and the other, on ail coasts, 
The merchants may in good love and peace 
Arrive with their wares, and sell for money. 
And when king Edward shall raise his banners, 
The count and his Flemings shall be his allies 
Against king Philip and against the twelve peers, 
Who wrongfuUy hold from him the land with the 

Which king Arthur to the duke sir Beduer 
Gave in Aquitaine, as to his butler; 



Lesquels li rays Eduuard et li rays Henry se pers,^ 
Et tuz lur aiincestre, tenaynt - sçà en arers. 
Li gentis quens de Henaud,^ et tuz* ly Henners, 
Li duk Jon de Braban, et ses Hoylaunders,^ 
Ount par^ ly quens de Flaundres et ses cliuvalers 
Afferme [l'ajlyaunce ^ cum ses amys chers. 
Thejudg- Overt[ement] ^ ws ay reeordë la resoun 
ScTttish -^^^ quai^ le rays Eduuarde, pur le occupacioun 

Des bosoynes de Flaundres, ne poet à Saint Edmoun, 

Ne à Salesbyre, treter de raunçoun, 

'Ne salver ne dampner counte ne baroun 

Du reaime de Escoce, pur mort '^^ ne pur arsoun. 

Uncore i demorent suz gardayns en prisoun.^^ 

Celer ne ws pusse -^^ un altre achesoun, 

Oyez, et je -^^ dirray la narracioun. 




in Aqui- 

De caiotione Johannis de Sancto Johamie apud 


Noveles^^ dolereuse fu lors esparplye 
En l'ostel le rays, de sa chuvalerye 
Ke fust en Aquitayne, et dust aver garnye 
Les chastels^*^ de vitaylle et [de] moné partye.^^ 
Les Mescredy ^^ à vespre^^ avaunt la Purifye 
La sainte mère Deu, glorieuse Mar^^e, 
Passaynt un pas estrayt, menez par lur espye, 

1 e sire Henri si pers, B. et sire 
Henri fitz Peers, C. 

- tindrent, B. 

^ Le counte de Hanaud, B. C. D. 

■* à tuz, C. 

^ et les Holanders, B. C. 

^ pri, B. pur, D. 

' Valiaunce, B. C. T>. 

^ Overtement,'B.'D. Avertimenf, 

^ Par quel/, D. 

^° 7ie pur mort, B. 

^^ This line is oraitted in B. C. 

^- celer vous ne pense, C. 

^3 E oiez,jeo, B. Oiez,jeo dirra, 
C. Oyez, jeo vus dirray, D. 

^^ This rubric is found in B. C. 
D., but not in A. 

15 Novel, C. Novde, D. 

1^ Ses chasteles, B. C. 

1" et de mené partie, B. C. D. 

1^ Le Meskerdi, B. C. Eobert of 
Brunne translates this as follows, 
" The Wednesday next at even be- 
" for Kandilmesse." 

19 al vespre, C. D. 


Which king Edward and king Henry his father, 
And ail tlieir ancestors, held hitherto. 
The gentle count of Henaulfc, witli ail the Henaulters, 
The duke John of Brabant, and his Hollanders, 
Hâve by the count of Flanders and his knights 
Confirmed the alliance as his dear friends. 

I hâve openly related to you the reason 
Why king Edward, for the occupation 
Of the afFairs of Flanders, could not at St. Edmund's, 
Nor at Salisbury, treat of ransom, 
Nor save or condemn earl or baron 
Of the realm of Scotland, for death nor for burning. 
Still they remain there under custody in prison. 
I cannot conceal from y ou another cause ; 
Listen, and I will tell you the narration. 

Of the capture of John de Saint John at Belgarde. 

Grievous news was then spread 
In the king's household, of his knights 
Who were in Aquitaine, and were to liave stored 
The castles with provisions and part with money. 
At vespers on the Wednesday before the Purification 
Of the holy mother of God, the glorious Mary, 
They were passing through a narrow pass, led by their 



Ke lur dist pur veirs ke en la coinpaygnye 
Des Frauncays cel houre el pays ne estaynt mye ^ 
For V. cens as armes, de mil et plus mentye.- 
Defeat and Sir Jon de Saint Jon, ke sur ço s'afye, 
sfr^Joïm'de ^® lï^^tte en le auvant garde, et baner desplye. 
Saint John. Quant passé fu le pas, il trovayt enbuschye 
Quynze cens as armes, ^ et bataylle establye 
En quatre ^ granz escheles ; et K baroun les escrye,' 
Descomfît la primere, se melle of l'autrie. 
Le counte de Nicole, Henry de Lascye,*^ 
Eetorna par counsail, Ja reregard l'ottrie, 
La vit aille est perdue, et la moné ravye. 
Sir James de Bealchaumj) ^ la bataille ad guerpye, 
Of molz de nos Englays de sa couardye,^ 
En fuyaunt se nayt, allas ! la vilainye ! ^ 
Sire Jon de Saint Jon combataunt of Tespeye, 
Et xj. chuvalers, sunt pris-^*^ en le estaump^^e, 
Et xviij. gentishomes de lour esquyerye. 
En le yssu IsraeP^ Egipte fu blemye, 
Et Pharaon naé en sa surquiderye ; 
Par peccbë périrent Gomor et Sodomye; 
David en sa simplesce al mort livra ^^ Golye ; 

Death of 
sir John 
de Beau- 

^ De Franceis u pais cel houre 
n'estaient mie, B. C, Avhich latter 
reads el pais. De Fraunceis en 
pays cel oure n^estoynt mye, D. 

- Robert of Brunne translates 
hère : — 

" A spie did sii* Jon levé that 
" Frankis oste non was, 

" Namely in that pas that he siild 
" lede tham bi ; 

" He lied, that Judas, ten thou- 
" sand were redi." 

3 Quynze mil as armesy D. 

■* Et quatre, A. 

^ l'escrye, C. D 

^ de Lacie, B. Lasoye, D. 

' de Beauchamp, B. de Beel- 

cliaiimp la gwere ad, C. De Belc- 
chaumpe, D. 

5 This line is omitted in B. C. D. 

^ E)i fuant fu naez chacez par 
maladie, De mortel plaie, noun pas 
par cowardie, B. C. D. 

^^ Chivalers unze sunt pris, B. E 
chevalers xj., C. D, 

" de Israël, B. C. This and the 
eighteen following Unes are omitted 
in D. Robert of Brunne introduces 
thèse historicalexemplifications with 
the t^vo Unes folio wing : — 

" Boste and deignouse pride, and 
" ille avisement, 

*• Mishapnes often tide, and dos 
" many be schent." 

^' liveraity C. 


Who tells them for truth that in the company 

Of the French at that time in the country were no 

Than five hundred men-at-arms, having lied by a thou- 

sand and more. 
Sir John de Saint John, who trusts in that, 
Places himself in the van-guard, and displays his 

When the pass was passed, he found in ambush 
Fifteen hundred men-ajt-arms, and battle formed 
In four great squadrons ; and the baron raises the cry 

upon them, 
Discomfits the first, and engages the rest. 
The earl of Lincoln, Henry de Lacy, 
Eeturned by advice, the rear-guard agrées to it, 
The provision is lost, and the money plundered. 
Sir James de Beauchamp has abandoned the battle, 
With many of our English of his cowardice. 
In flying he is drowned, alas ! the disgrâce ! 
Sir John de Saint John, combating with the sword, 
And eleven knights, are taken in the flight. 
And eighteen gentlemen of their esquiery. 
In the departure of Israël, Egypt was disgraced. 
And Pharaoh drowned in his presumption ; 
Through sin perished Gomorrah and Sodom ; 
David in his youthful âge delivered Goliath to death ; 



of political 

advised to 
be recon- 
ciled with 
the church, 

Lucys ly empereur fu mort par covaytye ; 
Joseph; le fiz Jacob, fu vendu par envye ; ^ 
Et li rays Arthur surpris par tricherye, 
Et Modred demaglë pur ^ sa reverye ; 
Kaduualdre pur poverte wayna^ Brettaynye, 
Par poer l'enchacaint ^ les genz de Gerraenye ; 
Après à tort le tynt ^ Haralde le fiz Godwye, 
Ke en sun an primer perdist seygnurye ; 
William le Conquerour le conquist par espeye.^ 
[Lewelin jadis prince de la Walescherie, 
E David son frère, unt perdu manantie, 
Cil od le lunge jambes de tut est ' seisie.] ^ 
Le ray Jon de Balliolf ad perdu par folye,^ 
Pur li et pur ses lieirs, le règne de Albanye.-^*^ 
Allas ! ke nul homme par altre se chastye ! 
^^ riche rays Eduuard ! pur Deu, eyez mercye ; 
Ne suffrez poynt ^~ périr la graunt genturye ^^ 
De cels ke sunt remys conquere Aquytanye. 
Hastez ws laundrait, le pople vus surcrye ; ^^ 
Acordez of ^^ le église et of la clergye, 
Et Thomas de Kent, et Jon de Beverlye, 
Et Cuthbert de Dureme, te vendrount en aye. 
Kar, si tu n'as de Deu ayde en longanye,-^® 

^ This Une and the preceding are 
transposed in B. C. 

2 par, B. C. 

^ par poverte weina, B. Cadwald 
par povert waina, C. 

* le chacaint, C. 

5 qe tint, B. la tynt Haraldfitz 
Godwie, C. 

^ la conquist par mestrie, B. C. 

7 ouf les longes jambes de tôt en 
est, C. 

^ Thèse three lines are found only 
in B. and C. 

^ par sa folie, B. 

^^ This line is omitted in C. 

11 Ore, C. 

1- iVe suffrez pas, B. 

13 gentylerye, D. 

1^ sur vus crie, B. Robert of 
Brunne, omitting the exhortation to 
be reconciled with the church, 
renders this : — 

" Edward, do turne the rother, 
" and fare over the se, 

" And socoure tho that are ^it in 
*' Gascoyn left, 

" Ne late tham not misfare, ne 
" ther powere be reft." 

1^ Acordez vus od, B. 

1'' Car si ne eis aide de Dieu en cel 
agonie, B. en le agonye, C. D. 


Lucius tlie emperor died through covetousness ; 

Joseph, son of Jacob, was sold through envy ; 

And king Arthur surprised through treachery, 

And Modred slaughtered through his madness ; 

Cadwallader for poverty lost Britain, 

By force the people of Germany drove him from it ; 

Afterwards Harold, son of Godwin, held it wrongfuUy, 

Who in his first year lost the lordship ; 

William the Conqueror acquired it by the sword. 

Llewellyn, formerly prince of the Welshery, 

And David his brother, hâve lost their lordship ; 

He witli the long shanks is seised of alL 

King John de Baliol has lost by folly, 

For himself and his heirs, the kingdom of Albany. 

Alas ! that no man corrects himself by the example 

of another ! 
Oh, rich king Edward ! for God, hâve mercy ; 
Suffer not to perish the great nobility 
Of those who are left to conquer Aquitaine. 
Haste you thither, the people appeals to you ; 
Be reconciled with the church and with the clergy, 
And Thomas of Kent, and John of Beverley, 
And Cuthbert of Durham, will corne to thee in aid. 
For, if thou hast not aid of God in the struggle, 



Pur kant ke tu fras^ ne doray un alye. 

Sur cil ke Deu mayns ayme cherra - l'acravauntye. 

En guère et en bat ay lie ^ Deu dona jadye 

Honiu' et victorye al fiz Mathatye;^ 

Ausint le fet ^ à tuz ke plus ly sunt amye. 

Le Prince ke morust en mount de Calvarye 

Ayme^ li rays Eduuard et sa baronye. 

Recorder m'estoyt la controversyC; 

Après ws parleray de la forsanerye ^ 

Du^ remisaylle de Escoce, de^ Dampnedeu maldye. 


De transfretatione régis supradieti in Flandrîam, anno 
gratiœ^^ millesimo ducentesimo nonagesvnw VJ^.-"-^^^ 

The king Après la sainte feste de FAssencioun, 
prépares to Maunda le rays Eduuard iDarmy sa reejioun 

embark for "^ i 1 1 

Fianders. Ad erceveske, eveske, à counte, et ad baroun, ^ 
Et ad tuz li altre ke ount pur ^^ garysoun 
Vynt livre de terre en possessioun,^^ 
Venir à sa court à fere ^^ redempcioun, 
Ou passer of sun cors sur li Frauncays feloun, 
Ke à tort li deforcent sa terre ^^ de Gascoun. 
The tarons Les barouns en parlent, les uns dyent ke noun, 
daims on ^^^' ^^^^ novele^^ servise saunz condicioun 


^ quanqe tu fus ne durra,C. 
" charra, B. This line and the 
five which folio w are omitted in D. 
' gueres e bataiîes, B. C. 
^ de Matathie, B. 
* Ausifet à touz, C. 

6 A vu, B. 

7 forcenerye^ D. 

8 De, C. 

^ lie Dampne Dieu^ D. 

^° maladt/e, C. 

^^ Domini, C. 

^- nonagesimo vif., C. 

^^ This rubric is given from B. C. 

^^ A ercevesqes, evesqes, counte,e 
baron, B, à count e baroun, Q. 
evesqe, count, et à baroun, D. 

^5 par, B. 

^^ Kobert of Brunne translates 
thèse lines : — 

" and other that thei found, 

" That ilk ^ere mot dispende of 
" londes tuenty poimd." 

^7 court fere, C. 

13 la tere, B. C. D. 

1^ Car par novel, B. 


For ail thou wilt do I would iiot give a garlic. 
Upon him -wLom God loves least will fall the ruin. 
In war and in battle God gave formerly 
ïïonour and victory to the son of Matathias ; 
So he does to ail who are most dear to him. 
The Prince who died on the mount of Calvary 
Loves king Edward and his barons. 
I was obliged to relate the controversy, 
Afterwards I will talk to yon of the folly 
Of the remnant of Scotland, accursed of the Lord. 

Of the ixtssage of the ahove-named Jcing into Flanders, 

A,D. 1296. 

After the holy feast of the Ascension, 
King Edward sent through his kingdom 
To archbishop, bishop, to earl, and to baron, 
And to ail the others who hâve for maintenance 
Twenty pomids of land in possession, 
To corne to his court and make rédemption. 
Or proceed with his body against the felonious French, 
Who wrongfuUy hold from him his land of Gascony. 
The barons converse on it ; some say no, 
For to do new service without condition 



And join 
the clergy. 

tion with 

The areh- 



Serrait pur coustoume ^ desheretisoun. 

Li sire de Caunterbire mettent à resoun, 

Li prient de counsayl en la dissensioun.^ 

Et cil pur sainte^ eglyse se profre champyoun, 

Et vait al parlement abataunt cum leoun. 

Ly rays lors les parle,* et dist en sun sermoun, 

" Jo suy chastel pur ws, et mur, et mesoun, 

" Et ws la barbecane, et porte, et pavylloun ; ^ 

'^ Ma terre de Gascojme est perdu par tresoun, 

" Recoverer la m'estot, ou perdre accioun,^ 

" Le aler ay enpris, la voue ^ ay fet en soun ; 

" Passer of may covent chescun de ws par noun, 

" De ço nul aime se escuse par evasioun." 

" Sir," dist le erceveske, " à ta perdicioun 

" Vols-tu guère enprendi-e, saunz correccioun 

" Dévotement parfere de l'offensioun^ 

'' Ke tu as fet sovent, par ta mesprisioun, 

" A Deu et ad sainte église,^ et ad religioun ? 

" Oyez tun trespas pur ta salvacioun, 

" Et fêtes les amendes, et pryez de pardoun 

" Vers Deu et sainte église, et sachez, si noun, 

" A tay et ad tuz ly altre de la nacioun,^^ 

" Suspens le passage sur la maleyçoun^~ 

" De cyl ke pur nus tuz suffry passioun." 


^ par coustomey D. 

^ la discessioun, C. 

^ de seint, B. 

'* les parole, C. 

5 barbica?ie, i portez pavilloun, C. 
Robert of Brunne has, some way or 
other, marvellously misunderstood 
this Une, wbich he translates as 
foUows : — 

" And ^e als naked berd loken in 
" pavilloun, 

<' That to fight is ferd, or )ate 
"■ that first is doun." 

Is it possible that a writer of the 
fourteenth century should not know 
what a barbacan was ? 

^ ou perdre amoun, C. 

' Ke Valer ay empris le vowe, D. 

^ tel offensioun, C. 

^ e seint église, B. C. D. 

^^ église, par satisfaccioun, B. C. 

1^ Ou à toy à touz de la nacion, B. 
C. A tey et à touz de la nacioun, 

^2 malisoun, C. 


Would be disinheritance by custom. 

They consult with the lord of Canterbury ; 

Ask him for advice in the dispute, 

And he offers himself as a champion for holy church, 

And he goes to the parliament, bearing down upon 

them like a lion. 
The king then addresses them, and says in his speech, 
" I am castle for you, and wall, and house, 
" And you the barbacan, and gâte, and pavillon ; 
" My land of Gascony is lost through treason, 
" I must recover it, or lose my process. 
" I hâve undertaken the expédition, I hâve finally 

" made the vow ; 
" It is the duty of each of you by name to pass with 

'^ me, 
" Of that not a soûl has excuse by évasion." 
" Sire," says the archbishop, '' to thy perdition 
'' Wilt thou undertake war without correction 
^^ Performing devoutly for the offence 
*' That thou hast often donc, by thy misbehaviour, 
" To God, and to holy churcli, and to the clergy ? 
" Listen to thy trespass for thy salvation, 
" And make amends, and pray for pardon 
'' To God and holy church, by satisfaction 
" For thee and for ail the others of the nation. 
*' Suspend the passage, upon the curse 
" Of him who suffered passion for us ail." 




Protest of 
the earl 

He is de- 
prived of 
the mar- 

The bishop 
of Durham 

Après ly erceveske, ly quens Marchai Roger 
Vers ly rays Eduuard comença parler ; 
Respyt demaundait et tens en-"^ counsayler; 
Ly dist ke les barouns, ne nul de lur poer, 
Ne de lur homage, dayvent outre mer, 
Si noun à ses coustages par covenaunt, passer. 
Li rays prist la parole irousement al quer,^ 
Harougement parlayt/ respit ne volt graunter,* 
Comaundayt ly quens ^ say apparayller, 
Kar vousist ou noun le estoverayt aler, 
Ou de la marchalcye le office ^ là lesser. 
Ly quens Roger respount, ke de si léger 
Ne quidera^ sun office ilokes resigner ; 
Et hors du court s'en part saunz plus ^ par là dayller. 
Geffray de Genevile ly rays fet lors ^ maunder, 
Et à la-^^ marclialcye ^^ la verge présenter, 
Et sur ço comaunde ses privez genz armer, 
Et bye ^^ lendemayn les barouns arester. 
Ly quens Marchai Toit dire, se fet aprester, 
Of countes et barouns, ly rays à refréner ; ^^ 
Et issint, cum medlé ^^ devait comencer. 
Survent ^^ le eveske Auntoyne, et vait al ray moustrer 
Quel mal et quel péril li purrount encumbrer. 
Si ly et ses barouns devaynt ^^ descorder. 

^ demander j e temps de, B. en ce 
conceyller, D. 

- irousoument à quoer, B. irruse- 
ment al quer, C. D. Robert of 
Brunne translates thèse two lines : — 

" The kyng his -ïvordes toke 
" ^n'athefolly tille herte, 

" For ire nere he quoke, and 
" ansuerd him fîille smerte." 

^ parla, B. 

"* ne volayt granter, D. 

■5 Comaunda al quens, B, Co- 
maundait al quens, CD. 

6 Ou du marchande Vqffice, B. 

" Ne quidoit, B. 

^ plus omitted in B. 

^ lors omitted in C. 

1" E de la, B. 

^^ à la marchie, C. " And of the 
" marschalcie presented him the 
*' ^erde," Robert of Brimne. 

12 E lient, B. 

13 le rei refréner, B. ly rets affre- 
ner, C. 

1^ Ensuit cum la medlé, B. C. D. 
1'^ Survynt, D. 
16 deivent,B. D. 


After the archbishop, Roger, the earl Marshal, 
Began to speak to king Edward ; 
He demanded respite, and time to consult about it ; 
He told him that the barons, nor any one of tbeir 

Nor of their bornage, owe beyond sea 
To pass, except at bis cost by agreement. 
The king took the speech angrily to heart, 
Spoke haughtily, would not grant respite ; 
Commanded the earl to equip himself, 
For, whether he would or not, he must go, 
Or quit there the office of the marshalship. 
Earl Roger replies that so lightly 
He will not think of there resigning bis office ; 
And ont of the court he départs without further 

. dealing there. 
The king then sends for Geoffrey de Genevile 
And présents to him the rod of the marshalship, 
And thereupon orders his famibars to arm, 
And intends on the morrow to arrest the barons. 
The earl Marshal hears tell of it, makes himself ready, 
With earls and barons, to restrain the king; 
And thus, as battle was at the point of beginning, 
Bishop Anthony arrives, and proceeds to show the 

^ king 
What evil and what péril may fall upon him. 
If he and his barons were to disagree. 

T 2 



sails for 

Pus le eveske AuntojTi al barouns va prier ^ 

Ke ad lur seygnur lige se deygnent plyer,^ 

Sicom ^ de lur aide or en ad mester. 

Les barouns en parlent, et fount respouns arer ^ 

Par peticiouns de diverse maner, 

Et ke à Saint Alban vendrount ^ volunter, 

Of ly rays Eduuard sur ço^ parlementer, 

Si of sun counsayl i voylle" décliner. 

Le ray sire Eduuard ne pot demorer, 

Ses alyez delà l'estot ^ visiter, 

Saunz compaygnye de counte sigle fet lever 

Et va sodaynement en Flaundres aryver. 

Unkes tel seygnur fu servy sçà en arer 

Issint de sun pople, kant devait guerrayer. 

Trop est recreaunt ke se reçoit arer, 

Kant vait sun seygnur en péril ^ aler. 

Cornent Vavauntdit Edward ariva en Flandres}^ 

Les countes demoraynt, ly rays Edward passait ; 
Escotez ore cornent en Flaundres aryvait ; 
De vins et de viaundes son attret^^ estait 

^ Pus va 'esvesqe Auntoyne les 
barons prier, B. C. D. 

" replier, B. C. qe deygnent re- 
plier, D. 

3 De si corn, C. Desicum, D. 

'* respons doner, B. C. 

^ vendrent, B. 

^ pur ceo, B. C. 

7 il vaille, C. 

^ delà là estait, C. 

^ en tiel péril, B. san seignur vers 
de le péris maver, C. vers tel péril 
maver, D. It may be remarked that 
thèse four lines are altogether omitted 
by Robert of Brunne, who perhaps 
disagreed in the sentiments they 

contain ; for he bas, a few lines 
further on, inserted in his transla- 
tion some remarks wbich appear 
intended to bave a rather opposite 
tendency : — 

" Now is Edward arived in 

" Flanders, bot witb fo, 
" Witb bis barons he strived, with 

" bim wild non go. 
" A kyng that strives with bise, 

*' be may not wele spede, 
" Wbere so be restis or rives be 

" lyves ay in drede." 
^" Tbis rubric is taken from B. 
'' e viandes son atret, B. Des 
vins et des viaundes san attret, D. 


Then bishop Anthony goes to beg of the barons 

That they will deign to bend to their liège lord, 

Inasmuch as lie bas now need of their aid. 

The barons consult on it, and send back their reply 

By pétitions of diverss manner, 

And that they will willingly corne to St. Albans, 

To hold a conférence with king Edward upon it, 

If he will go down there with his council. 

The king sire Edward cannot wait ; 

It was necessary he should visit his allies beyond sea. 

He raises his sail without corapany of earl, 

And goes suddenly to arrive in Flanders. 

Never in time back was such a sovereign served 

Thus by his people, when he was going to make war. 

He is too cowardly who draws back 

When he sees his lord going into danger. 

Hoiv the aforesaid Edward arrived in Flanders, 

The earls remained, king Edward crossed the sea; 
Now listen how he arrived in Flanders : 
Of wines and méats his dépôt was 


Establishes En la vile de Bruges/ où il se lierbegait. 

Brages * Humayne salveour, ke tut seet et vait, 

De graunt encombrement illokes ly salvait. 

Le provost de la vile déshériter beayt^ 

Le counte son seygnur lige, ke Flaundres governait ; 

Al ray Phelippe de Fraunce, ke countre ly guerrait, 

Sa lettre privément par messagers ^ envait, 

Li dist quel houre à Bruges aprocher vodrait,* 

Tute la commune la vile ly rendrait,^ 

Lj rays Eduuard ilokes sodainement prendrait, 

Ensint ke nule part^ ayllours escliaperait. 

Plot to Ijj rays Phelippe de Fraunce ^ meintenaunt le otrait ; 

to the king ^ers la vile de Bruges ® son hoste apparaylait. 

of France. Ly ray S Eduuard [l'Joyt^ dire et parler de descait, 
Fet trumper as harmes, et son aler purvait 

He escapes Au noble bui'ghe de Gaunt, où venir quidait ^^ 

^ ^°*' Ly rays des Alemaunz, ke son^^ aver avait 

Pur aider en la guerre taunt cum ele durait.^^ 
Ly rays des Alemaunz ilokes ly maundait, 
Souspris ^^ estoit de guerre, dont venir ne poait. 
Allas ! ke teP^ prince fay mentu estre dait ! 
Ly rays Edward demort, e mangust^^ et bayt; 
Ses Walays issirent sovent à surfait. 
Ly querw^^ counte de Bar entrechevauchait, 

^ Eriges, B. Burges, C. D. j ^ Philip rei de France, B. 
Robert of Brunne translates it, i ^ de Burge, B. de Burgh, C. 

" His vitaile lie bas purveid in ^ ^ F oit dire, B. C. D. 

" Brigges for to be, j ^° Robert of Brunne bas added 

" His -wynes -vrere tber leid, and some lines hère to inform us how 

" -vvamised tbat cité." ^ king Edward became acquainted 

2 bieit, B. " The provest of the | with his danger, and how he es- 
" toun, a wik traytour and chérie," i caped it. 

Robert of Brunne. | ^^ ke le soen, C. 

3 par messangers privément, C. I ^^ tant cum il savoity B. C. D. 
^ à B^irgh aprocher volait, C j ^^ Que suspris, B. C. D. 

^ De tote la vile la comune li ren- ^* cel, D. 
dreit, B. | ^^ manju, D. 

^ q'en nul part, C. I ^^ Li guerru, B. C. D. 


In the town of Bruges, where he lodged. 

The Saviour of mankind, who knows and sees ail things, 

There saved him from great disaster. 

The provost of the town aimed at depriving of his 

The earl his liège lord, who ruled Flanders ; 
To king Philip of France, who was at war with him, 
He sends his letter privately by messengers ; 
Tells him^at whatever hour he would approach Bruges, 
AU the commune would deliver the town up to him, 
And that he would there take king Edward suddenly, 
So that he would escape nowhere else. 
King Philip of France at once agrées to it ; 
He marshalled his army towards the town of Bruges. 
King Edward heard tell of it and talk of deceit, 
Ordered to trumpet to arms, and made préparation for 

his departure 
To the noble burgh of Ghent, where he expected to 

The king of the Germans, who had his money 
To aid in the war so long as it lasted. 
The king of the Germans sent word to him there, 
That he was overtaken by war, through which he 

could not come. 
Alas ! that such a prince should belle his faith ! 
King Edward remains, and eats and drinks ; 
His Welsh issued forth often for plunder. 
The warlike count of Bar rode out with them. 



Petty war- Et sur ly ray de Fraunce e court et robbayt ; ^ 
tween the ^^^ marchés et ses faires des chateus despoyllait,^ 
EDglish ^ maufere par tut ^ pojnit ne esparniayt ; 
French. Et ly ray Phelippe autel ly fesait. 

Ly eveske de Dureme touz jour[s] travayllait 
De enentir la guerre saunz contek et playt. 
Le poer des Englays ly ray Phelippe savayt, 
Par taunt ke fu petite,* se tent le plus estrait. 
Ly rays Edward, ws dye, eust fet bon esplait, 
S'il eust eu ses countes et lors et laundrait.^ 
Escotez la defaute, e en ly tut^ pecchayt. 

The ex- 
ample of 
hâve been 

The Scots 



Ensaumiole du noble rei sire Arthur? 

En gestes aunciens trovoums-nous escrit 
Quels rays et quels reaimes ly rays ^ Arthur conquis t, 
Et ^ cornent sun purchace largement partyst. 
Eoys suz ly ^^ n'a voit ke ly countredist, 
[Counte, duc, e baron,^^ qe unqes li faillist,]^^ 
En guère n'e[n] ^^ bataille ke chescun ne suyst.^* 
Ly rays sir Eduuard ad doné trop petyt ; 
Par quai à sun aler, quant en mer se myst 
Vers ly roys de Fraunce, fet ly fu despit, 
Ke nés un de ses countes of ly le aler^^ emprist. 
La commune de Escoz la novele oyst, 
Chescun la sue part sur çoe se^^ joyst, 
La route de raskaylle la guère renoue ^^ reprist ; 

^ sur le rei de France eorrust e 
robbeit, B. C. D. 

2 ses chastels despuleit, B. de 
chaustels, C. 

3 de tut, B. de tôt, C. de tote^ 

* cum fu perte, B. Tant corn f eust 
petit se tyent plus, C. comfu petite, 

^ et lors laundrait, C. 

^ defaute, en qi tut, B. D, la 
defaicte e qe tut, C. 

'' This rubric is given from B. 
^ rai/s omitted in B. 
9 Et omitted in B. 
^^ sur ly, D, 
^^ duk, baroun, C. D. 
^2 This line, omitted in A., is found 
in B. C. D. 

^^ n'ew, B. D. ne en, C. 
^^ nefuist, C. 

^^ of li aler, B. n'enpris, D. 
^^ s'en, B. de ceo se, C. D. 
'^ fioue, B, 


And invaded and plundered the territory of the king 

of France ; 
Robbed his markets and Lis fairs of their chattels, 
Spared not to do evil everywhere ; 
And king Philip did as much to him. 
The bishop of Durham confcinually laboured 
To put an end to the war without strife and dispute. 
King Philip knew the force of the English, 
Insomuch as it was small, he heid himself the more 

King Edward, I tell you, would hâve gained a great 

If he h ad had his earls then and there. 
Listen to the fault in which ail the sin lay. 

An example of the noble king sir Arthur. 

In ancient historiés we find written 
What kings and what kingdoms king Arthur con- 

And how he shared largely his gain. 
There was not a king under him who contradicted 

Earl, duke, or baron, who ever failed him 
In war or in battle, but eacli folio wed him. 
The king sir Edward has given too little ; 
Whereby at his departure, when he put to sea 
Against the king of France, the affront was shown 

That not one of his earls undertook the expédition. 
The commonalty of Scotland hears the news, 
Each on his own part rejoices over it. 
The rabble of the lower people resumed war anew ; 



Ly counte et ly baroun feyntement suffrist 
William Ke Williame Walays chevetayn se fist, 
made their ^^^' ^^^^^ covertoure ^ ke homme n'entendist, 
leader. Xe hait home d'Escoz relever vousist.- 

Ly Walays meintenaunt les chastels assaillist 
Parmy la terre d'Escoz, et souz Englays les prist.^ 
Hwe de Cressingham un pou avaunt mesfist, 
Kant le argent* sir Eduuard en taunt esparnist, 
Ke molt de la petaylle de Thost s'en partist.^ 
Defeat of Ly quens Jon de Guarayne,^ si tost com entendist 
deWarenne ^^ ^^^^ estoyt rompue ke ly Escot promist, 
at Stirling. Yers Estrivelyn " s'en va of Tost ke remist, 

Oii Williame le Walays^ le counte descomfîst, 
Par sa folye demene, kaunt alait al lyst.^ 
Kar taunt com ly quens al matyn dormist/*^ 
William le Walays le chef du pount assist ; 
De launces et gavelokes home pecea ne vist-"^^ 
Coyllette ^^ plus espesse ; le counte refuist, 
Les Englays i morurent, l'Escot i passa ^^ quit. 

A celé mesavenue estaient tuez 
Vavassom-s cm-toys de gentil parentez, 
Robert de Somerville et sun fiz aynez ; 
Chuvalers et sergauns^* i pristrent congez, 

^ Eobert of Brunne translates 
this, " Thorgh fais concelement 
William did his wille." 

2 ne vousist, C 

^ esur Engleis seprist, B. e sur 
E., C. D. 

■* ke l'argent, C. 

■^ perrist (?), B. 

^ Garenne, D. 

' Strivelin, B. 

s William Waleis, B. D. 

9 aleit à lit, B. al lit, C. D. 

^^ Robert of Brunne translates 
this as foUows : — 

" And that was his folie, so long 

" in his bed gan ligge, 
" Untille the "Waleis partie had 

" umbilaid the brigge. 
" With gavelokes and dartes suilk 

" ore was non sene, 
" Myght no man tham départe, 

" ne ride ne go bituene." 
^^ home pièce sanc vist, B. Des 
launces, C. Des gavelocs et des 
launces, D. 

12 Cuillette, B. Coillet, C. D. 
^^ morront, VEscot passa, B. i 
morirent, VEscote passa, C. 
1* Chevalers, serjaunz, C. 


The earl and the baron suffered by dissimulation 
That William Wallace made himself their chieftain 
By false pretence, which none understood, 
That he sought to raise himself up a great man of 

The Wallace immediately assaulted the castles 
Through the land of Scotland, and took them from the 

Hugh de Cressingham had done wrong a while before, 
When he was so very sparing of sir Edward's money, 
That much of the foot of the army deserted. 
The earl John de Warenne, as soon as he learnt 
That the peace was broken which the Scot promised, 
He proceeds towards Stirling with the army which 

Where William Wallace discomfited the earl, 
By his own folly, when he went to bed. 
For while the earl was sleeping in the morning, 
William Wallace laid siège to the head of the bridge; 
Of spears and gavelokes none ever saw before 
So thick an assemblage ; the earl fled, 
The Engiish died there, the Scot passed there quit. 

At this misfortnne were slain 
Courteous vavasors of noble kindred, 
Robert de Somerville and his eldest son ; 
Knights and serjeants there took their leave, 



Death of 
Hugh de 

of Marma- 
duke de 

The Scots 



Sorais et Norays, ke cy ne sount nomez.^ 

Hwe de Cressingham^ en sele* mesusez, 

Du destrer^ coraunt cheist desuz pez,^ 

Des ribaus^ d'Escoz sun cors fu demaglez, 

Et^ en menues corayes le quir^ escorchez, 

En despit ly roys, ki clerk il fu clamez.^ 

Marmeduk de Thweng,^ de Deu sait honurez ! 

Cum lyon se cont}Tit en tôt es les mellez,-^^ 

Taunt fist à la jorné^^ ke soens sunt les grez ;^^ 

Counte ne baroun à ly fu ^^ comparez ; 

Combataunt of l'espeye la garde ad recoverez 

Du chastel de Strivelyn, et là demorez. 

Meintenaunt après ad li Escot maundez 

Delà la mer en Flaundres un ribaud deguysez/* 

Espier sir Eduuard en viles et cytez. 

Cil revent ^^ et dist en fin veritez, 

Il vist oii sir Eduuard fu mort et enterrez. 

La commune d'Escoz se levé à celé fez, 

Et promette et vouwe à Deu en trinitez 

Engleterre destrure saunz aver pitez, 

Confunder saint eglyse et les ordinez. 

En Northumberland les fols ount comencez 

Arder et destrure et mesuns et blez. 

Au ray Eduuard en Flaundres sunt gent ^^ enveez, 

^ This line is omitted in D. 
^ en tel, C. ce/, D. 
' De destrer, C. 
^ chaist suz peez, C. 

5 Du ribaudaile, B. D. Outre 
rihaudaille, C. 

6 Et omitted in B. 

7 son quir, B. C. Robert of 
Brunne has hère, " I wene thei quik 
*' him flouh," i.e., " they flayed him 
" alive ; " but Heame very errone- 
ously says in his note that Jlouk is 
an error for slouh, slew. 

^ This line is omitted in B. i 
fu clamez, C. D. 

^ de Tuenye, B. de Thewenye, 

^^ en touz ses medlez, C. 

^^ à la cournê, D. 

^- This and the preceding line are 
transposed in B. D. 

'^^ à ly ne fu, C. This line is 
omitted in D. 

^^ " A boye of ther rascaile, quaynt 
" and déguisé," Robert of Brunne. 

1^ revint, D. 

^^ sunt genz, B. D. 


Northerns and Southerns, who are not named hère. 

Hugh de Cressingham, not accustomed to the saddle, 

From his steed in its course fell under foot, 

His body was eut to pièces by the ribalds of Scotland, 

And his skin taken oif in small thongs, 

As an insuit to the king, whose clerk he was called. 

May Marmaduke de Thweng, may he be honoured of 

Behaved like a lion in al] the combats ; 
He did so much that day that his are the congratula- 
tions ; 
Earl nor baron was compared to him: 
Combating with the sword he has recovered the ward 
Of the castle of Stirling, and remained there. 
New afterwards the Scot has sent 
Beyond sea into Flanders a ribald in disguise, 
To spy sir Edward in towns and cities. 
He retums and tells for perfect truth, 
He saw where sir Edward was dead and buried. 
The commonalty of Scotland rouses itself at this tirae; 
And promises and vows to God in trinity 
To destroy England without having pity ; 
To confound holy church and the clergy. 
In Northumberland the madmen hâve begun 
To burn and destroy both houses and corn. 
People are sent into Flanders to king Edward, 



of king 

He yields 
their de- 
mands to 
his barons 
and clergy. 

Ke par^ les Norays la plainte oiint présentez 

Cornent il ount perdu lur teres et lui' feez, 

Et cornent plus perdrount, et touz les melz- vanez 

Ke sunt en Engleterre en viJes et citez,^ 

Si plus tost par ly ne sayent^ aidez. 

Ly rays de tote pars estoyt angussez,^ 

Issi k'à lendemayne ^ fet maunder ses privez ; 

Counsayllent sur la chose, si com ws orrez."^ 

Maintenaunt après ly rays est av^^sez, 

Ke gTaunter ly estoyt à clers et as barnez^ 

Les peticiouns ke furent veez. 

As countes et barouns ke of ly ne sunt alez, 

As primaz d' Engleterre ke tenent les ij. seez,^ 

Et as tuz les autres eveskes sacrez, 

As abbez et priours et bénéficiez, 

As countes et barouns, ly rays avaunt nomez ^*^ 

Par lettre et par bucbe^^ ad durement pryez 

De aide et de soccour et de amistez ^- 

Encountre les Escoz et lui* iniquitez ; 

Leaument les promette ben ^^ serrount werdonez. 

Et averount lur demaunde à lur^^ voluntez. 

Ly sire de Caunterbire du promès ^^ est leez ; 

Pur ly ^^ et sa province respouns ad donez, 

Salve Testât ut la pape ad publyez, 

Des bens de saint église la disme i ad ^" gi'auntez, 

^ E par, B. 

- lour meuz,^. D. perderont tuz 
lour meltZy C. 

3 e viles e vilez, B. C. This line 
is omitted in D. 

■* ne soiez, B. n'en soient, C. 

•^ " The kyng for tlio tithinges 
" was noyed grcTOslie," Robert of 

^ Issint qe lendemein, B. Issi qe 
il lendemayn, D. 

' si vus orrez, B. 

^ as clers e barnez, B. estait e as 
barnez, C. 

'' For this and the following Une, 
D. has one : A les ercevesqes et 
evesqes sacrez. 

^^ avant tuchez, B. This line is 
omitted in D. 

'^ par lange, B. C. D. 

^- des amistez, B. CD. 

'^ qe ben, C. 

14 e lour, C. D. 

15 de la promesse, C. 
1^ Par ly, D. 

>' la disme ad, B. C. " Of holy 
" kirkes frute he gaf the kyng the 
" tende," Robert of Brimne. 


Who have presented on the part of the Northerns their 

How they have lost their lands and their fées, 
And how they will lose more, and ail those of most 

Who are in England in towns and cities, 
If they be not aided by him in time. 
The king was tormented on ail sides, 
So that on the morrow he sent for his privy coun- 

cillors ; 
They consiilted on the matter, as you will hear. 
Immediately after, the king is counselled, 
That he must grant to clergy and to the barons 
The pétitions which were laid before him. 
To the earls and barons who were not gone with him, 
To the primates of England who hold the two sees, 
And to ail the other consecrated bishops, 
To the abbots and priors and beneficed clergy, 
To the earls and barons, the king before named 
By letter and by mouth lias earnestly prayed 
For aid and succour and friendship 
Against the Scots and their wickedness ; 
Faithfully he promises them they shall be well rewarded. 
And shall have their demand at their will. 
The lord of Canterbury is rejoiced by the promise ; 
He has given answer for himself and his province, 
With réservation of the statute the pope has published, 
He has there granted the tenth of the goods of holy 




The Scots 



duke de 
Thweng is 

Dunt salver le et défendre ^ en ses dignitez, 
Ensint ke par les clers ^ le aver sait levez, 
Et par mesmes les ^ clers as barouns liverez, 
Kaunt irrount en Escoz of lur alyez, 
A salver seint église parmy les régnez. 
E les clers du north du quinte sount chargez, 
A la verrai value com furent taxez 
Kant al rais Edward donaint les maytez.* 

Mayntenant après kant les Escoz savaient 
Cornent al rais Edward ses clers aider volaint,^ 
Cornent ses barons enter eus parlaient, 
Si test quant ^ par le rai enselëe verraient 
La chartre des franchises'^ ke jadis avaient, 
Trestuz en Albanye volunters ^ irraient 
Encountre les Escoz ke plus de mal ne fraint,^ 
Le venir des barons les Escoz dotaint. 
Al chastel de Strivelyn com gent de pees alaint, 
A Marmeduk de Tweng ^^ hostages presentaint, 
E en lur baptême ^^ promistrent e joraient, 
Si hors vousist venir, de pees li parlerayent, 
E al rays Edward illokes se renderayent. 
Marmeduk e issist à cels ke ly pryayent, 
Ke sanz plus délayer ^- ly pristrent e montayent, 
Le joven conestabel ^^ ovekes ly menayent 
Tut drait à Dumbretayn, e Teuprisonayent ; 
Ne sevent lur amys si mort ou vifs i sayent.^* 
La treson fu fête, kar les -^^ Escoz quidayent, 

^ Dont salver e le deffendre, C. 
This Une is omitted in D. 

2 ses clers, B. C. 

•^ ces clers, B. 

^ la maitez, C. " Whan the kyng 
" asked half of aile ther moble 
" thing," Robert of Brunne. 

^ For this and the next line, I). 
bas : Cornent al reis Edward entre 
els parlaynt. 

" Si test cum, C. 

"* de franchise, C, 

^ volenters en Albanie, C. 

^ qe plus mal ne ferraient, B. 
The line is omitted in D. 

'^ de Theweng, C. Thweyig, D. 

'1 " Thei suore ther Cristendam," 
Robert of Brunne. 

'- plus dailler, B. dalier, C. 

'■^ Jovene conestahlie, B. 

^■* ou vif ensaint, C. 

'^ La treson ifiifet par les, B. 


Wherewith to save and défend him in his dignities, 
So that the money he raised by the clergy, 
And by the same clergy delivered to the barons, 
When they shall go into Scotland with their allies, 
To save holy church throughout the kingdoms. 
And the clergy of the North are charged with the fifth, 
At the strict valuation as they were taxed 
When they gave to king Edward the moiety. 

New after when the Scots knew 
How his clergy were willing to aid king Edward, 
How his barons talked among themselves, 
As soon as they saw sealed by the king 
The charter of freedom which they had formerly, 
That they would ail go willingly into Albany 
Against the Scots to prevent their doing more evil, 
The Scots were in fear of the coming of the barons. 
They went to the castle of Stirling as men of peace, 
Offered hostages to Marmaduke de Thwenge, 
And promised and swore on their baptism, 
If he would corne out they would treat of peace with 

And there they would submit to king Edward. 
Marmaduke went out to those who solicited him, 
Who without further delay took him and put him on 

Took with him the young constable 
Straight to Dumbarton, and put him in prison ; 
Their friends know not if they be dead or alive there. 
The treason was done, for the Scots imagined. 




Si mal lour fust venue, par eus le melz ^ averayent. 
Ore oyez de la cliartre quel gent la portayent 
A clers e al barons,- ke la procurayent. 
The king's Tant com les clers du su devaient compasser, 
Srcifiy* -^^ P^^ ^^ disme grauntë ^ ne pussent mal aver, 
and barons. Ne la pape ofFendre, revent ly tresorer 
Du rays sir Edward, ke fust outre mer. 
Cil vers la clergye comença parler, 
E al les barons ensi ^ noncier. 
" Amis,^ ly ray, vos sires, bee^ de gentil quer 
" De sa seygnurie tut Engleterre eyser, 
" La chartre des franchises ws voet confermer, 
*' E^ de la foreste l'assise amender, 
" Com jadis purvist le ray Henri son per." 
Publication La cliartre fu moustrë e leu à Westmouster. 
charter of ^^ ^^^'® ^^ Canterbir sur çoe ne voelt targer, 
liberties. Parmy sa province l'ad fet publier. 

Maintenaunt après ly quens Marsclial Roger, 

E ly quens de Herforthe, Umfray^ li gentil ber, 

Vers Everwyke s'en vont, al mouster Saint Per ; 

Les hauz homes de la terre les venent encountrer, 

Ly quens Jon de Soray^ of tut soen poer, 

Ly gardayn de Glouscestre, Rauf de Moinhermer,^^ 

Of Jone la countesse, sa lige mulier,^^ 

E trestouz ly autre ke portent baner 

De Dover à Dui^eme, il venent ^^ volunter. 

^ les fust venuz, par eaus les meuz, 
B. les fust avenue, C. les fust 
venue, D. 

2 as clers e as barons, B. C. D, 

^ grande, B. C. 

^ issi, D. 

5 Perhaps, A vus. A vous, C. D. 

6 bie, B. bye, C. 
" E omitted in D. 

^ Herford, Horrfray, C. de Her- 
ford, D. 
^ Johan de Surray, C. 

^^RaufleMohermer,'R. de Mein- 
henner, C. D. 

1^ Joan Plantaganet, widou- of 
Gilbert earl of Clare, Gloucester, 
and Heitford. Robert of Brunne 
translates hère, 

" Of Gloucestre stoute and gay 
" sir Eauf the Mohermere, 

' ' And his wif dame Jone, whilom 
" Gilberdes of Clare." 

^2 i venent, B. D. 


If misfortune came upon them, they would by them 

hâve the better. 
Now hear of the charter what people brought it 
To the clergy and barons, who procured it. 

While the clergy of the South were employed in 

That by the tenth granted they could hâve no harrn, 
Nor ofifend the pope, returns the treasurer 
Of the king of England, who was beyond sea. 
He began to address the clergy. 
And to announce to the barons as foUows : 
'^ Friends, the king, your lord, seeks with gentle heart 
" Of his lordship to ease ail England, 
" It is his will to you to confirm the charter of 

" freedom, 
^' And to amend the assize of the forest, 
" As king Henry his father formerly provided." 
The charter was shown and read at Westminster 
The lord of Canterbury will not delay thereupon, 
He has caused it to be published throughout his parish. 
Thereupon the earl Marshal Roger, 
And the earl of Hereford, Humphrey the noble baron, 
Go to York, to the minster of St. Peter; 
The high m en of the land come to meet them, 
Earl John of Surrey with ail his power, 
The warden of Gloucester, Ralph de Monthermer, 
With Joan the countess, his lawful wife, 
And ail the others who carry banner 
From Dover to Durham, they come willingly. 



Le jour de saint Annais^ illokes font maimder 
L'eveske de Kardoil, ke vient pronunciev 
La sentence sollempne al pulpit du mouster/^ 
Entre les deus countes, of livre e lumer, 
Sur tuz iceax ke facent la cliartre violer, 
Ou ouster, ou destrure nul poynt de l'enter. 
The Puys vont vers Escoce Nortliumberland garder, 

^^over the Ressaisent les terres ke Walays le leer 
Marches. Avaunt avait saisye, e lors fuyst ^ arer. 

Entre ces aferes la graunt contrariaunce 
Entre le rays Edward e le ray de Fraunce 
Josqes à jour certayne prLs est delayaunce,* 
E la guère sopye e mys en suffraunce, 
Josqes Tapostoyle ad fet ordinaunce 
Entre ^ les deus rays purveu l'acordaunce. 
Double ma- Par deus mariages la pees est en beaunce ; ^ 
allSncr ^y ^'^y^ Edward avéra celé dont fu parlance, 
between E son fiz Edward, ke Deus là sus ^ lavaunce ! 
and^France. Aura^ la feille Felipe, ke n'ad for set aunce. 
Clers e lays, des queus les roys ont ^ affiance, 
Sont alez à Rome of lettres de creaunce, 
Moustrer à la pape coment, par quel covenaunce,^*^ 
Gascon estait rendue of Tapurtenaunce. 
Entendu ad la pape par lur demustrance ^^ 
Quel mal, e quel damage,-^- e com ^^ sovent grevance, 
Engiays e Francays ont eu par la distance ; 
Discussion ad fait de la gTant descordaunce, 
E mandez al reis partie de sa voyllaunce. 
Acorde bone i mette Deu par sa puyssaunce ! 

^ de seint Agneis,'B. Auneys,!). 

'^ pulpit de moustrer, B. 

3 fust, D. 

'' desloyaunce, C. 

^ £t entre, D. 

^ biance, B. 

7 Dieu sus, B. '^ cornent, B. 

^ Avéra, C. D. 

^ e reis desqueus h rei out, B. 
^^ aï pape par lour demustrance,~R. 
'' This and thepreceding Une are 
omitted in B. 

^- Quele mal, quel damage, D. 


On the day of St. Agnes they summon thither 
The bisliop of Carlisle, who cornes to pronounce 
In the pulpit of the minster the solemn sentence, 
Between the two earls, with book and candie, 
Against ail those who cause the charter to be violated, 
Or infringed, or any point of the whole to be destroyed. 
Then they go towards Scotland to protect Nortlmm- 

They recover the lands which Wallace the thief 
Had previously seized, and then lie Aies back. 

Amidst thèse transactions, of the great dispute 
Between king Edward and the king of France 
A delay is taken until a certain day, 
And the war appeased and put in sufferance, 
Until the pope has made order 
And provided the accord between the two kings. 
By two marriages the peace is in negotiation ; 
King Edward shall hâve her of whom was talk, 
And his son Edward, may God there above advance him ! 
Shall hâve Philip 's daughter, who is only seven years 

of âge. 
Clerks and laymen, in whom the kings hâve trust, 
Are gone to Rome, with letters of crédit, 
To explain to the pope how, and by what agreement, 
Gascony was given up with the appurtenance. 
The pope has understood by their explanation 
What evil, and what damages, and how frequently 

English and French hâve had by the quarrel, 
He has made discussion of the great disagreement, 
And has sent to the king part of his will. 
May God by his power put there a good accord ! 





retums to 



of the 




return to 

Anoio Domini millesimo cc°. nonagesimo viif} 

Tant com le apostoile Boneface atent 
Entre les deus rays pui'veer l'acor dément, 
Ly reys sir Edward son chymyn reprent 
Tut di^eit vers Engletere, of sigle e of vent.^ 
Le counte de Menetef,^ ke fu son parent, 
E li quens d'Ascetil,^ le Comyn ensement, 
Fiz cil de Badenake,^ e autres jesqe à trent,^ 
Quex li rais Edward sanz or e sanz argent^ 
Hors de sa prisone lessa quitement, 
Aler en pilrinage priaynt ^ dévotement. 
Kant congeez estaient, escotez cornent 
Al ray Felippe de France alayent fausement, 
Ly pryayent ^ de soccour e de avauncement 
Dont recoverir Escoce of le apurtenement, 
A tenir de ly pardurabelment. 
Le ray Plieli]3pe respont, '' Soz,^*^ alez-ws ent, 
*' La pape par sa lettre me maunde e defent ^^ 
^' Coure sour la terre k'au rays Edward apent,^^ 
" Tant com nostre trewe demort sur jugement." 
La fausse compaygnye desaidé s'assent,^^ 
Al port de la mer s'en vount vistement, 
Passage i trovent prest, promettent largement, 
E ki piere s'en fount,^* ne lessent pm^ tourment, 
Arivent en Escoce saunz destourbement. 
Li rays sii' Edward par oydire atent 
Coment les Escoce l'ount trahi sovent. 
Lors va visiter seint Thomas de Kent, 

1 This nibric is taken from D. 

2 e vent, C. D. 

3 Meneteste, B. D. Menetest, C. 
■* de Astrels, B. Ascecil, D. -4s- 

cetelle, Robert of Brunne. 
5 Badenagh, B. C. D. 
^ jesqe trent, B. 
" e argent, B. D. 
'^^priaunt, B. C. D. 

^ priaunt, B. 

^^ Folz, B. Sotz, C. D. 

11 et me deffent, C. D. 

1^ qe au rei apend, B. 

1'' desaidée se sent, D. 

1^ E skipper se fount,^. E skyper 
s'en font, C. Eskipper s^en fount, 
D. The reading of the text is 
evidently incorrect. 


Anno Domini 1298. 

While pope Boniface waits 
To provide the accord between the two kings, 
The king sir Edward takes Lis way back 
Eight towards England, with sail and with wind. 
The earl of Menteith, who was his kinsman, 
And the earl of Asketil, the Comyn likewise, 
Son of him of Badenagh, and others to the number 

of thirty, 
Whom kiug Edward without gold or silver 
Let quit ont of his prison, 
Prayed devoutly to go on a pilgrimage. 
When they had leave, hear how 
They went treacherously to king Philip of France, 
Prayed him for succour and advancement 
Wherewith to recover Scotland with the appartenance, 
To hold of him for ever. 

King Philip replies, " Fools, go away with you, 
" The pope by his letter sends and forbids me 
" To attack the land which belongs to king Edward, 
*' So long as our truce remains upon judgment." 
The false company finds itself without aid, 
They go hastily to the port of the sea, 
They fînd there the passage ready, promise largely, 
Cause themselves to be embarked, do not hesitate for 

Arrive in Scotland without impediment. 
The king sir Edward learns by hearsay 
How the Scots hâve betrayed him often. 
Then he goes to visit St. Thomas of Kent 



Seint Jon de Beverlë, rnolt dévotement/ 

Seint William de Everwyk, seint Cutliberfc ensement ; 

Edward Puys va vers le nortli à sa ^ lige gent, 

Scodanr'' ^S'^embler les fet, e tient ^ parlement. 

Cil parlent, e purvayent, e sunt d'nn assent, 
Aler en Albanye à prendre vengement, 
[E priver les Escotz de tere e tenement.] ^ 
Or oyez quel vengaunce ly Dex^ omnipotent 
I fist par sa pussance sour le faus covent ^ 
Ke robba saint église de soun vestement/ 
E renovelaynt la guère encontre lur serment.^ 

Le jour de la Magdelayne après la ^ mi este, 
D'Escoz e de Galewaye le popel malurë, 
Kantke denz le Marche ^° furent norriz e née, 
Chescun of lance en poigne à malfaire ^^ apresté, 
Sunt venuz à Faukirke à une mâtiné ^^ 
Encontre les Engiais en bataille ordiné. 
En l'avaunt garde estoit dos au dos^^ doné, 
E point sur point de lance, en cliiltrons tant sarré ^ 
Com cbastel en plein de mur environé. 

Battle of 

^ Robert of Bnmne says, — 

" Sithen on his viage to Beverley 

" he went, 
" Bifor saynt Jon he woke a 

" nyght or he thien nam." 
" od sa, B. 
2 e tynt, C. 

■* This line is omitted in A., but 
is found in B. C. D. 
5 vengaunce Dieus, B. 
^ sur le fais gent, D. 
' Instead of this line and the one 
folio wing, D. bas one : 

Qe renovelaynt la gwere encountre 

lour serment. 
s Robert of Brunne adds, 
" The date was a thousand, thre 

" hundred aile bot one, 
" At Foukirke in Scotland Scottis 

" escapid none." 

9 la Magdale à la, B. " a litelle 
" bifor Lamraesse," Robert of 

^^ les Marchez, "B. dedenz les Mar- 
ches, D. 

^^ à meffare, B. 
^- par une matinê, B. 
^3 dos à dos, B. C. dos al dos, D. 
Robert of Brunne translates this, — 
" Therformast conreytherbakkis 

" togidere sette, 
" Ther speres poynt over poynt 

" so sare and so thikke, 
" And fast togidere joynt, to se 

" it was ferlike. 
" Als a casteUe thei stode, that 

" M-ere wallid •with stone, 
" Thei wende no man of blode 

" thorgh tham siild haf gone." 
^^ en scheltrom sarré, B. 


St. John of Beverley, very clevoutly, 

St. William of York, St. Cuthbert likewise ; 

Then he goes towards the North to his liège people, 

Causes them to assemble, and holds a parliament. 

Thèse speak, and provide, and are of one assent, 

To go into Scotland and take vengeance, 

And deprive the Scots of land and tenement. 

Now hear what vengeance God Almighty 

Took there by his power on the false people, 

Who robbed holy church of its garment, 

And renewed the war contrary to their oath. 

On the day of the Magdalen, after Midsummer, 
The wretched people of Scotland and Galloway, 
As many as were bred and born in the Marches, 
Each with spear in fist ready to do mischief, 
Are come to Falkirk in a morniDg, 
Arranged in order of battle against, the Englisb. 
In their van guard back was placed ?.gainst back. 
And point of lance on point, in squadrons so serried, 
Like castle in plain surrounded with wall. 


La multitude estait tant fort effréné,^ 

As Englays^ destrure de tel voluntë, 

Ne quidaynt ^ pur veirs ke tute la lignée 

Tant com la terre est longe de Perte à Pevensé,* 

Oveske ly rays Edward, les eust^ parmi percé. 

Ly rays Edward les vait venir aval le pré, 

Escrie ses barons, *• Aloms en noun de Dé ! " 

Lors brochent les destrers li count e ly barné ; 

Ky plus tost put coure s'en aut à la medlé.^ 

Great de- La cliuvalerie delà ke fu mounté,'' 

siaughter of Kant vist la banere Edward le séné 

the Scots. Of les trais lipars ^ en place desplaé, 
Meintenant fuirent e lessaint desaidé 
Tute lur pitaile, ont werpé^ e wayné. 
La route de raskaille fu meintenaunt sevi*é 
Par poer des Englais, ke n'avoyent pité ; 
Com mousches i morurent c. mil par coup d'espé ; ^^ 
Les autres sy fuyrent,-^^ la place fu voidé 
Entre prime e noune de tote la lignée/^ 
E nés un des Englais ^^ fu mort ne maigné, 
For frère ^* Brian de Jai, cbuvaler alosé, 
Haut mestre du Temple deçà mère assigné.^^ 
Cil suist ^^ les Escoz à une betumé,^'' 

^ affrenéf C. 

2 Des Engleis, B. 

^ quideit, B. 

t^vo lines into one : — Com mouches 
i morirent, la place fu voydé. Ro- 
bert of Brunne translates, " Als 

^ de Perih e de Pevenesê, B. c/e " fleihes doun thei fleih, ten thou- 

Pert à Pevensê, C. 
5 le eîist, B. 
^ s'en ait au medlé, B. C. s*en ait 

" sand at ones." 

^' s'e?« fuirent, B. C. 

^2 de celé parenté, B. C. D. 

al medlé, D. '^ un Engleis, B. 

' qe làfu counté, B. 

^ Od les treis leohars, B. Ouf les 
iij. leopardes en la place, C. Les 
iij. leopardz, D. 

^ unt guepie, B. 

'^ Hère again D. bas condensed 

^^ sire, C. Fors Bryan de Jay, D. 

15 a Maister Templere be was on 
" tbis balf tbe se," Robert of 

16 fuist, C. 

1' betumee, C. D. 


The multitude was so very fierce, 

And so eager to destroy the English, 

Tliey imagined not for truth that ail the race 

Through the whole length of the larid from Perth to 

With king Edward, could hâve pierced through them. 
King Edward sees them coming down the meadow, 
Ile shouts to his barons, " Let us advance in God's 

" name ! " 
Then earls and barons spur their steeds ; 
He who can run quickest goes into the battle. 
The knights on the other side who were mounted, 
When they see the banner of Edward the wise 
With the three léopards displayed in the field, 
Now fled and left without aid 
Ail their footmen, hâve abandoned and Jost them. 
The army of the common soldiers was now severed 
By the power of the English, who had no mercy ; . 
Like Aies died there a hundred thousand by sword 

blows ; 
The others fled, the place was cleared 
Of ail the race between prime and none, 
And not one of the English was killed or left on the 

Except brother Brian de Jai, a knight of worth, 
Appointed head master of the Temple on this side the 

He pursued the Scots to a slough, 



E sanz soccour suaunt illokes fa tué.^ 

Conduct of Les Galays ne fesayent - aide à la iornë, 

the Welsh j j o ^ 

Desuz une montaygne s'esturent de gré,^ 

Josqes la bataille iloques * fu terminé. 

return to 

Anno Domini millesimo ducentesimo oionagesimo iap.^ 

Après la batayle ly rays retornait, 
Du reaime de Escoce la garde comaundait 
Ad ses barouns Englays, par quels il quidayt 
Refréner l'Escot, ke plus ne moverayt. 
Ad Loundres kant il vint, la pape ly maundait, 
La soer^ al ray de Fraunce à femme '^ prenderayt, 
Par ount de Gascoyne ^ la gwere cesserait ; 
Ne pas dame Blaunche dont homme primes parlait,^ 
Mes dame Mergerete, en ky maynder dait ^^ 
Plus ad de bountë, de beauté, ki la vait, 
K'en la bêle Ydoyne ke Aoiadas amait. 
Ly roys le maundement curtaisement rescait, 
Et de jour en autre sour çoe se purvait.^^ 
Sur quel a vi sèment kan[t] plus à fere avait, 
Ly quens Marschal Eoger à Loundres aprocliait, 
Ly quens Ounfray ^^ de Bonne i vint of graunt esplait, 

1 Robert of Brunne says, — 

" He folowed the Scottis pas, 

" whan the bigan to fie, 
" Fer intille a -wod, men calle it 

" Kalenters, 
" Ther in a mire a mod, -u-ithouten 

" help of fers, 
" Slouh thei sir Brian alon with- 

" outen mo. 
'' Alas ! that douhti man, that he 

" so fer suld go ! " 

2 ifeseient, B. 

^ Sutz la montaigne se coverciit 
de gré, B. Desuz la montaigne se 
turent de grée, C. D. 

^ eyisi, B. ensint, C. Ilokcs la 
hataylle ensint, D. 

'^ This rubric is taken* from B. 

^ Qe suer, B. 

' al femme, C. 

^ à Gascoi/n,C 

9 Robert of Brunne says, — 

" Not dame Blanche the suete, 

" that I first of spake, 
" Bot dame Margarete, gode with- 

" outen lak" 
^^ meindire deit, C. 
^' ceo purveit, B. 
1- Umfray,Q. 


And folio wing witliout succour there was slain. 
The Welsh gave no assistance in tlie battle, 
They voluntarily took their position on a mountain, 
Until the battle tliere was terminated. 

Anno Domini 1299. 

After tlie battle the king came back, 
He gave the custody of the realm of Scotland 
To his English barons, by whom he believed he sliould 
Curb the Scot, that he would rebel no more. 
When he came to London, the pope sent to command 

ïhat he should take to wife the sister of the king of 

Whereby the war of Gascony should cease ; 
Not the lady Blanche, of whom people spoke first, 
But the lady Margaret, in whose least finger 
There is more goodness and beauty, whoever looks at 

Than in the fair Idoine whom Amadas loved. 
The king receives the message courteously. 
And from day to day provides for that. 
On which affair when he was most occupied, 
The earl Marshal approached to London, 
Earl Humphrey de Bohun came there with great retinue, 



Comp.aint Des countes et barouns assez i trovait. 

about the -j. , , . 

Ly quens Jtloger al rays pur la commune alait, 

statute of 

Et en bon amour dévotement priait 

Ke saunz plus demore la puralë se faist.^ 

Ly rays la puralé délayer volait, 

Noun pur ço respouns assez cortays douait, 

Le maun dément la pape al quens Roger mostrait, 

Et en bone fay promist et jorait 

Ke, kant le damoisele esposez avérait, 

A la puralë fere gens assignerait, 

Des quels nul de soun règne se ^ mespayerait. 

Tant fu ^ son dit cortays ke loirs al quen parlait, 

Tant bêle la parole,* taunt ^ bel resemblait, 

Ke counte et baroun ad cel fez le crait, 

Et en son pays chescun repairayt. 

Ly quens Ounfray ^ de Bonne malades après ^ cochait. 

Mort le prent,^ allas ! son fiz Ounfray de drait^ 

Le héritage son père retent, et le rescait.^^ 

Meyntenaunt après le ray Phelippe de Fraunce 
Ad novele oye ke, par l'alyaunce 
Arrivai of De sa soer Mergrete, la commune ordinaunce 
France. ^^ 1^ court de Rome frait-*-^ sopir la distaunce 
Du duscbë de Aquitayne of le apurtenaunce. 
Ly ray Phelippe se acorde cum fiz de obeisaunce, 
Et pur la damoysele fet fere purviaunce ; 
La maunde en Engieterre of gent de conisance. 
Aryvë est ad Dover saunz nule destourbaunce, 
Oii gent ly countervenent ^^ de grant apparaunce ; 

^ Qe sanz plus de la puralé fesoit, 
B. Ke saunz plus delay la puraillé 
sefaist, CD. 

'^ ne se, C. The line is omitted 

3 fust, C. 

^ sa parole, B. C. 
^ e tant, C. 
^ Umfray, C. 

' après malades, D. 

^ Mort ly prist, C. le prisf, D, 

^ allas! Umfrei son fitz entreit, 
B. C. D. 

^° son père, e le tient de dreit, B. 

11 feit, B. 

12 Où yenz li countrevenent, B. C 


He found there enough of earls and barons. 

Earl Koger for the commons went to the king, 

And in good love earnestly prayed him 

That without furtlier delay the perambulation sliould 
be made. 

The king wished to delay the perambulation, 

Nevertheless he gave a very courteous replj^, 

Showed to earl Roger the pope's message, 

And in good faith promised and swore 

That, when he had esponsed the damsel, 

He would appoint people to exécute the perambula- 

With whom no one of his kingdom would be dissatis- 

So courteous was his saying which he then spoke to 
the earl, 

So fair his word, and it sounded so well, 

That count and baron that time believed it, 

And each returned to his country. 

The earl Humphrey de Bohun after this lay down ill ; 

Death takes him, alas ! his son Humphrey by right 

Claims the héritage of his father, and receives it. 

Now after, king Philip of France 
Has heard news that, by the alliance 
Of his sister Margaret, the common ordinance 
Of the court of Rome would cause to be appeased the 

About the duchy of Aquitaine withthe appurtenance. 
King Philip consents to it like an obedient son, 
And causes purveyance to be made for the damsel ; 
He sends her into England with people of knowledge. 
She is arrived at Dover without any impediment, 
Where people meet her with great ceremony ; 




Ad Kanterbyr la mènent, où saunz delayaunce 
Sount fet les esposailes sur mêmes la parlanee, 
Ke la court de Kome taila \y ^ covenaunce. 

Li erceveske Eobert de Winchelesé 
Fist des esposailes la soUempnetë, 
Le meskerdi avaunt la Nativité 
largaret. j^^ gloriouse virge Marie, la mère Dë.^ 
En le iver ^ après \y rays desavisë 
Alait vers Escoce saunz aide du barné ; 
Kant vint en la Marche, son host ad regarde, 
Petit le vist, et pover, et descounsailë. 
Le Escot delà le vait, le vis ly ad moustrë, 
Ly profer la bntayle ; ly rays n'y ad poustë 
Visiter Escoce ne endurer la medlë. 
Sutli garde com avaunt la Marche ad lessë,* 
Sanz plus fere celé fez al suth est ^ retornë ; 
Despendu ad le soen, et plus n'y ad gayné.^ 
Trop fu sa chaunce ^ pover en l'an de Jubile ; 
Sachez certaynement çoe fist la puralë,^ 
Ke ne estait pas fête com ele fu grauntë. 

De parlianiento iJerambulationis. 
A parlia- Ad la Paske après ad ly rays somouns 

mentcalled -^:^ i t j. x t. 

atLondon. Erceveskes, evekes, countes, et barouns, 
Quatre chuvalers des countës ^^ chescuns, 

1 les, C. D. 

2 Robert of Brunne has, — 

" Robert of Wynchelsé, that cor- 

" seynt is verray, 
" Did tbat solempnité opon a 

" Wednesday, 
*' Next the lattere fest that is of 

" our Lady." 
^ jour, B. yver, D. 
* This line is omitted in D. 
^ Sanz plus fere à celé foiz, al 
sieu est, B. C. D. 

6 This line is omitted in D. 
'' la chance, B. 
^ le pover aille, C. 

9 This rubric is taken from D, 

10 Qîiatre chivalers de countez, B. 
C. The latter reads, -with the text, 
des countés. Quatre chivalers des 
countés, J). Robert of Brunne 
translates it, " Four knyghtes be 
" somons chosen in ilk counté." In 
A. a hand of the fourteenth century 
has ehanged " quatre " into deux."" 


Tliey take lier to Canterbury, where withoiit delay 
The espousals are made according to the same covenant 
Of which the court of Rome drew up the terms. 

The archbishop Robert de Winchelsea 
Performed the ceremony of the espousals, 
The Wednesday before the Nativity 
Of the glorious virgin Mary, the mother of God. 
In the winter folio wing, the king ill advised 
Went towards Scotland without aid of his barons ; 
When he came to the March, he has reviewed his 

Sees it small, and poor, and disheartened. 
The Scot on the other side sees him, has shown him 

his face, 
Offers him battle ; the king has not power there 
To visit Scotland or support a battle. 
As before he has left the March under a warden, 
Withoub doing more this time he is returned to the 

south ; 
He has spent his money, and gained no more there. 
His chance was very poor in the year of the Jubilee ; 
Know for certain that was caused by the perambula- 

Which was not performed as it was granted. 

Of the parliarmnt of the peramhulation. 

At Easter folio wing the king has summoned 
ArchbishopS;, bishops, earls, and barons, 
Four knights of each of the counties. 




The parlia- 
ment at 

to Carlisle. 

The queen 

Ad Loundres à parlement^ pur plusurs achesounz.^ 
Al comencement sount nomez les persouns 
Ad fere la puralé la terre envirouns.^ 
Kaunt ele serra parfete parmy la regioims/ 
La commune ad grauntë al rays en gwerdouns^ 
Le vyntime dener de lour possessiouns. 
Après fu parlé, acordé par alcuns,^ 
Maunder ad la pape pur saver respouns, 
Pur quay al rays Eduuard ne volt par ses resouns 
Rejuger à tenir la terre de Gaseouns.'' 
En le terce article de çoe parlement, 
Pria ly rays Eduuard soccours de sa gent 
Dount relyer soun host sur le Escot pulent. 
Après la my este, par commune assent, 
Estait à KardoyP lour aj ornement ; 
Surrays et Norrays pur lur tenement ^ 
Ke servise ly dayvent i vount^*^ bonement. 
Ly quens Marsclial E-oger desliaité ^^ se sent,-^- 
Sir Jon de SegTave en soun la ^^ présent, 
Ad fere le servise ^^ en taunt cum apent. 
La rayne Margarete, par comaundement 
Soun seygnur ly rays, vers le North s'estent ; ^^ 

^ à le parlement, C. al parlement 
par, D. 

^ enchesons, B. 

^ Robert of Brunne translates 
this, — 

" First the nemnid aile tho the 
" puralé suld make, 

'* That thorgh the reame suld go, 
" the boundes forto stake." 

^ les regiouns, C. 

^ au rei de giierdons, B. 

^ par ascons, B. de acorde par 
acouns, C. par acuns, D. 

' des Gasouns, D, 

^ Estait ly Cardoylle, C. 

^ This Une is omitted in D, 

^° H deivent, venent bonement, D. 

" déshérité, B. 

^- se assent, C. 
^^ en soun lour, C. 
^^ les sei^vicez, B. Eobert of 
Brunne translates thèse lines as 
follows : — 

" The erle Marschalle Rogere no 

" hele that tyme mot hâve, 
" He went "with his banere sir 

" Jon the Segrave, 
'* To do aile tho servise that 

" longed the oflGice tille, 
" And mayntend aile the prise 
" ther he sauh lawe and skille." 
Eobert of Brunne evidently mis- 
understood the original of Pierre 
de Langtoft, which states that Se- 
grave was sent as substitute. 
^5 se tent, B. se estent, C. 


To London to parliament for several causes. 

At the beginning are named the persons 

To make the perambulation round the country. 

When that shall be completed through the kingdoms, 

The commons hâve granted to the king in reward 

The twentieth penny of their possessions. 

Afterwards it was debated, agreed to by some, 

To send to the pope to know his reply, 

Why to king Edward he will not by his reasons 

Judge back the possession of the land of the Gascons. 

In the third article of that parliament, 
King Edward asked for succour of his people 
Wherewith to reassemble his army against the stinkiag 

After Midsummer, by common assent, 
Their adjournment was at Carlisle ; 
Southerns and Northerns for their lordships 
Who owe him service go thither well-willing, 
The earl Marshal Roger feels himself discouraged, 
Présents sir John de Segrave in his place, 
To do the service in as much as belongs to him. 
Queen Margaret, by command 
Of her lord the king, proceeds towards the North ; 

X 2 



Birthofa Gros encaint estait; par Deu le omnipotent,^ 
'A Broyerton sur Wberf^ delyver est sauvement 
De un fiz, k'a noun Thomas en baptizement. 
Ly rays Eduuard l'oyfc dire, se atire vistement 
Aproclier à la dame, cum falcoun al vent.^ 
Après sa purifye fet sollempnement, 
Ly rays vers Escoce soun cliimyn reprent ; 
La rayne of soun fiz à Kawode * attent, 
Sour Ouse la rivere, assez esement. 


De ingressu régis in Scotictin.^ 

[Li^ rei à Cardoil parle od" ses barnez, 
Ensint qe des uns est-il consallez 
Passer parmy Galawai destrure les contrez, ^ 
Eincer e voider pastours e prez 
Des bestes pur larder, où ^ trou voit assetz. 
Le pais est garni, le pople avisez 
Encliacent lour aumale^^ parmi betumez, 
En mores e mareis de tielz ^^ parfoundetez. 
Ne seit home estrange ou tenir ses peez. 
Lors le temps se chaunge, survint li oundez,^^ 
Descendet^^ des montaignes en pleins e valez, 
Suroundent les riveres, coverent les fossez, 
Ne siet le rei Edward quel part passer les guez. 
Change ses chemins, se prent à plus eisez.^^ 

^ Dieu omnipotent, B. C. 

- Broihei'toun sur ^Ycrf deliveré, 
B. suth Werk, C. Brothcrtoun, D. 

3 cum à la]) apent, D. 

-* Cawode, C. D. 

5 This rubric is taken from B. 

^ The forty-four lines hère in- 
closed in brackets are omitted in A., 
but they are found in B. C. D,, 
and are translated by Robert of 
Brunne. They are hère given from 

B,, with the varions readings of 

" onf, C. 

5 This line is omitted in B. 

^ où omitted in C. où trovent,!)' 

^^ ccl aumaylîe, D. 

^^ En mores, en marays de tel pro- 
foundetez, J). 

^■- sio'venent les undez, C. Y>. 

^^ Descendent, C. D. 

^^ al plus esez, D. 


She was advanced in pregnancy; by will of God 

At Brotherton on tlie Wharf she is safely delivered 
Of a son, who is named Thomas in his baptism. 
King Edward reçoives information of it, prépares 

To visit the ladj^, like a falcon before the wind. 
After her purification made solemniy, 
The king résumes his road towards Scotland ; 
The queen with her son waits at Cawood, 
On the river Ouse, much at her ease. 

Of the entrance of the Jdng into Scotland. 

The king at Carlisle talks with his barons, 
So that by some he is advised 

To pass through Galloway and destroy the countries, 
Sweep and clear pastures and meadows 
Of the cattle to sait, where he found enough. 
The country is warned, the people informed of it 
Drive their cattle among the bogs, 
Into the moors and marshes of such depth 
A foreigner knows not where to hokl his feet. 
Then the weather changes, the showers corne, 
They descend from the mountains into the plains and 

Overflow the rivers, cover the ditches, 
King Edward kuows not on what side to pass the 

Changes his roads, takes to the easiest. 



The king 
takes Caer- 

What are 
the errors 
of a king 
when he 
aims at 

Un povere cliastelet, Karlaverok^ appeliez, 
Prist le rei Edward, nul aime dedenz trovez, 
Fors ribaus qe le tindrent, vencuz as entrez. 
Entre ses afFeres, en forme des amistez, 
Ad le rei de France au rei Edward priez 
Pes pur les Escoz en noTjn de Trinitez.^ 
En l'an suant après la true li ad grantez, 
E le rei Edward à Loundrez returnez. 

Demore e traine fe3m.te^ e lung matinez, 
Délit en luxure,* e surfet en vesprez, 
Affiaunce en félon, des^ enemis pitez, 
Au fet e consail^ propre voluntez, 
Conqueste retenir sanz fere largetez, 
Eschurent les Bretons en antiquitez, 
Ensample puit home prendre de Arthur li senez, 
De touz jours fu primer en touz ses alez 
A matin e à vespre/ de grant honestetez, 
Félons en companie, e gens des enemistez/ 
Sol une lour désert, touz les ^ ad jugez. 
Au fet e au consail estoit atemprés ; 
Prince plus curteis de teres^^ conquestez 
Entre Crestiens ^^ ne fut unqes neez. 
Par quel ^^ le vus di, la reson escotez, 
Si nostre rei eust fet les ^^ puralez 
Parmi Engietere, cum il avoit-^* grantez 
Affermez par escrit, qe bien est testmoynez/^ 

1 Karlawerk, C. " A povere 
" hamlete toke, the castelle Kare- 
" laverok," Robert of Brimne. 

2 Escoz jekes les Trinitez, C. D. 

3 fayne, D. 

^ luxurye, D. 
5 e des, C. D. 

" Al fet e al consaille, C. Au fet 
et al counsaylle, D. 

7 Al matyn e al vespre, C. D. 

^ de enemistez, C. D. 
^ desertz, tost les, C. D. 
^0 des teres, C. D. 
" En tere Crhtirn, C. En tere 
Cristiene, D. 

12 Pur quai, C. D. 

13 nostre reis Edward eust fet la, 

1^ cum avoyt, D. 

^^ This line is omitted in D. 


A poor little castle, called Caerlaverok, 

King Edward takes, no soûl found in it, 

Except ribalds wlio hold it, vanquished at the entrance. 

Among thèse afFairs, in form of friendship, 

The king of France has asked king Edward 

Peace for the Scots in the name of the Trinity. 

In the year xifter foUowing he has granted him the 

And king Edward is returned to London. 

Idleness and fained delay, and long morning's sleep, 
Delight in luxury, and surfeit in the evenings, 
Trust in félons, compassion for enemies, 
Self-will in act and counsel, 

To retain conquest without giving distributions of gain, 
Overthrew the Britons in old times. 
We may take example of Arthur the wise ; 
He was always the fîrst in ail his expéditions 
In morning and in evening, with great magnanimity ; 
Félons in company, and hostile people, 
According to their désert, he condemned them ail. 
He was temperate in deed and in counsel ; 
A prince more courteous in conquering lands 
Was never born among Christians. 
Wherefore I tell you, listen to the reason, 
If our king had performed the perambulations 
Through England, as he had granted 
And strengthened by writing, as is well witnessed, 

ment at 


E de la tere d'Escoce partiz e donez^ 

A ses barons Engieis, par droite quantitez, 

La tere de pité scà fust- en ses poestez, 

E pardurablement les soens ^ héritez. 

La fin de ceste guère par fet après ^ orrez.] 

Anno Domini millesiono tricentesimo.^ 

A parlia- A la Pasche après ly rays fist assembler 
A Nicliol sur Wyme^ soen parlement enter, 
De countes et barouns/ de prelaz du muster, 
Ke al jour donez i venent ^ volunter, 

Complaints Et al Edward ^ se pleignent primer, 

of the par- Qoment la puralë '^^ n'ad fet à soen dever ; 
liament. ^ 

Cornent la graunt chartre que custa graunt avei*/^ 

Ne sofre à tenir ne les poinz user ; 

Cornent ses ministres wnt la tere waster 

Par prises surfetuses, saunz monay payer ; 

Et sur ceo se pleygnent de soen tresorer,^- 

Ky parmy la tere les torz fet comaunder, 

Et de jour en altre s'aforce à besturner ^^ 

Usages aunciens, et leys ^^ de l'escbeker. 

Li prient en amur celuy remuer, 

Et par comune assent un altre ordeyner,^^ 

^ En la tere (VEscoce partiz est 
donez, C. Et la tere, D. 

- La tere depesca fust, C. D. 

3 le soens, C. 

^ parfet près, C. 

^ This rutric is taken from 13. 

6 A Nicliole sur Withmc, B. A 
Nichole la bêle cité son, T>. 

' Des countes e des barons, B. D. 
Des countes, des barons, des prélats, 

^ donez, venent, B. This line is 
omitted in D. 

^ au rei Edward, B. C. Kaunt 
sunt assemblez, se pleynent, D. 

^0 puraj/Ué, C. 

^1 Of this and the line folio wing, 
D. makes one : — 

" Ne de la grant chartre ne soffre 
" les poynz user." 

'- Instead of this and the two 
following lines, D. gives: — 

" Et de jour en altre cornent son 
" tresorer." 

1^ sa force bestourner, B. 

^^ se afforce à bestourner, D. 

^^ assigner, B. 


And of the land of Scotland liad shared and given 

To his English barons, by just quantities, 

The land over tliere would hâve been in his power, 

And his men heritors of it for ever. 

The end of this war you will hear aftevwards, 

Anno Domini 1300. 

At the Easter afterwards, the king caused to be 

At Lincoln on the Witham his entire parliament, 
Of earls and barons, of prelates of the minster, 
Who corne willingly at the day appointed. 
And to Edward first raake their complaint 
How lie has not carried out the perambulation according 

to his duty ; 
How the great charter, which cost much money, 
He suffers not to be held nor the points acted upon ; 
How his ministers go to ravage the land 
By seizures for forfeit, without paying money ; 
And thereupon they complain of his treasurer, 
Who through the land gives command for the wrongs, 
And from day to day labours to overthrow 
Old usages and the laws of the Exchequer. 
They pray him in love to dismiss this man, 
And by common assent appoint another, 



The king 
makes an 

A com- 
to consider 
the com- 

Ky puse cel office salvement giiyer.^ 

Ly reys Edwarde respount^ irusement de quer, 

'' Jeo vey ke par ^ orgoyl me voulez "* reviler, 

'' Quant à si baas estât me pensez cliacer ; 

" N'i ad cil de vos ke n'ad byen^ ]Dower, 

" Saunz altri assent, soen ostel arayer, 

" Bailifs et senescbals suz ly assigner,^ 

*' Quels à soen pleysir il purra justizer. 

" Ne hom deyt ^ segnur plus baas de. ly bouter, 

" Ne [jeo] sofrir le voyle^ taunt cum day régner. 

'' Mes si mes ministres vus unt fet gTever, 

" La vérité conue le tort frai amender, 

" Ke de teles utrages mes ne orrez jangier.^ 

" La chartre de frauncbises et du puraler^^ 

'' Defrount ma corune, si jeo les day graunter ; 

" Laquel ovoke moi vus devez supporter/^ 

*' K'el ne sait blemye par 23i'ise ne par prier. 

" Pur quai ^^ jeo vus graunt le drait examiner 

*' Par xxvj.-^^ descrez, que voisent^^ juger/^ 

" A vos peticiouns si purray encliner, 

*' Et salver la corune en taunt desmembrer. 

''De altre part vus dye, jeo suy saunz dener, 

" Dunt ayde de ma tere me covent aver, 

" Si la gwere d'Escoz day recomencer. 

'^ Vus savez mes reysouns, [ore] alez ent parler." ^^ 

Ly clers et ly baroun wnt mayntenaunt trier ; 

Les xxvj.^^ descrez, ke wnt cunseyler, 

1 This line is omitted in D. 

2 respount omitted in B. 

3 veipar, B, 

^ me voiliez, C. D. 
^ been, C. 
^ ordiner, B. 
7 homme ne dait, C. D. 
^ iVe jeo suffjdr ne voil, B. 
jeo suffrire, C. D. 

^ This line is omitted in D. 


^^ de puraler, B. 

1^ This and the line following are 
omitted in D. 

12 Pa7- quel, B. C. D. 

12 Par XX. et vj., C. 

1^ voiser, B. 

15 jorer, C. D. 

1^ ore alez parler, B. o;e alez ent 
parler, C. 

^'^ Les vint et vj., C. 


Who may be able to exécute this office with safety. 
King Edward replies with anger in his heart, 
'* I see that througli pride you intend to insulfc me, 
" When you think to drive me to so low condition ; 
" There is not one of you who has not quite the 

" power, 
*' Without assent of another, to arrange his household, 
*' To appoint bailiffs and stewards under him, 
" Whom at his pleasure he will be able to judge. 
" Nor ought any one to push a lord lower than himself, 
" Nor will I sufFer it as long as I am to reign. 
" But if my officers hâve caused injury to you, 
" When I know the truth I will cause the wrong to 

" be amended, 
^' That you shall hear no more talk of such acts of 

*^ violence. 
'' The charter of liberties and of the perambulation 
" Will undo my crown, if I were to grant them ; 
" Which you ought to join with me in supporting, 
'* That it be not damaged by taking by force or by 

" prayer. 
" Wherefore I grant you the right to examine 
" By twenty-six discreet men, who will give judgment, 
" If I can yield to your pétitions, 
" And save the crown in dismembering it so much. 
" On another side, I say to you, I am without money, 
" Of which I must hâve aid of my land, 
" If I am to recommence the war of Scotland. 
" You know my reasons, now go and discuss them/' 
The clergy and the barons go now to the discussion ; 
The twenty-six discreet men, who go to consult, 


Tretent sur les choses,^ escliuent de l'errer,^ 

K'em les puse "' après faymentuz * apeler ; ^ 

De si graunt serment se veulent descharger, 

Remaundent al reys, " Sir, n'est paas maner ^ 

Their reply <' ^ ^gy T jxq ^ prince covenaunt treo-eter, 
totheking. ,t i « -i ^ t 

" rs e mettre en agarde ^ cnose vendu cher ; 
" Plus bel te serrait toen pople avauncer 
" Par ta curtaysie, ke par arbitrer, 
'' Ou par agarde de cil ke n'est paas toen peer;^ 
" Rend ceo^^ ke tu dais, et hom te dait amer, 
'' Et cum seojnur lio'e servir et honurer, 
" Et de tes ennemys ayder à venger." ^^ 
Li rays co vertement ^- respouns les fet arer, 
Cum cil ke n^'ad talent ses genz du soen ^^ eser, 
Ne eus luy verrayment par doun ne par tayler, 
Mes wnt en partyes cuntre desputer 
Tuz ses demaundes,-^* saunz nul alower. 
Des altercaciouns taunt dure fu l'endurer, 
De pees ou de la gwere le pople fu en wer. 
Mes Deus i mist counsayle, ky pout kaunt volt ayder,^^ 
The king Et taunt i mist ^^ de grâce, ke tuz ^^nt acorder, 
obtains Après le saint Michel, à l'oes le rey lever 
taxes. Lg quinzim dener, pur byen afermer 

La chartre de fraunchises ^" saunz ryen recoper, 
Et pur la puralë certaynement bunder ^^ 

1 de sur les choses, D. 

- eschuent le errer, C. 

3 pense, C. 

^ faymeniz, B. 

^ This line is omitted in D. 

^ rî' est pas mester, C. 

7 Al reis, C. D. 

1"^ de soen, C. 

^^ ses damages, B. 

^^ This line is omitted in D. 

^^ tant mist, B. Mes Dieus Jîst 
taunt de grâce, D. 

^' desfraunchises, C. La chartre 
et la puralé saunz rien recoper, D., 

8 en garde, D. ; which omits the t^o following lines. 

■3 This line is omitted in D. 
^^ Hende sus qe, D, 
'^'^ et venger, B. C. This line is 
omitted in D. 
'^ courtement, B, 

^^ Robert of Brunne has hère, — 
" And for the puralé, set Avith 

" certeyn bounde, 
" Thorgh the lond suld be de- 

" laied no lenorere stounde." 


They treat on the things, avoid erring, 

Lest tbey miglit be afterwards accused of disloyalty ; 

They désire to discliarge fchemselves of so great an 

And return answer to the king : ^' Sir, it is not the 

" manner 
^' For a king or a prince to overthrow his covenant, 
" Nor put in question a thing sold dear ; 
" It would be fairer in thee to advance thy people 
" By thy courtesy, than by putting questions to arbi- 

'' tration, 
*' Or to the judgment of him who is not thy peer ; 
" Repay that which thou owest, and we ought to love 

" thee, 
" And serve and honour thee as a liège lord, 
'' And aid thee in taking veugeance of thy enemies." 
The king covertly sends them back an answer, 
As he who has no désire to ease his people with what 

is his, 
Nor they truly him by gift or by tax ; 
But they go in parties to dispute against 
Ail his demands, without allowing any. 
It was so hard to bear the altercations, 
That the people were in doubt between peace and war ; 
But God interposed his counsel, who can aid when he 

And he threw so much of his grâce into it, that ail 

After Michaelmas, to raise for the king's use 
The fifteenth penny, in exchange for well confîrmiiig 
The charter of liberties without abating anything. 
And for fixing exact bounds for the perambulation 


Parmy la regioun, saunz nul esparnier ; 

A la ^ ofwere d'Escoz s'acorclent kaunt aler,^ 

The Du contek de Gascoyn atendent ^ messager, 

Gasciîiy.''^J^e cunt de Nichol, ke fust utre mer, 

[Le counte de Sauveie, et Hughe le Despenser,] ^ 
Sir Jhon de Berewike, trebyen avise béer, 
Ke lors furent à Rome la pape aresoner, 
Ke saunz ^ plus demore voysent^ déclarer 
Le drait de Gascoyn à ky dait demorer, 

Proceed- Et par soen decré la pees proniincier. 

pope^n ^ ^^ pape Bonifaz oyoum nus cunter. 

regard to it. Les messagers ^ de Fraunce avaunt ^ ly fist maunder, 
Ensint les Engieys, les^ comencea prêcher, 
" Em dit en vos deus teres sunt genz de graunt 

" saver, 
" Ke daivent par resoun lur reys confurmer,^^ 
" Saunz nus ou nostre ^^ curte en ^^ taunt travayler ; 
" Returnez en vos teres, à vos reys nuncier, 
'^ Ke par els s'acordent, si noun, par saint Peer, 
" A la saint Andreu en venaunt le yver, 
'^ Durroum la decrë ^^ od jugement taunt feer, 
*' Ke Tun et ly altre l'estuvera ^^ douter/' ^^ 
Les messagers repayrent, saunz j)lus reporter/*^ 
Returnoum à la^'' geste, covent^^ recorder 
La fyn du parlement, le-"^^ voyiez escouter. 

» Pus à la,!). 
^ touz aler, D. 

" et nostre, C. D. 
^' en omitted in B. 

^'' doter, C. D. 
^^ reparler, B. 

' ■ I Dirroms le deite^ B. 

'' Thîs Une is omitted m A., but , . „ -r. , -r^ 

j. • jy Si • -D r^ T\ I Cestrovera, B. l'estovera, D. 

it ]s found m B. C. D. ' ' ' 

5 Q'il sanz, B. D. 

vousist, B. C. D. 

' messanyers, C. 

^ devaunt, C. 

9 les omitted in B. 

10 confermer, D. " And enforme | ,9 j^ omitted in B 
" ^our kynges," Robert of Brunne. I 

''' Repamoum la geste, C. Repre- 
noums la geste, D. 
^^ qe covent, B. 


ThroiTgh the kingdom, withoufc sparing any one 

And they agrée to go to the wai^ of Scotland. 

Of the dispute about Gascony they wait messengers, 

The earl of Lincoln, who was beyond sea, 

The earl of Savoy, and Hugh le Despenser, 

Sir John de Berwick, a very wise baron, 

Who were then at Kome to argue with the pope, 

That without more delay he would déclare 

To whom the right to Gascony ought to remain, 

And by his decree pronounce peace. 

Let us hear pope Boniface tell the case. 

He sent for the messengers of France into his présence, 

And likewise the English, began to preacli them, 

" They say in your two lands there are people of great 

" knowledge, 
" Who ought by reason to support their kings, 
" Without giving so much trouble to us or our court ; 
'' Return to your lands, announce to your kings, 
" That they corne to agreement of themselves, if not, 

'' by St. Peter, 
" On St. Andrew's day, at the approach of winter, 
" We will give the decree with judgment so solid, 
" That one and the other must need respect it." 
The messengers return, without further report. 
Let us return to the history ; we must record 
The end of the parliament, be willing to listen to it. 


King Li reys sir Edeward, à ceo ^ parlement, 

gives the ^ ^^^^ ^^ Echvarde dona playnement 

principaiity La seo-nurve de Gales, saunz retenement, 
ofWales o ^ ' 3 

and the ^^ cunté de Cestre od l'apurteynement, 

Chest'e?''^ Et 2 Pountif et Mustroyle, od l'onur que apent. 

his eidest I^G fiz est prinz 3 et count, et les ^ bornages prent ; 

son. Devers la gwere d'Escoz s'aprest ^ durement 

Od XXX. mil de Galës,^ saunz altre bone ofent, 

Countes et barouns, cbevalers à talent, 

Et venent à Kardoyle, od pavyloun et tent,^ 

Parlent et purveyent quele part et cornent ^ 

Inyasion of Purrount la mère d'Escoz passer vers l'occident. 
Scotland. ^ i , • , 

Lj reys Edwarde le per va vers lorient, 
Par Berewyke sur Tuede, où une ^ pece atent 
Od sa cbevalerye, et sunt de un asent 
Voyder celé marcbe al comencement 
Du faus lygnage d'Escoz dunt [sunt] tray^'^ sovent. 
Entre ces afers, par comaundement 
The pope ^g^ ^fi^e Bonifaz, sourveent sodaynement ^^ 
Tbishop of L'esveske de Spolete, od novel maundement ; 
Spoleto as -g^ ^^, ^e rev de Fraunce un boni de covent, 

his envoy. r J 

Abbë de Cumpayne, ne [sai] pur queP- entent, 
Ne pur quel message véritablement ; ^^ 
Sur quai sur la geste reposer coveent, 
Jekes la no vêle se levé overtement ; 
Ke bom ne puse dire ke ceste lettre ment. 
Eeceu ad luy roys la^'* lettre de créance, 
Et par ly^^ messagers entendu la sustance, 

1 ùceI,C. 

2 A Pountif, B. E Pxintif e 
Moustroille, C. MoustroijUe, D. 

^ Lejiz et prince et count, D. 
^ les omitted in B. 
5 5e prent, B. 
c de Galeis, B. 

7 à Kardoylle, se consayllent co- 
rnent, D. I ^5 Ef i,j^ D. 

s This line is omitted in D. 
3 en une, B. 

if» dount sunt trahi, B. C. D. 
^1 privément, C. 

^■- de Compeigne, ne sai pîtr quel, 

13 This line is omitted in B. 
1^ h omitted in C. 


The king sir Edward, at that parliament, 
Gave fully to his son Edward 
The lordsliip of Wales, without reserve, 
The county of Chester witli its appurtenance, 
And Pontivy and Montreuil, with the honour belonging. 
The son is prince and earl, and takes the homages ; 
He prépares himself earnestly towards the war of 

With thirty thousand Welshmen, besides other good men, 
Earls and barons, knights at will, 
And they corne to Carlisle with pavilion and tent, 
Talk and provide on which si de and how 
They shall be able to pass the sea of Scotland towards 

the west. 
King Edward the father goes towards the east, 
By way of Berwick-on-Tweed, where he waits a while 
With his knights, and they are of one accord 
To clear that march at the beginning 
Of the false lineage of Scotland by V/^hom they are 

often betrayed. 
Amid thèse aiFairs, by command 
Of pope Boniface, there arrives suddenly 
The bishop of Spoleto, with new messages ; 
And from the king of France a man of convent, 
The abbot of Compiegne, I know not nor for what 

Nor for what message truly ; 

W^herefore we must remain quiet upon the history, 
Until the news is made known openly, 
That no one may say that this writing lies. 

The king bas received the letter of crédit, 
And by the messenger understood its substance ; 




A truce 

The earl of 




arrested in 


take pos- 
session of 

Sa gwere vers Escoz^ ad mis en sufFrance, 

A Lynliscou revent soen fiz sanz targance. 

Ly roys sa pees^ lors crie, l'Escotes est^ en balance, 

Cum avant fesait, demoert en sa tenance. 

Ly roy repaire à Lundres, et tient ilokes parlance, 

Où purveu est la trewe sur boen assurance 

Jekes la saint Andreu, afermé par fiaunce. 

Ceo fist le apostoile en sainte espérance, 

Dedenz le tens de pees pur fere * l'acordance 

Entre les deus roys d'Engleterre et Fraunce. 

Desclos ^ vus ay le fet, ore oez la meschance 

Avenue ^ est à Fraunce, et quel honurance 

A Flandres est acreu par coup d'espey et lance, 

Sur la fraude de Fraunce, la pompe, et la bobance ; 

Curtement à dire, escotez la venjance. 

Li quens Gwy de Flandres,^ vers ky contencion 
Ly rois de Fraunce avait par sudeyn acheison, 
Vilement estoit trahy par Charlon, 
Ky deveyt le cunte par convencion 
Mener et , remener en salvacion 
Al parlement de Fraunce entre ly baron. 
Le cunte, quant il vynt, pris fu^ cum laron, 
Et menez et mys en chartre cum félon. 
Li roy Phelip de France,^ après la traison, 
Flandres fet seisir à sa subjeccion ; 
Gardeins des soens^° i mette en terres et meyson,^^ 
Des biens as riches homes funt^^ destruccion, 
Lur femmes et lur filyes defulent à raundon.^^ 

1 soutz Escoce, B. sur Escoz, 

- la pes, B. 

3 est omitted in C. 

^ defere,'B. 

^ Descols, B. 

^ Qe avenuz, B. 

"^ Wiliam de Flaundres, B. Guil- 
lam, C. GyUam, D. 

8 fu priSf B. 

^ Philip rei de France, B, 
^^ de soens, C. 
^' en tere e en meson, B. 
^2 efountf'B, ifetdestrucioun,T). 
^^ This line is omitted in D. Ro- 
bert of Brunne makes two of it : — 
" Défoules ther wyves, thar douh- 

" très lay bi, 
" Ther lordes slouh with knyves, 

" of fo had thei merci." 


He has put in abeyance his war against Scotland ; 

His son returns to Linlithgow without delay. 

The king then proclaims his peace, the Scot is in 

balance ; 
As he did before, he remains in his tenancy. 
The king returns to London, and holds there conférence, 
In which a truce is arranged on good assurance 
Until St. Andrew's day, confirmed by pledges. 
That the pope did in holy hope 
Within the time of peace to make accord 
Between the two kings of England and France. 
I hâve discovered to you the fact, now hear the mishap 
Which is happened to France, and what honour 
Is accrued to Flanders by stroke of sword and spear, 
Over the fraud of France, the pomp, and the boast- 

Shortly to tell it, listen to the vengeance. 

Count Guy of Flanders, against whom contention 
The king of France had by sudden cause, 
Was shamefully betrayed by Charles, 
Who was bound by agreement the count 
To bring and take back in safety 
To the parliament of France among the barons. 
The count, when he came, was taken like a thief, 
And carried and put in prison like a félon. 
King Philip of France, after the treason, 
Causes Flanders to be seized to his subjection ; 
He places there wardens of his own in land and 

They make destruction of the goods of the rich men. 
Violât e their wives and daughters at will. 




Insurrec- Les vilées en parlent, le pople environ 
Flemîn^s^ Encliacent les Francej^s sanz remansion ; 
and de- Les uns i lessaient k'il portaient ^ en chaperon. 
theFrench ^7 ^'^7 Pl^^lip l'out ^ dire, se purveit garnison 

Flandres à destrure sanz redempcion. 

L'ost s'aparaile, adresce gunfaynon, 

Battle of 

Guyor i estoit ly quens d'Artoys ^ par non. 

Cil fu le primer ke perdist l'escoclion ; 

Un rybald ly tuait sanz confession.'* 

Ly quens de Eu ^ perdist et test et talon, 

Et li quens d'Aumarle membre^ et menton. 

Li sir Pères de Flote, Godefray de^ Brabazon, 

Li deus sires [de] Nele,^ chevalers de renon, 

Sire William de Fens,^ ses parentz en son, 

Les melz vanez de Fraunce par eleccion,^^ 

Et banerez sanz numbre, des quels n'ay^^ mencion, 

Morurent en l'estur, tumbanz ^^ en sablon. 

Li Henuer cbeit cum oysele en lason.^^ 

Normant ne Pikard, ne ly Burgeylon,^'* 

Ne Vienais,^^ ne Bascle, ne Braban, ne Bretoun, 

Ne ^^ celé fiez ne altre, y avaint ^"^ fuson. 

En chascune avenue puys la dissension, 

Chaeu est sur France la confusion ; 

^ qe portent, T>. This lir.e is 
omitted in D. 

2 Voit dire, B. C. D. 

^ le quens Arthur, B. 

^ saunz confusioun, C. Robert of 
Brunne translates 7'yhald by fier- 
lote : — 

" A foule herlote liim slowe, trut 
*' for his renoun." 

^ de Teu, B. Zy quens Eu, T>. 

^ e membre, B. 

" de omitted in B. h Brabazoun, 

s de Nele, B. de NeJ, C. D. 

^ de Fereres, B. de Feens, C. 

^° de Fraunce des quels rCay men- 
cioun, D. 

^^ n-ad, B. This Une is omitted 
in D. 

^- Mûrirent en Vestour cum hauz 
en sabloun, D. 

^3 chait cum oiser en lascoun, B. 
chett cum oysel en lascoun, C. chaist 
cum oysel en lacoun, D. 

^ ' Burgilloun, C. Ne Normaund 
. . . ne ly Burgylloun, D. 

^•^ Ne Viens, B. Vieneis, C. Vie- 
nays, D. 

'6 Ne omitted in D. 

^" ne autre n^aveient, B. 


Tlie townsliips consult upon it. the people around 
Drive out the French withoiit any remaining; 
Some left there what tliey carried in their hafcs. 
King Philip hears tell of it, provides an army of oc- 
To destroy Flanders without rédemption. 
The army is fitted out, raises its banners ; 
The leader of it was the count of Artois by name. 
He was the first who lost his escutcheon; 
A ribald slew him without confession. 
The count of Eu lost both head and heel, 
And the count of Albemarle member and chin. 
The lord Pierre de Flote, Godfrey de Brabazon, 
The two lords de Nele, knights of renown, 
Sir William de Fens, his kinsmen in fine, 
The most renowned of France by élection. 
And bannerets without number, of whom I hâve no 

Died in the battle, falling on the sancl. 
The man of Henalt falls like a bird in a snare. 
Of Norman, or Picard, or the Burgundian, 
Or Viennese, or Basque, or Brabanter, or Breton, 
Neither tins time nor other, was there abundance. 
In each occurrence since the dissension, 
The defeat is fallen upon France ; 



Tant cum le secle dure en chascune région^ 
La hunte ^ ert par durable, le fet en mokeyson 
Al rey Phelip de France et à sa ^ nacion. 
Cil ke Abacuc pust en la prison,* 
Et salva Danyel du mors del lion, 
Salve les Flemynges et lur accion, 
Ke hérite '^ ne perdent par extorsion. 
Returnoums à la geste, reprenoums la lesson,^ 
A parler des Englais sanz fere mixcion, 
Fors ke la "^ matere demande par rayson. 

Pur veir, en l'an millayne, cum nus^ trovums escrii, 
Et trecentime secundo, del nestre^ Jhesu Crist, 
Le cunte de Karrike-^*^ les Escoz werpist, 
As gens le roy Edwarde de grë se rendist. 
Li quens Umfray de Boum ^^ cel an ^^ à femme prist 
La filye al reys Edward, Elizabeth est dit. 
Bohuu with Entre ces afers ^^ cunsail s'en entremist ^* 
dauffhtê.^ Entre les deus roys ke gwere n'avenist, 
The truce Continuer la trewe, ke pees se tenist 
contmued. jgg]^gg après la Pasche; Phelip sur ceo requist 
Ke ly roys Edwarde en amur volsist 
Conduyt parmy sa tere, sanz mal et sanz despit/^ 
Granter as Escoz, pur quels il transmist 
Vers luy venyr en Fraunce, sire Edward assentist ;^^ 
Et pur perile eschure tost après purvist 

Marri âge 
of Hum- 
phrey de 

^ This and the following line are 
omitted in D. 

- La honure, C. 

3 Et al rey Phelipp et sa, D. 

'* This and the three folio wing 
Unes are omitted in D. 

^ héritage, B. 

^ For thèse two line s, D, has 

JRecoroms à la geste saunz fere 

' de la, B. 

^ mïllisnie, cum nous, B. D. 
^ nostre sire, B. 
ï" deKarnjI,C. 

^^ Umfrei de Boun, B. C. Oum- 
froy de Boune, D. 
^2 à ce! an, C, 
1^ ces dous afferes, B. 
^'* s* entremist, D. 
1^ respit, C. 
^^ ensentist, C. 


As long as the world lasts in each kingdom 

The sliame is lasting, the fact in mockery 

Of king Philip of France and of his nation. 

May He who sustained Abacuc in prison, 

And saved Daniel from the bite of the lion, 

Save the Flemings and their action, 

That they lose not their héritage by extortion. 

Let us return to the history, let us résume the lesson, 

To speak of the English without making mixture, 

Except so far as the matter reasonably demands. 

In truth, in the year a thousand, as we find written, 

And three hundred and two, from the birth of Jésus 

The earl of Carrick deserted the Scots, 

He willingly surrendered himself to the people of king 

The earl Humfrey de Bohun that year took to wife 

The daughter of king Edward, Elizabeth is she called. 

Amid thèse affairs counsel interfered 

Between the two kings that war should not happen, 

To continue the truce, so that peace should be pre- 

Until after Easter ; Philip thereupon requires 

That king Edward would in love 

A conduct through his land, without evil and without 

Grant to the Scots, for whom he sent 

To corne to him in France, and sir Edward assented ; 

And to avoid danger immediately afterwards pro- 



nse agam. 

Ke Johan de Hastyn,^ chevaler élit, 
Emery de la Brette,^ baroun ne pas ^ petyt, 
Alaynt en Gascoyne tost * sanz cuntredit, 
Pur le terme atendi'e del trewe avandit.^ 
The Scots JSTus Enviais crioums lascliesce ^ sait maldite ; 
Kar kant à melz^ ferir plus avums délit, 
Desbonur nus vj^ent et piert^ pur respit. 
Jeo parle pur l'Escot'^ ke l'autrere assaylist 
Nos Euglays en Escoz par asaut subit ; 
Sire Jhon de Segrave à la fute se mist,^*^ 
Soen fiz et soen frère, après lever du lyt, 
Et chevalers seze desgarnyz/^ susprist, 
Serjaunz jeskes à trent, dunt cliascun se rendit ; 
Sire Thomas de Nevyl clievaler i occist, 
Et Ralf ly Cofrers, ke grant aver tendist 
A Symund Frisel ke là ne moresist. 
Fresel ly regarde, Fresel ly redist,^^ 
'' Tu as le roy traliy ke tresorer te fist, 
" Et moi et mulz des altres, dunt nés un est quit ^^ 
" Des gages ke tu dait ^^ par tayle et par escrit ; 
^' Ore es-tu cy trové sanz albe et sans amyt,^^ 
" En liauberke de fere, ke n'est pas habit 
" As clers ^^ de sainte église par kanke chant et lit ; 
" Tu avéras jugement solum toen merit."^^ 

Death of 
Kalph the 

* Johan de Hastinges, B. sire 
Johan de HastÙKjcs, C. Jo?i de 
Hastinyes, J). 

- Emeri de Brette, B. 

^ noun pas, B. 

'* tut, B. 

^ de treu avaunt dit, B. 

6 Veschele, C. 

7 al melz, D. 

8 pert, C. D. 

^ The scribe of C. has skipped 
from this -word to the "svord Escoz 
m the next line, and omitted the 
words -which intervene. 

^^ Segrave son chemin reprist, B. 
CD. " The Segrave myght not 
" stand, sir John tok the gayn 
" stie,"' Robert of Brunne. 

^^ Chivalers sezze des granz, B. 
chevalers ces, C. ceez, D. 

'■- rendist, B. 

^^ This and the folio wing line are 
transposed in D. 

^^ daies, C. 

^5 saunz ajibe ou amyt, D. 

i« A clerk, C. 

^' This and the two following 
lines are omitted in C, 


That John de Hastings, a kniglit of clioice, 
And Emeiy de la Brette, no little baron, 
Should go into Gascony immediately without contra- 
To wait the term of tlie aforesaid truce. 
We English believe that négligence is accursed ; 
For when we hâve most pleasure in striking well, 
Dishonour cornes upon us and loss by delay. 
I speak for the Scot who the other day attacked 
Our English in Scotland by a sudden onset ; 
Sir John de Segrave took to flight, 
His son and his brother, after rising from bed, 
And sixteen knights nndressed, [the Scot] took by 

Sergeants as many as thirty, of whom ail surrendered ; 
He there slew sir Thomas de Nevile, knight, 
And Ralph the cofferer, who offered much nioney 
To Simon Fresel that he should not die there. 
Fresel looks at him, Fresel replies to him, 
*' Tbou hast betrayed the king who made thee trea- 

" surer, 
" And me and many others^ of whom not one is ac- 

*' quitted 
" Of the wages which thou owest by reckoning and by 

" wi'iting ; 
" Now art thou found hère without alb and without 

" amice, 
" In hauberk of iron, which is not a habit 
" For clergy of holy church in which he chants and 

" reads; 
" Thou shalt hâve judgment according to thy merit." 


Ly rybaud des prez, ke tant tresoyst,^ 
Ly chaitif coferer maiiitenan[t] - saisyst, 
Les meyns luy cospeit,^ la teste ly partist ; 
A tel feor de guère cungé des armes prist. 
Qiiarrei Entre ces aferes gi'aunt controversye 

thc^TiTo- of Entre luy rey de Fraunce, sire de Seynt Dinye, 
France and Et Boniface la pape, s'en * leva par hatye. 
1. pope, -j^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ l'apostoylle surmist heresye, 

Pecché sodomyen, usure,^ et simonye, 
Errour et mescreaunce en ydolatrye,^ 
Kavine de se3m.te église, fraude, et bugerie, 
Moryne pardurable de aime com de vye. 
De tele mescreaunce Phelippe la pape escrye ; 
Pecchë plus orrible, ne greygnur vileynie, 
De chef de seynte église fat unkes mes oye, 
Boniface s'avise par sen et par clergye ; 
Thequarrel Maunder fet les mestres de tbeologye, 
appeaseT ^ ^îil parlent et purveyent la noyse seyt sopye, 
Et ke luy rey Phelippe sui' ceo se^ chastye, 
Et face les amendes de sa reverye 
A Deu et seynte église ; si noun, la pape otrie 
Ke pur la mesprise Fraunce seyt honye 
Par comune entredit et par croyserye, 
Com terre renayé, la quele Deu defye. 
En temps après orrez fyn de la folye ; 
Repayroms à la geste, ke ele ne seit ublie. 

1 de près qi tant tresdit, B. This -^ li coupeit, B. C. copait^ D. 

line is omitted in D. Robert of ^ s'en omitted in B. se leva, 

Brunne bas hère, — : CD. 

" A boye fui le pautenere he had 

" a suerd that bote, 
" He stirte unto tbe cofrere, his 

^ TLser, C. 

^ " Errid mislyving, haunted Ma- 
" humeti-ie, 

*' bandes first of smote, ! " Wastid kirkis thing, and lyved 

" And fro tbe body bis heved a , "in bugerie, 

" dynt tban did tbe cleve, ! " And was wortbi to schende 

" His werrying so he leved, at " botbe soûle and lyf." Ro- 

" armes he tok levé." bert of Brunne. 

Le cofrere un rihaud mainte- "^ soit, B. seit, C. sait, D. 

nantf D. i 


A ribald near at hand, who heard it ail so well, 
Now seized the wretched cofiferer, 
Cut off his hands, îiis head departed from him; 
By such manner of war he took leave of arms. 

Amidst thèse affairs, great quarrel 
Between the king of France, lord of St. Denis, 
And Boniface the pope, arose through hastiness of 

The king laid to the charge of the pope heresy, 
The sin of Sodom, usury, and simony, 
Error and misbelief in idolatry, 
Robbery of holy chnrch, fraud, and heretical tenets, 
Fatal for ever to soûl as well as to life. 
Of such misbelief Philip accuses the pope ; 
Crime more horrible, or greater disgi^ace, 
Was never heard of the head of holy church. 
Boniface takes counsel by wisdom and by clergy ; 
Causes to be assembled the masters in theology, 
Thèse talk and provide that the quarrel be appeased, 
And that king Philip correct himself in that, 
And make amends for his ofFence 
To God and holy church ; if not, the pope grants 
That for the error France be punished 
By common interdict and by crusade. 
As land renégate, which sets God at défiance. 
In time afterwards you will hear the end of this 

madness ; 
Let us return to the history, that it be net forgotten. 



leads his 
army into 

north than 
any king 
before him, 

Anno JDomini mp. ccco. tertio. 

En les estez ^ après, sanntz plus demorer, 
Luy reys sire Edward Escoz va waster ; 
Par loement des uns, avaunt fist carpenter 
Nefs, batels, et barges, des clayes traverser,^ 
A foer ^ de pount, par cliaunce mes i * n'avait mester, 
Passez est la rive^ sauntz nef et mariner. 
L'Escot le vait venir, li tourn soen derer, 
Vers mores et monteyns refuaunt^ com 1er. 
Ly reys en parties son liost fet tayller ; 
Les uns des barouns, le count de Hulvester, 
Vount vers le occident la tere despuyller; 
Ly reys vers le orient entreprent soen aler. 
Hameletz et viles, graunges et gerner, 
Et pleynes et voydes, par tut fet arder; 
Ausi fet le prince, sauntz reen^ esparnier. 
Ly reys si loynce en north va l'Escot chacer. 
Où unkes reys ^ Engleis avaunt portait baner.^ 
Les foreyns des ylles en oyent ^^ parler, 
Les countes enzaynes ^^ en vount conseyllei", 
Se rendent à la pees, et^^ vount al rey jurer 
Ke leals li serrount par tere et par mer. 
Le temps après se cliaunge, et survent le yver ; 
A Dounfermelyn ly reys va reposer. 
La rayne i veent, li reys la fist maunder. 
Ly sire de Badenaghe s'en va gupyller,^^ 

1 Pesté, B. 

1' e maynes, B. The "word in the 

2 trans verser. B. 

text is unknown to me. 

3 AI foer, C. 

^■- et omitted in D. 

4 il, B. C. D. 

^^ gopiller, D. Eobert of Brunne 

5 la mer, B. 

translates thèse lines as foUows : — 

<"> deffuant, B. 

" The lord of Badenauh, Freselle, 

7 mil, B. 

" and Waleis, 

s reys omitted in 


" Lyved at theves lauh, ever 

'^ Engleis ne porta haner 

, B. 

" robband aile weis. 

Robert of Branne adds, 

" Thei had no sustenance the 

" Save kyng 



" weiTe to mayntene, 

" wastid aile Catenesse." 

" Bot skulked opon chance, and 

if* des viles en oiount,!^. 

" robbed ay bituene." 


Anno Domini 1303. 

In the summer after, without more delayiug, 
The king sir Edward goes to lay Scotland waste ; 
By the advice of some, he first causes to be built of 

Ships, boats, and barges, and crossed with hurdles. 
In manuer of a bridge, by chance there was no need 

of it, 
The shore is passed without ship and mariner. 
The Scot sees him come, turns his behind upon him, 
Flying back towards moors and mountains like a thief. 
The king causes his army to be divided in parts : 
Some of the barons, with the earl of Ulster, 
Go towards the west to despoil the land ; 
The king undertakes his expédition towards the east. 
Hamlets and towns, granges and barns, 
Both full and empty, he burns everywhere ; 
So does the prince, without sparing anything. 
The king goes so far to the north pursuing tlie Scot, 
Where never English king carried banner before. 
The aliens of the isles hear talk of it, 
Their earls go to hold counsel on it, 
They submit to peace, and go to the king to swear 
That they will be loyal to him by land and by sea. 
The weather afterwards changes, and winter comes on ; 
The king goes to take rest at Dumfermlin. 
The queen comes thither, the king causes her to be 

sent for. 
The lord of Badenagh goes skulking about. 



pope Boni- 
face and 
the Colon- 

Death of 
pope Boni- 

Fresel et Walays ove li vount rober. 
Desore ni ont ke frire, ne boiver,"^ ne manger, 
Ne poer à rester dount gner govemer ; 
Venuz sunt au reys de sa pees prier. 
Ly reys sur la demaunde les fet ajourner, 
Dount durement me doute ke curteysye de quer 
Nous fra la nove ^ sause pire du primer. 
Afiaunce en feloun ^ poet nul home aver. 
Ore oyez"^ coment, en l'an avaunt dit, 
A nostre apostoylle fu fet graunt despit^ 
Par les Columnyns, du lyn de Rome élit 
Cardinals estayent, ne say par que merit. 
La pape les hostayt ^ et privait de l'habit ; 
Lour teres destruait, lour cliastels abatit, 
Lour dignités douait, en exylle les mist. 
La parenté fu graunt, g[r]evé^ se sentit, 
As altres en Cezylle alaynt saunz respit; 
Phelippe rey de Fraunce aide les tramist. 
Cil alaint vers Anayne, où Boniface nasquit ; 
La cité entraynt, ly citayne assentit. 
Li Columnyne^ pur veyr ilok la pape prist, 
Et son trésor tut meyntenaunt seysist. 
La pape sauntz viaund fu ij. jurs en subit ; 
Par aide survenaunt le terce jour issist ; 
De tut le graunt trésor k'en son temps conquist 
Ne aveit plus ke Jop ^ ou femer kaunt i[l] sist.^^ 
La soume de l'aver ke Boniface perdist, 
Ne combeen arer homme ly rendist, 
Ne de feez de coust uncore ne fu parfist ; 

^ Des n'ount ke frire, ne boire, "B, 
Des ore ne ont qe Jere ne beyver, 

2 novel, C. 

2 enfelounye, C. 

4 oyez, omitted in B. 

5 fet par despit, B. 

^ ousteit, B. 

^ e grevé, B. grevé, C. D. 

^ Columpne, B. Coluwpnyne, C. 
Columyne, D. 

9 qe Job, B. C. D. 

^0 quant il sist, B. C. en femer 
quant il sist, D. 


Fresel and Wallace go with him robbing. 
Henceforth they bave nothing to fry, or drink, or eat, 
Nor power remaining wherewith to manage war ; 
Tbey are corne to tbe king to solicit bis peace. 
The king on tbe demand gives tbem a day, 
Whereby I fear me mucb tbat courtesy of beart 
Will make for us tbe new sauce worse tban tbe fîrst. 
Trust in a félon may no man bave. 

Now listen bow, in tbe year beforesaid, 
To our pope was done great despite 
By tbe Colonnas, of tbe lineage of Rome elected 
Cardinals tbey were, I know not by wbat merit. 
Tbe pope deposed tbem and deprived tbem of tbe babit ; 
Destroyed tbeir lands, tbrew down tbeir castles, 
Gave tbeir dignities away, sent tbem into exile. 
Tbeir kindred was large, felt itself aggrieved, 
Tbey went witbout delay to tbe otbers in Sicily ; 
Pbilip king of France sent tbem aid. 
Tbey went to Anagni, wbere Boniface was born ; 
Tbey entered tbe city, tbe citizen joined tbem. 
Tbe Colonnas in trutb captured tbere tbe pope, 
And tben seized tbe wbole of bis treasure. 
Tbe pope was two days in confinement witbout 

méat ; 
He got out on tbe tbird day tbrougb aid wbicb 

arrived ; 
Of ail tbe great treasure wbicb be amassed in bis time, 
He bad no more left tban Job wben be sat on tbe 

Tbe sum of money wbicb Boniface lost, 
Nor bow mucb tbey returned bim back, 
Nor of fées of cost, it was never known ; 



of pope 

of the kiuo- 


Mez conuz ai de veir affraé s'empartist 

Maintenaunt vers Rome, où iij. jours vesquit, 

Mortz i est sauntz faylle, et à Seynt Père gist.^ 

Bulle avoms novele, le noun Benêt escrit, 

Ke partye repele ke Boniface purvist. 

Ly robers est asous avaunt ke taunt ^ mefîst. 

Molt est sors et fols '' en Rome ke se fist.'* 

Pro quante ^ posse dare à graunt et à petit 

Par fare et par defare ^ Rome nous derit. 

Hola ! de choses par de ceà ' dayller nous suffist. 

Resoun nous rechace rêver tir à la gest, 
Treter ove les Escoz ^ de peez saunz molest, 
De William le Walays,^ ki gist en la forest. 
A Dounfermelyn, après la sejmte feste 
Du Nowel, par amys au reis ad fet request, 
Ke rendre se puysse ^^ à sa pees ^^ lion est, 
Saunz en sa manaye ^- mettre cors ou test ; 
Mes ke li reys ly graunt de doune, ne pas de prest, 
Bayllye honurable de boyse et de ^^ beste, 
Et par son escrit li seys ^^ et li vest 
Pur li et pur ses lieyrs en teres^"" de conquest. 
Ly reys pur la demaunde irrez se tempest, 
A maufë li comaund, et kaunt ke sur ly creste,^^ 
Treys centz mars jDromet à homme ke ly detest. 
Walays à fuyr tapisaunt se prest 
En mores et-*^ montaygnes, de roberie se pest. 

^ e à Saint Père i gist, C. 
2 assoutz qe tant avant, B, 
' sotz e fous, B. C. D. 
^ qe ceofist, C. D. 
^ Pur quanqe, B. 
•^ e defare, B. 

' Od la chose de ce a, B. 
clioses par de sa, C. 
^ ove VEscot, T). 


9 Wiliam Waleis, B. 

^^ pense, C. 

^^ à la pees, D. 

^- manye, C. manq/e, D. 

^" ou de, B. 

^^ saise, C. D. 

^^ en tere, C. 

'^ This Une is omitted in D. 

^" en, B. e en, D. 


But I have learnt for truth that lie went away terrified 
Thereupon towards Rome, where be lived three days, 
He is dead there without fail, and lies at St. Peter's. 
We Lave a new bull, the name written Benedict, 
Whicli repeals part of wliat Boniface provided. 
The robber is absolved who before did so miicli wrong. 
He is verj^ foolisb and m ad wlio puts bis trust in 

For however much he may give to great and to little, 
Rome mocks us by doing and undoing. 
No more ! we bave sufficiently dwelt upon matters 


Our subject compels us to return to the history, 
To treating with the Scots for peace without moles- 

To William Wallace who lies in the forest. 
At Dunfermlin, after the holy festival 
Of Christmas, through friends he bas made request to 

the king, 
That he may submit to bis bon est peace, 
Without surrendering into bis hands body or head ; 
But that the king grant him, of bis gift, not as a loan, 
An honourable allowance of woods and eattle. 
And by bis writing the seisure and investment 
For him and for bis heirs in purchased land. 
The king, angered at this demand, breaks into a rage, 
Commends him to the de vil, and ail that grows on him. 
Promises three hundred marks to the man who makes 

him headless. 
Wallace makes ready to seek concealment by flight 
Into moors and mountains, be lives by robbery. 




Tenus on 
Avhicli the 
were Jibe- 

Peace pro- 

Anno Domini MocccoiiiP. 

Ore oyez^ la fourme ke ly reys otrye 
De [pe]s à les Escoz^ ke sunt en sa mercye, 
Et ajournez estayent sur lour reverye, 
Jugement receyver, ke nul le countredye. 
Ly reys les ^ ad graunté par sa curtasye 
Tere et tenement et membre et vie, 
Sauve de tote partz* à sa genturye 
Kaunceoun de chescun solum sa folye. 
Sire Symon Fresel, forpris en la partye, 
En exylle est jugez pur sa felonye 
En reaime estraunge, où il n'i ait ^ amye, • 
Deus aunz i fra demore, la terce, si seit ^ en vye, 
En pees repairira à sa manauntye. 
En Qua.rreme après ceste afere finye, 
Li reys à Seynt Andreu s'en va/ sa pees i crye. 
L'eveske de Glascu il veent, of la ^ clergye ^ 
Du reaime d'Escoz/^ et là chescun se lye 
A la pees le rey, ly reys à ceo se plye, 
Save les amendes à sa seygnurye, 
Com serrount ordinez, saunz altre escaumpye/^ 
Par ly et la comune de sa-^^ baronye. 

De captione castri de Strivelin}^ 

Ly reys après la Paschek enprent ^^ son aler, 
Of sa chevalerye, Estrivelyn ^^ asseger. 

^ orrez, B. 

- De pes as Escoz, B. De peez à 
les JEscoz, CD. 

2 les omitted in B. 

^ de tote parte, C. 

^ où n'i ait, B. où il ne ait, C. 

^ s'il seit, B. 

^ i va, C. 

^ i vient ad sa, B. ^ vint ouf sa, 
C. i veent, D. 

® crergye, A. 

'" des JEscoce, D. 

^^ In place of this and the next 
line, D. has, — Cum ordiné serra par 
ly et sa baronye, 

12 de la, C. 

13 This rixbric is found in B. C. 
D., but omitted in A. 

1"* prent, D. 

1^ Strivelin, B. Estryvelyn, Q. 


Anno Domini 1304. 

Now hear the form whicli the king grants 
Of peace to the Scots who are at his mercy, 
And wbo were adjourned for their outrage, 
To receive judgment, that no one find fault with it. 
The king has granted them by his courtesy, 
Land and domain and limb and life, 
Except on ail parts to his lordship 
Kansom of each accordirig to his folly. 
Sir Simon Fresel, excepted in the party, 
Is condemned to exile for his felony 
Into a foreign kingdom, where he has no friend. 
He shall make his dwelling there two years, the third, 

if he be alive, 
He shall repak in peace to his lordship. 
In Lent after this affair finish ed, 
The king proceeds to St. Andrews, proclaims his 

peace there. 
The bishop of Glasgow comes there, with the clergy 
Of the realm of Scotland, and each binds himself 
To the king's peace, the king yields to that, 
Excepted the amends to his lordship, 
As they shall be ordered, without other escape, 
By him and the communalty of his barony. 

Of the taking of the castle of Stirling. 

The king after Easter takes his departure, 
With his knighthood, to besiege Stirling. 

z 2 


Siège of Kaunt là sount venuz, le lu vount visiter,-'^ 

Stiriing ^^ trez^ oTaunz eno-ines i fount adrescer. 
castle. . . 

Chevalers ij. avaint le chastel à garder, 

Sire William Olifarde estait \y primer, 

Sire William de Dypplyn Ij altre oy^ nomer, 

Et XX. gentilslioms, saiinz pages et porter, 

Un frère Jacobyn, iiu moygne conseyller, 

Et xiij. gentils femmes "^ of lour lavender; 

Noun pluys des persones^ i fount à noumbrer. 

Une engine avaynt, le profèrent ^ à getter, 

La verge debrusait," après ne pout aider. 

Les engines defors^ sunt mys al mester, 

Et mures et turels les peers fount passer, 

Les kirnels enviroun i fount trébucher, 

Et mesouns dedence à tere cravaunter. 

King Ed- Entre ses aferes ly reys fet carpenter 

^r^at^ Une engine orrible, et Ludgar apeler,^ 

engine. Et cel à son hui'tir crevant ^^ le mur enter. 

Treys mays et viij. jours,^^ en journez acounter, 

Dura la tempest, dm^e fu Tendurer 

A cliaytifs-^~ dedejmce, ke n'avaint à manger. 

De nule part lour vint socour ne poer, 

Par ount la pees le rey désirent molt aver ; ^^' 

^ venuz sont la leu va v., C. ^ I^etit plus de persanes, B. 

- £ trezze, B. " Thrittene grete ' ^ profrent, C. profrerent, D. 

" engynes, of aile the reame the ' La verge debrisoit, B. " The 

" best," Robert of Brunne. " ^erde brast in tuj-n, to help mot 

■^ oit, B. ' '* it not last," Robert of Brunne. 

"* A. bas homes, erroneously "^ dehors, B. C. de force, D. 

repeated from the line just before. ^ e ludgar e Vapeller, B. Robert 

Robert of Brunne translates, — of Brunne bas hère, — 

" Ther was -within thrittene may- " The kyng did mak right )are 

*' dens and ladies, j " an hidous engyn, 

" And no men to mené that felle " The name thei cald Ludgare or 

" to telle of pris." " Lurdare of Strivelyn." 

Of course Robert of Brunne un- ^^ creveit, B. creva, C. crevayt, 

derstood that the numbers given in D. 

the text only included the men of ^^ e treis jours, "B. 

account, not the coramon fighting i- As cheitifs, B. C, 

men. ^^ This line is omitted in B. 



Wlien tliey are corne tliere, they go aiicl examine tbe 

And cause to be raised there tliirteen great englues. 
Two knights had the castle in ward, 
Sir William Olifard was the first, 
I heard tlie other named sir William of Dipplyn, 
And twenty gentlemen, besides pages and porter, 
A Jacobin friar, a monk as counselJor, 
And thirteen gentlewomen with their lanndress ; 
No more persons they numbered there. 
They had an engine, and brought it ont to cast ; 
The rod broke, afterwards it was of no use. 
The engines without are put to work, 
And cause the stones to pass walls and towers ; 
They overthrow the battlements around, 
And throw down to the ground the houses inside. 
In the midst of thèse doings the king causes to be 

built of timber 
A terrible engine, and to be called Lucigar ; 
And this at its stroke broke down the entire wall. 
Three months and eight days, reckoning by days, 
Lasted the storm ; the endurance was hard 
To wretches within, who had nothing to eat. 
From no side came to them succour or power, 
Wherefore they désire much to hâve the king's peace ; 



Par entreenveyez sovent le fount prier. 
Ly reys lour demaund si toste ne voet graiinter. 
Taunt fust la trayne longe de la pees parler, 
Ke jeo ne sey ne peiis la maitë ^ recorder ; 
Surrender Mès been ay entendu ke,^ au paraler, 
castîe^ °^ ^^ chastel fu rendu au rey à soen voler, 
Issi ke cels dedeynz, chevaler, esquier,^ 
Et tretut li altre, saunz * covenaunt tayller, 
Se mistrent en sa grâce pitousement de quoer. 
Le chastel est seysi, li rey fet ordiner 
Gardayns parmy la tere le pople justicer ; 
En tere si destrute ne voet demorer,^ 
Repaire of la victoyre en Engietere arer. 

Death of 
eaii John 
de Wa- 

Cornent Strivelin fu rendu.^ 

En Septembre après Estrivelyn est rendu ; 
Ly reys^ sir Edward ses travayls ad sentu, 
Vers Brustewik sur Humbre son chemyn ad tenu,^ 
Sugiour une pece i prist pur sa salu. 
Sire Jon de Warenne,^ count been conu, 
Mortz fu lors, et prest à mett[r]e ^^ en sarcu. 
Ly reys, ke Deu garde ! en alaunt vers le su 
Parmy Lendesey,-^^ enquist de lu en lu, 
Taunt com en Escoz en sa guère fu, 
Ky ont sa pees enfi^aynt, ki ont sa pees tenu ; ^^ 
Pur taunt com il volait ^^ remède fu purveu 
Sur cil ke fust ataynt de sa pees rumpu. 

1 ne pusse la meité, B. C. D. 

2 The words ke au p. Le ch. fu 
rendu, are omitted in B. 

3 e esquier, B. 

^ E trestouz les autres fount, C. 

•5 This line is omitted in D. 

^ This rubric is found only in B. 

7 Au rei, B. 

^ en son chemin est meu, B. C. 
est mu, D. 

^ de Guarenne, B. de Garenime, 

1*' mettre, B. C. D. 

^^ Parmi de Lindeseie, B. 

^2 e qi Pount tenu, B. 

^•^ Par tant cum avoleit, B. Par 
taunt, C. 


By intermessengers they offcen solicit him. 

The king sends them word tliat he will not grant it 

so soon. 
So long the conférence for peace dragged ont, 
That I know not nor can I record the half of it ; 
But I hâve heard well that, in the sequel, 
The castle was surrendered to the king at his will, 
So that those within, knight, squire, 
And ail the others, without making conditions, 
Put themselves in his pardon with piteousness of heart. 
The castle is taken possession of ; the king causes to 

be appointed 
Wardens throughout the land to judge the people ; 
He will not dwell in a land so wasted, 
Eeturns with victory back into England. 

How Stirling tuas surrendered. 

In September folio wing, Stirling is surrendered; 
The king sir Edward has felt his labours. 
He has taken his way towards Brustwick-on-Humber ; 
Takes there his sojourn a while for his health. 
Sir John de Warenne, an earl well known, 
Was then dead, and ready to put in his coffin. 
The king, whom God préserve ! in going towards the 

Through Lindsey, inquires from place to place, 
While he was in his war in Scotland, 
Who hâve broken his peace, who hâve held his peace ; 
In order that according to his will remedy might be 

For him who was convicted of his peace broken. 



The Trail- 


and their 




Respouns ount fet au reys gentz de been^ voyllance, 
Cornent parmy la tere fet est^ graunt grevaunce 
Par comune contekoiirs, ke sunt par fîaunce 
Obligez ensemble à une purviaunce ; 
Traylbastouns sunt nomez de cel retenaunce. 
En fayres et marcliez ^ se profèrent '^ fere covenaunce, 
Pur treys souz ou iiij./ ou pur la valiaunce, 
Batre un prodomme ke unk fist nosaunce ^ 
A cors Cristiene, par nuli temoygnaunce.^ 
Si homme countredye à nul de l'aliaunce, 
Ou marchaund de ses merz li vee fere creaunce/ 
En sa mesoun demene, sauntz altre daliaunce, 
Batuz serrait been, ou pur l'acordaunce 
Dora de ses deners, et prendre^ aquitaunce. 
Si en la riot ne seit^^ fet desturbaunce, 
Une commune guère se lèvera par chaunce. 
Entendu ad ly reys la plaint et la parlaunce ; 
Escutez ore coment purveu est la vengaunce. 

Anno Domini millesimo tricentesimo qidnto}^ 

Punish- Parmy Engletere gentz de graunz resouns 

îSlbas-^^ Assignez sunt justizes sur les traylbastouns. 
tons. Les uns par enquest sunt jugez à prisouns, 

Li altre ^^ alez à fourches à pendre envirouns; 

Plusours sunt privez de possessiouns ; ^^ 

Ke meyns mesfesaynt sunt passez par raunsouns. 

Si chastiment ne fust de ribaldes et bricouns,^^ 

^ de bon, B. 

2 est fet, C. 

^ e en marchez, B. 

■* profrent, C. profrercnt, Y). 

5 ou pur iuj., C. " Thei profère 
" a man to bete for tuo schilynges 
" or thre," Kobert, of Brunne. 

^ qe uuqes ne fist nusance, B. C. 

' This line is omitted in D. 

^ li vee de créance, B. les vee, D. 

^ e prendra, B. 

^0 la riote sait, C. 

^' This rubric is taken from B. 

^2 Les altres, C. 

^"^ de lour p., B. des possessiouns, 

^^ des ribaus e b., B. 


People of good will hâve made reply to the king, 

How throughoiit the land is made a great grievance 

By common quarrellers, who are by oath 

Bound together to a compact ; 

Those of that company are named Trailbastons. 

In fairs and markets they offer themselves to make an 

For three shillings or four, or for the worth, 
To beat a freeman who never did injury 
To Christian body, by any évidence. 
If a man offends any one of the confederacy, 
Or a merchant refuses to give him crédit with his 

In his own house, without other dealing, 
He should be well beaten, or to make it up 
He shall give of his money, and take acquittance. 
If there be not some stop put to this turbulence, 
A war of the commons will arise by chance. 
The king has heard the complaint and the talk ; 
Now hear how the vengeance is provided. 

An7io Domini 1305. 

Through England people of great judgment 
Are appointed judges upon the Trailbastons. 
Some by trial are condemned to imprisonment, 
Others gone to hang about on gallows ; 
Several are deprived of their property ; 
Who offended least are allowed to escape by fines. 
If there were no chastisement of ribalds and rognes, 



and exé- 
cution of 

Osé ne serrait homme vivre en mesouns. 

O cum Deus est bons de dravturels ^ ffiierdouns ! 

Ke taunt sovent nous ad venge de felouns. 

Novel avoms oy, entre ^ compaygnouns, 

De William le Walays,^ mestre de laroims;"* 

Sir Jon de Menetest li suist à talouns, 

En près ^ de sa puteyne li prist en tapisouns ; 

A Loundres le menait en ferges et laççouns,^ 

Où jugez esteit sur cels condiciouns, 

En primer à fourches '^ fut treynë pur tresouns, 

Pendu pui* roberyes et pur occisiouns, 

Et pur ceo k'il avait ennenty ^ par arsouns 

Viles et églises et religiouns, 

Avalez est de fourches,^ et overt les ventrouns, 

Le quoer et la bowel brûliez en carbouns, 

Et copé la teste par tels mesprisiouns, 

Pur ceo ke il avait par ces havyllouns 

Maintenuz la guère, doné protecciouns, 

Seysye seygnurye -^^ en ses subjecciouns 

De altri reaime par ses entrusiouns. 

Copé li fust le cors en quatre porciouns ; 

Chescun pende par say, en memor de ses nouns, 

En lu de sa banere ^^ cels sunt ces ^^ gunfanouns. 

^ est draiturels e de hone g., C. 
This and the line following are 
omitted in D. 

2 A cel tens la novele entre, D. 

3 Wiliam Waleis, B. D. 

** des harouns, C. des larouns, D. 
5 S'emprès, B. Robert of Brunne 
has made the following additions 
hère : — 

" He tok him whan he wend lest, 

" on nyght his leman bi. 
" That was thorght treson of 
" Jak Schort, his man, 

" He was the encheson that sir 

" Jon so him nam. 
" Jak brother had he slayn, the 

" Waleis that is said, 
" The more Jak was fayn to do 

" William that braid." 
^ e lasçouns, C. laçouns, D. 
"^ asfurches, C. 
^ anenti, B. 
^ des fourches, B. C. 
^° seignurs, C. 
^^ de banere, B. 
12 les, C. 


A man would not dare to live in house. 

O how God is good in his righteous rewards ! 

Who so often has revenged us on félons. 

We hâve lieard news, among companions, 

Of William Wallace, the master of thieves; 

Sir John de Meneteith foUowed him at his heels, 

Took him in hiding by the side of his concubine ; 

Carried him to London in shackles and bonds, 

Where he was judged on the folio wing conditions : 

In the first place to the gallows he was drawn for 

Hanged for robberies and slaughters ; 
And because he had annihilated by burnings, 
Towns and churches and monasteries, 
He is taken down from the gallows, his beily opened, 
His heart and his bowels burnt to cinders, 
And his head eut off for such treasons as foUow : 
Because he had by his assumptions of authority 
Maintained the war, given protections, 
Seized into his subjection the lordship 
Of another's kingdom by his usurpations. 
His body was eut into four parts ; 
Each one hangs by itself, in memory of his name, 
In place of his banner thèse are his gonfanons. 



verses on 

of John 
Comyn by 

Pur finir sa geste, 
A Loundres est sa teste,^ 
Du cors est fet^ partye 
En iiij. bones viles, 
Dount honurer les ylles 
Ke sunt en Albanye. 
And tus may y ou here^ 
A ladde to 1ère* 

To bigken ^ in pais ; 
It falles in his eghe^ 
That backes ovre hegbe,^ 
Wit at Walays.« 
Par la morte ^ Walays poet home remembrer 
Quel gwerdoun apent à traitour et à ler,^° 
Et pur divers trespas quel divers lower. 
Du quens ^^ Robert de Breus nous estoet counter, 
En Quarem après coment il fist prier 
Luy sire de Badenaghe ^^ venir ove luy parler. 

1 en sa teste B. In Robert of 
Brunne's translation, the six French 
lin es of rhyme cowée are expanded 
into twelve, as follows : — 

" At London is his heved, 
" His quarters ère leved, 

'• In Scotland spred, 
" To wirschip ther iles, 
" And 1ère of his wiles, 

" How Tvele that he sped. 
" It is not to drede, 
" Traytour salle spede 

" Als he is worthi ; 
*' His lif salle he tj-ne, 
" And die thorgh pyne, 

" Withouten merci." 

2 au cors f et, B. de cors, C. 

3 And thus mai men hère, B. 
And, omitted in Robert of Brunne, 
•who reads, mat/ men. 

^ farta 1ère, Robert of Brunne. 
^ bigyin, B. bigyen, C, and Ro- 
bert of Brunne. 

^ iye, B., and Robert of Brunne. 

^ hakkis over hie, B. hagges over 
heghe, C. hewes over hie, Robert of 

8 With that Waleis, B. With 
the Walays, Robert of Brunne. 

9 Pur la mart, B. 
lû e 1er, B. 

11 Du quel, B. 

1- de Banagh, C. Robert of 
Brunne translates this, — 

" Now of kyng Roberd to telle 

" ^OTv his trespas, 
" Als Lententide com in Cristen 

" raans lauh, 
" He sent for Jon Comyn, the 

" lord of Badenauh, 
" To Dounfres suld he corne, 

" unto the Minours kirke, 
" A spekyng ther thei nome, the 

" Comyn wild not wirke 
" Ne do after the sawe of Roberd 

" the Brus. 


To finish his liistory, 
His head is at Londoû, 

Of tlie body is made partition 
In four good towns, 
Wherewith to lionour the isles 

Which are in Albany. 
And tlius may y ou liear 
To teach a lad 

To build in peace ; 
It falls in his eye, 
Who hacks over high, 

Take example of Wallace. 

By the death of Wallace may one bear in mind 
What reward belongs to traitor and to thief, 
And what divers wages to divers trespasses. 
Of earl Robert de Brus we must now relate, 
In the Lent folio wing how he invited 
The lord of Badenagh to come and talk with liim, 



king of 

A Dounfrès en l'église du frère Cordeler ; 
Où luy quens Robert, suppoaunt sur l'auter, 
Tua le Badenagli par feloni de quoer, 
Pur taunt ^ com il ne vout à luy - acorder 
Sur le reys Edward la gwere susciter, 
Bruce pro- Et par coup d'espeye le règne desrener 

Pur luy, qe lors se dist iloqes de dreit régner.^ 
Après la felonye, saunz gweres demorer, 
Un se novel à Scone fist reparayller ; 
Et la^ gerlaund i prist qe reys solait porter, 
En signe de seygnurye, à son encorouner.^ 
Mayntenaunt après par tut fist crier,^ 
Citez, burgs, et viles des Engleys voyder. 
Eveqes deus estoyent primaz al dubber,^ 
Ove l'abbé de Scone, qe puys l'acbata cher, 
Countes et barouns, cliivaler et esquier,^ 
Du reaime d'Escoce estoyent conseyller, 
Jurez en eyde al Brus par terre et par mer, 
Les nouns orrez après en parlaunt du vengei. 
Luy Brus s'en va cum roys ses gweres ordiner. 
The earl of Luy roys Edward l'oit dire, i maund ^ sir Emer,^^ 
Pembroke Qounte de Penebrok, le fol à refréner, 

sent agamst ' 

him. Des barouns Engleys le fet associer, 

Ke bieu ount, mercy Deus ! par là fet lour dever. 

Away be gan him drawe his 

" conseil to refus. 

Roberd with a knyve the 

" Comyn ther he smote, 

Thorgh -^hilk wounde his lyre 

" he lost, wele I wote. 

He ^ede to the hie autere, aud 

" stode and restid him thore ; 

Com Roberdes squiere, and 

" wonded him wele more." 

Par tant, B. C. 

2 ouf ly, C. 

^ iloqe dreit régner, D. 

4 sa, D. 

^ à sa coroner, B. This line is 
omitted in D. 

^ This line is omitted in B. E 
mayntenaunt, D. 

^ à dubber, C. au duhher, D. 

^ chivaîer, esquier, D. 

^ e maunde, C. 

^^ sire Eymer, B. 


At Dumfries in the churcli of the Friars Minors ; 

Where earl Robert, leaning upon the altar, 

Slew the Badenagh through felony of heart, 

Because he would not agrée with him 

To raise war against king Edward, 

And by dint of sword obtain the kingdom 

For him, who then said he was the right king. 

After the felony, without remaining long, 

He caused to be re-erected a new seat at Scone, 

And he took there the garland which the king used 

to wear, 
In sign of lordship, at his coronation. 
Now after he caused everywhere to be proclaimed 
To voyd cities, boroughs, and towns of the English. 
Two bishops were primates at the investment, 
With the abbot of Scone, who afterwards paid it 

Earls and barons, knights and squires, 
Were councillors of the kingdom of Scotland, 
Sworn to aid the Bruce by land and by sea, 
Their names you will hear afterwards in talking of the 

The Bruce goes as king to order his wars. 
King Edward hears tell of it, sends thither sir Aymer, 
Earl of Pembroke, to check the madman. 
He causes him to be accompanied with English barons, 
Who, thank God ! hâve done their duty well over 




The prince 
of Wales 

Noble mar- 
riages at 
the great 
feast of 
tide at 

Anno Domini millesimo tricentesirao vj^} 

Après la feste de Pasclie en l'an desouz tochez, 
Sa feste de Pentecost ad luy rey maundez 
Tenir a Westmoustre, ove clers et ove barnez, 
Où, ove graunt noblaye, à son fiz aynez, 
Edward prince de Gales, les armes ad donez. 
Treys centz pur veir- chivalers acountez 
A couz ^ le reys Edwarde estaynt adubbez. 
Plusours de [s] plus nobles i furent mariez. 
Lu}^ quens de Warenne, en ses noveltez, 
Esposa la fylle luy quens de Bars nomez. 
Le count de Arundel, seisy de ses fez, 
I prist la damoysele qi père fut clamez 
William de Warenne, à Dieu comaundez. 
Sir Huge le fiz Hug, Despenser appeliez,^ 
I prist la pucele de gentil parentez, 
Quele Gilbert de Clare avoit engendrez 
Soi' Jone la countesse de Acres surnomez."" 
Nule ame ^ se mervale de jeu et joe assez, 
Oii feste fu ferme ' de tels solempnetez. 
Unkes en Bretaygne puys qe Dieu fu nez 
N'estoyt tel nobleye en viles ^ n'en citez, 
Forpris Karleoun en antiquitez, 
Qaunt sire Arthur luy reis i fust corounez. 
Luy prince, qi Dieu sauve I de qi avoms parlez, 
Après la dite feste pris ad ses congez 
Ove compaygnye jolifs, envers le north^ alez, 

1 This rubric is furnished by B. 
C. and D. 

"■^ ccc. pur veire, B. et xv., C. 
pur voir et xv., D. 

3 As coutz, B. A touz, D. " It 
" was the kynges costage, for ilk 
" a knyght -was gest," Robert of 

•^ nomez, C. 

5 appeliez, C. 

^ Nul aume, B. 

" Robert of Brunne translates 
thèse t"wo lines as follows : — 

" It is not to wene, bot certeynly 

" to witen, 
" Joye inouh is sene ther suilk a 

'' fest is smyten." 
^ en vile, C. 
^ envers nortJi, C. 


Aniio Domini 130G. 

After the festival of Easfcer in the year hère named, 
The king has proclaimed his feast of Whitsuntide 
To be held at Westminster, with clergy and with harons, 
Where, with great nobleness, to his eldest son, 
Edward prince of Wales, he has given arms. 
Three hundred knights of account in truth 
Were dubbed at the cost of king Edward. 
Several of the most noble were marrie d on that occa- 
The earl of Warenne, with his newly received title, 
Espoused the daughter of the count de Barre. 
The earl of Arundel, in possession of his fées, 
Took there the damsel whose father was named 
William de Warenne, who had departed to God. 
Sir Hugh son of Hugh, called Despenser, 
Took there the maiden of noble kindred, 
Whom Gilbert de Clare had begotten 
On Joan the countess surnamed of Acres. 
No soûl wonders there was game and joy enough, 
Where a feast was held with such cérémonies. 
Never in Britain, since God was born, 
Was there such nobleness in towns nor in cities, 
Except Caerleon in ancient times, 
When sir Arthur the king was crowned there. 
The prince, whom God préserve ! of whom we hâve 

After the said feast has taken his leave 
With joyous company, and gone towards the north, 




King Ed- 
"v\"ard at 

attempt on 

His flight. 

taken and 

Pur quer le rey Bobyn où qe seit trovez. 
Luy rey s Edward son père après fist ses j ornez 
Joqes à Lanercost,^ où malade est codiez, 
Taunfc com Dieu là seus l'ad revigourez.^ 

Mayntenaunt après surdrent ^ les dolours 
As abbës, as esvesqes, à clers, à lays* plusours, 
De la terre d'Escoce, à gentz ^ sovent parjours. 
Sir Emer^ de Valence, ove ses cliivaucliours, 
Denz '^ la vyle Seint Jon pris avoit sojours; 
De [s] barouns d'Escoce i avoynt les meyllours. 
Luy rey Robyn Toit dire, parle ove ses fautours, 
Maunde à sir Emer par ses bassatours 
Rendre luy la vile, deliverer les traitours 
Ke wayvez luy avoyent à lour deshonours. 
Au matyn lendemayn Robyn en errours, 
Des rocliesz et chemises cover ^ ses armours, 
Se profre à combatre, esprover voet ses cours. 
Sir Emer de Valence issist hors de murs ; 
Robyn sa mounture tuait al primours,^ 
Luy quens est remountez, de soens avoit soeurs ; 
Robyn le dos luy tourne, s'en fuist^*^ aliours. 
Lors comencea la chace, et dura taunt des hours, 
Ke Robyn n'avoyt^^ ne chastels ne tours, 
Ne réfute à vile ne à recettours. 
Fresel, ne say coment, eschapait des est ours ; ^^ 
Pris est, menez à Loundres, tra^Tiez, penduz à fourz, 


^ Jesqe à Lanercost, B. Laver- 
tost, C. 

- reingez, C. 

3 surdrint, C. 

■* as clers, as Icn/s, C. 

^ as gens, B. 

*" Sire Eymer, B. 

7 Dedenz, B. 

^ coverer, C. 

^ à primours, D. 

^0 et s'enfuist, D. 

^^ Ke Rohin ??e auit, C. 




^■- eschapa de estour, C. eschapa, 
^■^ traynez etfowez, C. 


To seek king Robin wlierever lie may be found. 
King Edward, his father, afterwards made his pro- 

As far as Lanercost, wbere he is laid down ill, 
Until God above bas restored bis strengtb. 

Now after spring up tbe griefs 
For abbots, for bisbops, and for tbe clergy, for man}^ 

of tbe laity, 
Of tbe land of Scotland, for people often perjured. 
Sir Aymer de Valence, witb bis cavalry, 
Had taken bis résidence witbin St. Jobn's Towu 

(Pertb) ; 
Tbere were tbere tbe best of tbe barons of Scotland. 
King Robin receives information of it, consults witb 

bis adberents, 
Summons sir Aymer by bis ambassadors 
To give up to bim tbè town, to deliver tbe traitors 
Wbo bad deserted bim to tbeir disbonour. 
On tbe morning of tbe morrow, Robin in bis wan- 

His armour covered witb surplices and skirts, 
Offers battle, be will try bis courage. 
Sir Aymer de Yalance sallies out of tbe walls ; 
Robin slew his steed at tbe first atfcack, 
Tbe earl is remounted, be bas succour from bis own 

people ; 

Robin turns bis back upon bim, Aies elsewbere. 

Tben began tbe cbace, and lasted so many hours, 

Till Robert bad neitber castles nor towers, 

Nor refuge in town or among receivers. 

Fresel, I know not how, escaped from tbe battle ; 

He is taken, carried to London, drawn, and banged 

on gallows, 

A A 2 




de Seaton 
and the 
earl of 

The duke 
of Britany 

Sa teste fu copë, et saunz ehapel de flours 
Enliaucé ^ sur le pount, le cors fust ars de jours. 
En luy par sa fausine périrent grauntz valours. 

Ore oyez quel liounte à clers^ est avenu 
De la terre d'Escoce, par la.gwere mu. 
L'evesqe de Seint Andreu lionur ad perdu, 
Et Tabbé de Scone, l'evesqe de Glascu, 
Fergez sur hakenayes sunt maundez vers le su ; 
En divers prisoun cliescun est tenu, 
Taunt cum l'apostoylle le fet ad meuz conu. 
A clers et lays saunz noumbre ^ la gwere ount main- 
Autel cum à ler^ est jugement rendu. 
Cristofore de Setoun, noun pas desconu, 
Pur Jon de Badenagh est traînez et pendu ; 
Et luy quens de Ascetle^ ad jugement resceu, 
Tel com luy Fresel, et en même le lu, 
Par comaundement le rey forpris^ la traynë fu. 
Allas ! le gentyl saunk ensint '^ espaundu ! 
Du boyvere dam Waryn luy rey Robyn ad bu, 
Ke citez et viles perdist par l'escu,^ 
Après en la forest, forsenez et nu,^ 
Se pesceit ove la beste de cel herbe cru. 
Son livre le temoyne luy quels de luy est lu.^^ 

Taunt cum le rey Robyn court et fet utrage. 
Sir Artlim^ de Bretaygne, duk de haut parage, 
Veent en Engieterre pur quer son héritage. 

^ En haute, C E haiicé,T). 

- as clers, B. 

3 saunz noumbre, omitteà in D. 

'* A cels cum à 1er s est jugement, 

^ Assetle, C, in which the words 
between this and en même le lu 
(in the next line) are omitted. As- 
cecle, D. 

*» horspris, B. " Save he Mas not 

" dra-wen, that poynt was forgyven," 
Robert of Brunne. 

^ issint, B. C. This and the t^o 
lines following are omitted in D. 

^ par escu, B. 

^ ly Breus s'enfu, D. 

'^ testimoigne, qe de li est lu, B, 
Son liver est temoygne, D. The 
référence, of coui-se, is to the historj' 
of Fulk fitz Warine, the celebrated 
outlaw under king John. 


His head was eut ofF, ancl without chaplet of flowers, 

Raisecl up on the bridge, tlie body was burnt. 

In him, through his falseness, perished mueh worth. 

Now hear what disgraee is corne upon the clergy 
Of the land of Scotland, disturbed by the war. 
The bishop of St. Andrews has lost honour, 
And the abbot of Scone, and the bishop of Glasgow, 
Are sent in fetters on hackneys towards the south ; 
Each is held in a separate prison, 
Until the pope has become better acquainted with the 

To clergy and laymen without number who hâve 

maintained the war, 
Equally as to a robber is judgment rendered. 
Christopher de Seaton, not unknown, 
Is drawn and hanged on account of John of Bade- 

nagh ; 
And the earl of Asketil has received judgment 
Similar to that of the Fresel, and in the same place, 
By command of the king the drawing was omitted. 
Alas ! the noble blood which was thus spilt ! 
King Robin has drunk of the drink of dan Warin, 
Who lost cities and towns by the shield, 
Afterwards in the forest, mad and naked, 
He fed with the cattle on the raw grass. 
His book bears witness of it, which is read concerning 


While king Robin is running about and commit ting 
Sir Arthur of Britany, a duke of high kindrecl, 
Comes into England to seek his inheritance, 



and Alex- 
an dcr 
seized and 

Richemundchire, ove rentes et waygnage, 

Ove wardes et relevés, forest et poimage,^ 

Du rey sir Edwarde à tenir par bornage, 

Curtement à dire, respouns avait volage. 

Luy duk Arthur repair,- ove pesaunt corage; 

A sir Jon son frère de plus joven âge 

Est donë la^ countée, saunz novel servage, 

A tenir en fë par auncien usage 

Du rey sire Edward et de son lignage. 

Luy rey de roj^s,* par qi tempeste de mère se asswage,' 

Preste qe ne aveygne perde ne ^ damage ! 

Le duk vers Bretaygne repassez est la mer ; 
Du fols rey Eobyn qe voet plus parler, 
De sir Thomas de Breus se poet amentiner. 
Et de sir Alexander, de qi me dout le quoer,^ 
Haut den^ de Glascu et riche provender ; 
Par le rey Robyn à lour eneumbrer, 
Qi fi'eres els estoyent,'^ alayent espier, 
Les Engieys destrure saunz nul esparnier. 
Un sergeaunt Galwalej^s,^^ Magdowel ^^ oy nomer, 
Le mescredy de Cendres en venaunt du muster, 
A sursaut les prist et les fist lyer,^^ 
Et al rey s Edward à Kardoyl envoyer. 
Kaunt luy reys l'oit dire, fet justices assigner. 
Et Thomas de Breus pendre et traîner, 
Et sir Alexander à fourches ■'^^ comaunder, 
Et après le pendi*e les deus decoler. 
Le pape Boniface fist déterminer, 
En son sime livre qe il fist ordiner,^"^ 

1 This line is omitted in D. 

2 retourne, B. 

3 JEt donêe la, D. 
^ des reis, D. 

5 de mer assuage, B. de meei 
Savage, C swage, D. 

^ perde li^eit ne damage, B. 
7 me dout quer, C. 

^ Haud dian, B. 

^ Qi frères estoient, B. 

^^ Gallaicais, C. 

11 Makdoweî, B. 

12 le prist et la fist lier, C. 
i*^ al fourches, C. 

1^ MS. C. eads with this 



Richmondshire, witli the rents and profit, 

With wards and reliefs, fores t and pannage, 

To hold by homage of the king sir Edward. 

To speak briefly, he had a ligbt answer. 

Duke Arthur returns with heavy spirit ; 

To sir John his brother, of younger âge, 

Is given the county, without new services, 

To hold in fee by ancient usage 

Of the king sir Edward and of his lineage. 

The King of kings, througli whom storm of sea becomes 

Grant there arrive neither loss nor damage ! 

The duke is repassed the sea to Britany ; 
Who would discourse further of the mad king Robin, 
He may make mention of sir Thomas de Bruce, 
And of sir Alexander, of whom my heart doubts, 
High dean of Glasgow and rich beneficiary ; 
By appointment of king Robin, to their trouble, 
Whose friends they were, they went to spy, 
In order to destroy the Engiish without sparing any. 
A sergeant of Galloway, I heard him named Macdowel, 
On Ash Wednesday, as they were coming from the 

Took them by surprise, and caused them to be bound, 
And to be sent to Carlisle to king Edward. 
When the king was informed of it, he caused judges 

to be appointed, 
And Thomas de Bruce to be hanged and drawn, 
And sir Alexander to be sent to the gallows. 
And after the hanging the two to be beheaded. 
Pope Boniface caused to be determined, 
In the sixth book which he had compiled, 



Quels cle]-s en quel cas home dait sauver, 
Et quels en quel habit homme dait dampuer, 
Attaintz de felounye, cum roubbur et leer.^ 
Ne fust l'estatute fet en tyel maner, 
Plus osez serraint clers la pees Dieu violer. 

AnvA) Domini onillesimo tricentesimo vijo."^ 

TheParlia- ^ ^^ Paske après à Kardoille ouf sa gent 
ment at Ly y^[ g^-g Edward tyent ^ son parlement ; 

Un cardinal de Pome i veent* sollempnement, 
Pur ceo mariage donnt fu parlé sovent, 
Entre ly prince de Gales et la pucel gent 
Feille ad ray de Fraunce, si home bonement ^ 
Lors peust fere acorde de ceo daliement. 
Des plosurs choses tretaint ensement. 
Par clers de saint église assez honestement 
Estatute fu fet repellez saunz assent; 
Ly count e ly baroun l'empaise^ malement. 
De tut le graunt consaille estait le fineiiicnt 
Ke ly rois Edward, saunz daliement,^ 
Frait maunder à Loundres gentz de avise m eut, 
Pur veer et feere entendre al ray Phelippe ^ coment 
Le dit mariage purra profitement 
Estre afîermé, saunz plus parler ent. 
Ore doigne qe been sait ly Deus ^ omnipotent î 
Capture of Ly reis Robin uncore en mores et marais 
^ John Court en sa riote, sire Johan le Waleis 

Pris est en la plaine pur se ut des ^^ Norais, 
E maundez à Loundres fergez sur hakenais. 

^ Cîim robbour ou leer, B. D. 

- The rubric is given from B. T>. 

tint, B. 

de Home vint, B. i vint, D. 

bonaient, B. 

Vempeisent, B. 

'' delaiement, B. delayment, D. 
^ au rei Philip, B. 
^ soit, Dieus, B. 

'^^ en une pleine par sute de N., B. 
par assent des Norais, D. 


Whafc clerks in wliat case one ouglit to save, 
And what clerks in wliat habit one ought to condemn, 
As robbers and thieves, when attainted of félon}'. 
Were it not for the statute made in such manner, 
The clergy would be more daring to violate God's 

Anna Domini 1307. 

At the Easter folio wing, at Carlisle with lus people 
The king sir Edward holds his parliament ; 
A cardinal from Rome cornes there solemnly, 
For that marriage of which was often speech, 
Between the prince of Wales and the fair maiden 
Daughter of the king of France, if one succe.ssfully 
Could then make an arrangement of that treaty. 
Of several things they treated likewise. 
By clerks of holy church fairly enough 
A statute was made, repelled without assent. 
The earl and the baron reject it unjustly. 
Of ail the great cou n sel the end was 
That king Edward, without delay, 
Should cause to be sent to London people of wisdom, 
To see and explain to king Philip how 
The said marriage will be able profitably 
To be confirmed, without fiirther negotiation about it. 
Now may God Almighty grant it be well ! 

King Robin still in moors and marshes 
Wanders in his turbulence, sir John Wallace 
Is taken in the plain pursued by the northerners, 
And sent to London fettered on a hackney. 



Execution A Wesfcmouster quant vint entre les serais, 
Wallace ° Solom ses desertz fu jugez par les lais. 
Sa paine fu taillé par penaunces trays ; 
Avalez est ^ des fourchez e[n] cliemyns ^ e brays, 
La teste après copë e porté par Loundrais 
Sur le pount de Loundres, et levez par liutais 
Près du chef son frère ^ William le malvays,^ 
Qe unques n'out pité de Cristien Engiais. 
Chevaler e persoun, cytain e burgays/ 
E chan oigne e moygne, e frères des abbais, 
Fist passer par l'esspeiz^ sanz avoir de pais. 
Par tôt seit honurez ly haut Deus verrais, 
Par qi seint grâce Edward^ nostre rays 
Ly leers ad hutrayé e tôt sun line punays. 

Ail man- 
kind sub- 
ject to 

De morte illustris régis Ed'wardi? 

O Sire ^ tutpuissant ke Cristien ahure, 
Ton overe est chescon terrene créature, 
En fesaunt le mounde fu taillé ^^ la figui-e, 
Qe homme, femme, e beste deit morir par nature. 
[Belin e Brennius, Bretons par baudure, 
Pristrent Rome à force, e treu là mustrent sure ; 
Li rei Arthur après, sanz plaie e sanz blemure, 
Conquist tote France, com à se tere pare. 
Wawein et Angusele de sa noreture 
En gueres e batailles Arthur soleient sure. 
Home deit bien, entre reis qe unt régnez pus 


^ Avalé fu, B. de fourches, T>. 
" en chemise, B. en chemys, U. 
^ son père, B. 

le Walels, B. 
5 This and the two following 
lines are omitted in D. 

^ par espeie, B. 
' sire Edward, B. 
'^ This rubric is taken from B. 

•J O Père, B. D. 
1^ fufet, B. D. 


When he came to Westminster among the south- 

According to his déserts he was judged by the laws. . 
His punishment was divided into three punishments ; 
He was let down from the gallows in shirt and 

His head afterwards eut off and carried by the 

On the bridge of London, and raised with shouts 
Near the head of his brother William the wicked, 
Who never had pity on an English Christian, 
Knight and parson, citizen and burgher, 
And canon and monk, and brothers of abbeys, 
He put them ail to the sword without having peace. 
May everywhere be honoured the high true God, 
By whose holy grâce Edward our king 
Has destroyed the thief and ail his puny line. 

Of the death of the illustrious king Echvard. 

O Lord Almighty, whom the Christian adores, 
Every earthly créature is thy work, 
In making the world was formed the law, 
That man, woman, and beast must die by nature. 
Belinus and Brennius, Britons in their pride, 
Took Rome by force, and put a truce upon it ; 
King Arthur afterwards, without wound and without 

Conquered ail France, and took possession as his own. 
Gawain and Angusele, of his nourishing, 
In wars and battles used to follow Arthur. 
One must well, among kings who hâve reigned since 

that time. 



of king 

Parler du rei Edward e de sa meniuT, 

Com de meuz vanez combatant siu' moiinture.] ' 

Pus le tens Adam unqes fut nul hure ~ 

Ke prince pur nobley, ne baroun pur baudoure, 

Ne marcbaund pur avoyr, ne clerk pur lettrure, 

Par art ne par engine la mort peut '^ eschure. 

De ehevalerye, après ly reis ^ Arthure, 

Estait ly reis Edward des Cristiens la flure ; 

Tant fu beals e grantz, tant pussant en annonre,^ 

De ly poet homme parler ^ tant cum le secle dure 

[Qar par nul avoit chivaler en armure 

De vigour e value, ne présent ne future. 

No vêle avoms de li dolerouse e dure ;] ^ 

Mort l'ad pris, allas ! desore qe fra draiture 

Pur^ Johan de Badenaghe, fors cyl qe ad la cure, 

Edward le fîtz Edward, ray de la tenure ^ 

Qe tenuz est par vowe le rei Robin destrure. 

Death of 
king Ed- 

De die et morte régis Echuardi lorœdActi. 

Anno Domini miUesiriio tricentesimo septimo}^ 

En Tan avant nomé, com nous avoms oye. 
Le jur setyme de Jule/^ pur veir vous certifye 
Ke nostre reys Edward, qe aime Dieu beneye ! 
A Burgh sur les Sabluns, alant vers Albanye, 
En veri'ay creaunce son secle ad finye. 
Maintenant après sa mort estait ^- publye. 
Translatez est le corps par barnez e par clergie ^^ 

^ The nine foregoing Unes are 
found only in B. They are trans- 
lated by Eobert of Brirnne. 

- unqes ne fu nul jour e, B. 

3 puH la mort, B. pust la mort, 

^ après la mort, B. 

^ pussant en chivachure, B. 

^ chaunter, B. 

" Thèse three Unes are found 
only in B. 

s De, B. 

^ Edward fitz Edward le rei de la 
tenure, B. D. 

^•^ The rubrics are given from B. 

'^ La setimejour de Juli, B. 

12 est, B. 

1^ e clergie, B. 


Speak of king Edward and of his memory 

As of the most renowned combatant on steed. 

Since tlie time of Adam never was any time 

That prince for nobility, or baron for splendour, 

Or merchant for wealth, or clerk for learning, 

By art or by genius could escape death. 

Of cliivalry, after king Arthur, 

Was king Edward the flower of Christendom. 

He was so handsome and great, so powerful in arms, 

That of him may one speak as long as the world 

For he had no equal as a knight in armour 
For vigour and valour, neither présent nor future. 
We hâve of him news dolourous and hard ; 
Death bas taken him, alas ! henceforth who will do 

Upon John of Badenagh, except him who bas the care, 
Edward the son of Edward, king of the tenure 
Which is held by vow to destroy king Robin. 

Of the clay and death of Jdng Edward aforesaid. 
Anno Domini 1307. 

In the year just named, as we bave heard, 
The seventh day of July, for truth we certify you, 
That our king Edward, whose soûl may God bless ! 
At Burgh-upon-the-Sands, on his way to Albany, 
In true faith bas ended bis life. 
Now after his death was made public, 
The body is transported by barons and by clergy 



Biirial of 
king Ed- 

A Waltham près de Loundres, sa demene ^ abbeye, 
Quatre mais enters soUempnement servye. 
Baumez juste sur bere- saunz avoir esparnye, 
Partysaunt as povers ^ qe pur cel aime prie. 
Xxx, et iiij. aunz, viij. mays, v. jours, vous dye,* 
Régnait sur Engleterre par lay establye, 
Par resoun e drait maiutynt la monarcliye ; 
De vigour e value, de sen replenye, 
Père nul avait dount gwier^ seignurye. 
En près^ de son linage ore est le corps sevelye, 
A Westmouster, en toumbe de marbre ben polye. 
Ly prince ke pur nous suz Pilate " fu punye 
Ly reis sire Edward resceive en sa mercye ; 
Relese à l'aime face de [s] for fêtez en sa vie, 
En régal mansion là mené à compaignye, 
Où servise n'i ad fors joye et melodye.^ 

^ en sa demein, B. 
- Bannez i eust bere, B. Bannez 
just sure bere, D. 
2 à povers, D. 

^ In Robert of Brimne's transla- 
tion it is, — 
" Pour and tuenty xere, auht 

*' monethes, and five daies, 
" Noblie regned he hère bi profe 

" and gode assaies." 
^ avoit à guier, B. 
^ E après, 3. Enprède son, D. 
7 sutz Pilât, B. 

s The scribe of MS. D. has added 
the follcwing lines upon his own 
labours : — 

" Cy finist Pères son liver en 

" honour, 
" Et Jon qe l'escrit parfet ad son 

" labour. 
" Al terme de sa vie Dieu luy 

" face socour, 
" Et mette s'aime en repose oue 

" seintz en doçour. 

" Jon, qe l'escrit, ordre porte de 

" prestre ; 
" Le vikere de Atlyngflete, sire 

" Jon, qe fu son mestre, 
" Le pria de l'escriver par sa 

" mayne destre ; 
'' Dieus i mené lour aimes en la 

" joye celestre ! " 
Robert of Brunne adds the follow- 
ing lines to his translation : — 
" Xow must I uede levé hère of 

" Liglis forto Write, 
" I had no more matere of kynges 

" lif in scrite. 
" li I had haved more, blithly 

" I wild haf writen, 
" What lyme I left this lore the 

" day is for to witen ; 
" Idus that is of May left I to 

" Write this ryme, 
" B letter and Eriday bi ix. that 

" 3,ere )ede prime." 
Hearne corrects the beginning of 
this last line to D letter. 


To Waltham near London, his own abbey, 

Four montlis entire served with solemn service. 

It lay embalmed on the bier, without sparing of 

wealth . 
Distributing to tlie poor wlio pray for that soûl. 
Thirt3^-four years, eight months, and five days, I tell 

He reigned over England by established law, 
By reason and riglit lie maintained the monarchy ; 
Of vigour and worth, and full of understanding, 
He liad no equal in ruling a lordsbip. 
Beside his kindred now is the body buried, 
At Westminster, in torab of marble well polished. 
May the Prince who for us was punished under 

E,eceive king Edward into his mercy ; 
Give remission to his soûl of the sins committed in 

his life, 
Take him to his company there into régal mansion, 
Where there is no service except joy and melody. 



B Ji 




Mult fu de grant reson le primer qe purvit 
Les overes des ancestres mettre en escrit, 
Du siècle les merveiles, des sages les dites, 
E les prophecies qe furent nunciez. 
Ne fust Tescripture qe home list e voit, 
Des gestes aunciens memorie perireit. 
Pur nostre rei Edward puit home vere cornent 
Testm oigne d'escripture puit valer sovent. 
Ceo paruist quant le pape par bulle li maundeit, 
E qe son reaume de li tenir deveit, 
E à la court de Rome par homage obeier,' 

Noun pas au rei Engleis pur tiel tenement, 
Si noun par poer e par abatement. 
Li rei Edward avisez estoit 
Des gestes Engleis, à Rome remandoit 
Respons assez convenable, par commun assent 
Des countes e barons, des clers ensement, 
A Nichole sur Withine, en Tan entitlée, 
Oii lue fust la bulle, escotez la ditée. 

^ A Une is hère omitted in the 
MS., and a blank left for it ; more 

than one line seems neeessary to 
give the meaning intended. 




He was a man of great judgment who first provided 
To put in writing the works of our ancestors, 
The wonders of the âge, the sayings of the mse men, 
And the prophecies which were made public. 
Were it not for the writino' which man reads and 


The memory of the ancient history would perish. 
In the case of our king Edward may be seen how 
Testimony of writing may often be of worth. 
That appeared when the pope sent to him by bull, 
And that he ought to hold his kingdom of him, 

And be obedient to the court of Rome by homage, 


Not to the English king for such lordship, 

Unless by force and by seizure. 

King Edward was well informed 

Of English history, he sent back to Rome 

A very proper reply, by common assent 

Of earls and barons, of the clergy likewise, 

At Lincoln on the Witham, in the year given in the 

Where the bull was first read, listen to its terms. 

B B 2 

388 APl'EXDIX I. 

Biilld domini 'papœ BonifacH octavi régi Edivardo 


Boniface, evesqe, serfs de serfs nomez, 
Au noble rei Edward, des Engleis clamez. 
Salutz cum à fitz tresclier en Dieu amez, 
E grâce e beneisçon en noun de Trinité. 
Sir, dit l'apostoile, nous savoms verraiment, 
E avoms de grant temps conu provablement, 
Par tes bons meriz, e par tes fez sovent, 
Coment tu as esté à nous obedient, 
De nostre seé de Rome resceu le maundement, 
Parfete la tenure sanz contrariement, 
Ta mère église seinte Père amée devoutement, 
Cum fitz deit sa mère en amour fervent, 
En fe}^, en révérence, cum à li apent 
Qe Teglise de Rome support e defent. 
Par quel, dit Boniface, entendoms-nous pur veir 
De tei, fitz tresclier, aver bon espeir, 
Fei e fiaunce bon e pleneir 
De ta regalté, dount nous n'avoms despeir, 
Nos ditz et nos fetz, au matin e au seir, 
Et coment receiveras sanz respons contrair, 
Examiner le fras cum fitz debonair, 
Le portour espleiter avant son repeir. 

Par quel seinement deit estre demonstré 
A la celsitude de ta regalté, 
En ta memorie noun pas ublié, 
Coment la tere d'Escoce de grant antiquité 
Estoit e estre doit tenue de nostre se, 
Noun pas de tes ancestres, en service ne eu feé, 
Ne féodal estoit à ta parenté, 


Bull of tke lord pope Boniface VIII. sent to hing 


Boniface, bishop, iiamecl servant of servants, 
To the noble king Edward, proclaimed of the English, 
Salutations as to a very dear son beloved in God, 
And grâce and bénédiction in the name of the Tiinity. 
Sire, said the pope, Ave know truly, 
And hâve for a long time been acquainted with it 

By thy good merits, and by thy deeds often, 
How thou hast been obedient to us. 
Hast received the mandate of our see of Rome, 
Performed the ténor of it without contradiction, 
Loved devoutly thy mother church of St. Peter, 
In fervent love as a son ought to love his mother, 
In faith, in révérence, as behoves him 
Who supports and défends the church of Rome. 
Wherefore, said Boniface, we understand for trutli 
Of thee, very dear son, to hâve good hope, 
Faith and trust good and fuU 
Of thy royalty, of which we hâve no despair, 
Our sayings and our deeds, in the morning and in the 

And how thou will receive them without reply in the 

Thou wilt as an obedient son cause it to be examined, 
And satisfy the bearer before his return. 

Wherefore it is to be substaiitially shown 
To the highness of thy royalty, 
Not forgotten in thy memory, 
How the LijkI of Scotland of great aiitirpiity 
Was and oui2;ht to be held of our see. 
Not of thy ancestors, in service or in fee, 
Nor was it féodal to thy family, 


A nul de tes auncestres de service obligé, 

En temps de pes e guère, encountre volente', 

Ne à ton père Henri, en l' ad verset ë 

Qe li quens Sj-mon de Mounfort nomé 

Avant avoit en Engletere encountre le levé. 

Qar ton père Henri cel houre, pur vérité, 

Au rei Alexandre, qe avoit esposé 

Ta soer Margarete, par lettre ad prié 

Au rei d'Escoce de aide en amisté, . 

E noun pas de dette, fors tut de son gré, 

E, q'en préjudice à li ne fust tourné, 

Ou ser\âce ou custom, chartre ad doné, 

Confermé de son seal, le fet tesmoigné. 

Cornent à cel foiz cel aide fu granté 

Au rei Alexandre, q'en amour ad preste. 

Estre ces afferes à ton coroner, 
Pur la soUempneté le plus honorer, 
Fis-tu le rei d'Escoce devoutement prier 
Qe par sa présence deignast avancer 
La feste de ta corone, e sanz chalenger 
Coustomes ou services à toi par son dever. 
E par tant en ta lettre feistes nuncier 
Qe sa venue par dette ne poez demander, 
Feauté ne purquant vous deveit-il jurer. 
Mes pur la terre d'Escoce ne service ne dener 
Vous deveit-il conustre, ne ne fist son per. 

E com li rei d'Escoce feauté te feseit 
Pur Tyndale e Penereth, qe de toit tenoit, 
En fesant la feauté overtement disoit, 
Devant trestut le pople qe là lors estoit, 
Qe pur la terre d'Escoce nul service ferroit. 
Nul rien de son reaume de toi tenir clamoit, 
Ne cum ton suget à toit se pliereit, 
Si noun pur les terres dount avant parleit. 


Bound hy service to none of thy ancestors, 

In time of peace and war, against will, 

Nor to thy father Henry, in tlie adversity 

Wliich the earl named Simon de Monfort 

Had before stirred up against him in England, 

For thy father Henry at that time, for truth, 

To king Alexander, who had married 

Thy sister Margaret, h as prayed by letter 

To the king of Scotland for aid in friendship, 

And not as a duty, but entirely of his will, 

And, that it should not be turned into préjudice to him. 

Or service or custom, lias given a charter, 

Contirmed with his seal, bearing witness to the fact, 

How on that occasion that aid was granted 

By king Alexander, which he has lent in love. 

In the cérémonies at thy coronation, 
To give greater honour to the solemnity, 
Thou causedst the king of Scotland to be devoutly prayed 
That by his présence he would deign to celebrate 
The festival of thy crown, and without claiming 
Customs or services belonging fco thee by his duty. 
And therefore in thy letter thou causedst it to be stated 

to him 
That thou couldst not demand his attendance as a 

Fealty nevertheless he ought to swear to y ou, 
But for the land of Scotland neither service nor money 
Ought he to acknowledge to you, nor did his father. 

And as the king of Scotland did thee fealty 
For Tyndale and Penrith, which he held of thee. 
In performing the fealty he said openly, 
Before ail the people who were then there, 
That for the land of Scotland lie would do no service, 
He acknowledged to holding of thee no part of his 

Nor would bend to thee as thy subject, 
Except for the land of which he spoke before. 


Sire, en ta memorie deis-tu remembrer, 
Quant le rei d'Escoce cesseit de son régner, 
Sa fidle Margarete, qe deveit governer 
La reaume d'Escoce, cum dame de l'enteer 
E de la seignorie cum dreit lieir son père, 
Fust de meindre âge e de noun poer, 
La garde de son corps, ne de son aver, 
Ne de son héritage, par terre ne par mer, 
Ne de son reaume la value de un dener, 
Cel lioure par reson ne poiez clamer. 
Par lettre de notarié tut puit home prover, 
Coment en cel temps se fesoient assembler 
Eleccion fesoient les nobles assio-ner 
La terre e la pucele à sauver e garder. 

La vérité conustre devez par reson, 
Quant pur ton fitz EdAvard tes messagères par noua 
A nostre seé mandastes pur dispensacion 
Qe la pucele d'Escoce li prist en baron, 
Nous oimes ta prière de bon affection ; 
Par quel nous grantames ta peticion. 
Oil si la comune de cel reç-ion 
Vousist le mariage, fors par condicion 
Qe la tere d'Escoce en lour possession 
Franche demorast, sanz snbjection, 
E usent e tenissent parmi la nacion 
Lour leis et lour usages, sanz recoupison, 
Bailliffs et justices par élection, 
Customes anciens de gaole e prison, 
De tut ceo par ta lettre fis tu confection ; 
E lors reconustes qe sanz tribucion 
Estoit la tere d'Escoce, franche de rançon, 
Cum celé qe fu pure de submission 
A nul autre tere^ par droit action, 
Usant dedenz ses marches la cognicion 
Des causes e querels sur transgression. 
Ta lettre enseale' de tut fet mencion. 


Sire, in thy memoiy ought thou to remember, 
When the king of Scotland eiidecl his reign, 
His daugbter Margaret, wlio ouglit to rule 
The kingdom of Scotland, as iady of the vvhole 
And of the lordship as direct heir of her father, 
Was of minor âge and incompétent, 
The ward of her body, nor of her goods, 
Nor of her héritage, by land or by water, 
Or of her realm the value of a penny, 
At that time couldst thou rightfully claim. 
By letter of notary it could ail be proved, 
How at that time assembled together 
And made élection the nobles to appoint 
To préserve and guard the land and the maiden. 

You ought rightly to know the truth, 
When for thy son Edward thy messengers by name 
Thou sendest to our see for dispensation 
That the maiden of Scotland should take him for her 

We listened to thy prayer with good affection ; 
Wherefore we granted thy pétition. 
But if the commonalty of that kingdom 
Had wished the marriage, except by condition 
That the land of Scotland in their possession 
Should remain free, without subjection, 
And they to use and hold throughout the nation 
Their laws and their usages, without diminution, 
Bailiffs and justices by élection, 
Ancient customs of gaol and prison, 
Of ail that b}^ thy letter fliou makedst allowance ; 
And then thou didst aknowledge that without tribute 
Was the land of Scotland, free from taxation, 
As that which was free from dependence 
Upon any other land, by just procédure, 
Using within its marches the cognizance 
Of causes and quarrels on transgression, 
Thy letter under seal makes mention of ail. 


Cum, après la grâce qe à tei fu grantë, 
Morust la pucele dount estoit parle, 
Par père ne par mère lieir ne fust lessë, 
Loyntaigne du sanc ke dreit unt clame 
A toi declineient en grant amistë. 
Pur doute q'il aveient de contek e medlé ; 
A lour venir à toi unt-il pronuncié 
Qe la venue estoit conceu tut de gré, 
E noun pas de dette pur tere ne pur fee, 
Qe tu par ta lettre les as confermé, 
Ton seal en testmoigne i pent pur vérité. 

E mes que celé gent, qe sanz chief estoient, 
E sanz reetour e dustre, od tei counsaillent, 
Par quei tes ministres, qi les leis saveient, 
La seignorie d'Escoce à un fous doneient, 
Par quei multz des altres à tei enclineient, 
E ceaus du règne d'Escoce tort cel heure feseient. 
Les nobles de la tere ore grever ne deient. 
Ne casser le dreit qe les noz aveient. 

Nul home pur vérité sur ceo deit duter, 
Oii fet apertement puit certefier. 
Escotez ore cornent e en quel maner 
Escoce ne deit estre à home tributer, 
Si noun à l'apostoile en le noun seinte Per. 
Car quant l'apostoile légat doit maunder 
Au règne d'Engietere Testât examiner 
Des clers e des lais, e du rei li primer, 
Tiel légat vers Escoce unqes ne passa mer. 
Dunqes semble par reson e par dit de quoer, 
Qe la tere d'Escoce à tei ne deit plier. 
Sur ceo pur ta salue te voloms remembrer 
Des choses qe nous veoms e savoms recorder, 
En temps Adrian, li honurable hier, 
A qi nous esteimes jadis familier. 
Quant fust en Eugietere en le temps ton per 


When, after the grâce which was granted to thee, 
The maiden of whom we spoke died, 
No heir was lefb by father or mother, 
Those who hâve claimed the right by distance of blood 
Submitted to thee in great friendship, 
For fear there might be strife and contest ; 
On their coming to thee hâve they declared 
That their coming was conceived entirely of their will, 
And not by duty for land or for fee, 
Which thon hast confirmed to them by thy letter, 
Thy seal hangs to it as a witness for truth. 

And more that that people, who were without head, 
And without rector and leader, took counsel with thee, 
Whereby thy ministers, who knew the laws, 
Gave the lordship of Scotland to a madman, 
Whereby many of the others inclined to thee, 
And those of the kingdom of Scotland did wrong at 

that time. 
They ought not now to oppress the nobles of the land, 
Or cancel the right which ours had. 

No man for truth upon this ought to doubt 
Where the fact can be openly certified. 
Listeu now how and in what manner] 
Scotland ought not to be tributary to any one, 
Except to the pope in the name of St. Peter. 
For when the pope has to send a legate 
To the kingdom of En gland to examine the state 
Of the clergy and laity, and of the king first of ail, 
Such legate towards Scotland never passed the sea. 
Then it seems by reason and by decree of the heart, 
That the land of Scotland ought not to be subject to thee. 
Thereupon for thy salvation we will remind thee 
Of the things which we see and can record from know- 

In the time of Adrian, the honourable baron, 
With whom we were formei'ly intimate, 
When he was in Engiand in the time of thy father 


Légat l'apostoile, lésant son mester, 
E fust à Kenihvorthe les barons acorder ; 
Après hors du North comenceit aler 
Vers la terre d'Escoce les pleyntes terminer, 
Cum fist en Eno-letere, le reofne visiter. 
Le rei Alexaundre desturba son entrer 
Par son privelege, qe li fist moustrer, 
E fiist la tennre, qe nul fitz de merc 
Deit la tere d'Escoee cum légat justicer, 
Si noun par sa licence qe là deit régner. 
Rei, sur teles resons te deis bien aviser, 
E nuli services à tort chaleno-er. 

Estre ces afieres, ton régal noblie 
Deit bien conustre la grant tresorie 
De seint Andreu l'apostle, qe verrai Die amie 
Est nomez et wowë de tut Albanie ; 
Le pape ses reliqes doneit en douwerie 
Avant qe la province, ou nul de la partie, 
Convertuz estoit à droite creauncie. 
E sur ceo ton régal deit estre garnie, 
Coment un ercevesqe d'Everwik jadie 
Visiter voleit, par sa surquiderie, 
Cum metropolitan, Escoce e la clergie. 
Les clers appelleient en grant controversie 
En nostre court de Rome, la cause fust sopie 
Par un des esvesqes, qi dit en sa veidie : 
'•' Remembre tei, sir pape, de ta grant baillie, 
'• Nous sûmes touz le toens, ne nous guêpes mie ; 
" Le lîoneur de ton noun, ne 1' douez à autrie." 
Pur voir, la parole assetz signetie 
Qe Albanie deit estre à nostre awouwerie, 
Par les évidences qe tu as ore oie. 

E qe large e^til, ne lounge document, 
Te soit ennuiouse noun pas à ton talent, 
Edward, fitz trcsclicr en Dieu omnipotent, 
Te dioms dereschiel" cum dire à fitz covient. 


The pope'ft legate, pcrforming liis cluty, 

And was at Keuilworth to bring the barons to accord ; 

Afterwards ont of the North he began to go 

Towards the land of Scotland to décide the com plaints, 

As he did in England, to visit the kingdom. 

King Alexander prevented his entry, 

By his privilège, which he caused to be shown to hira, 

And the ténor was, that no son of mother 

Ought to judge the kingdom of Scotland as legate, 

Except by his licence who ought to reign there. 

King, upon such reasons thou shouklst advise thee 

And claim wrongfully nobody's services. 

Besides thèse affairs, tliy régal nobility 
Ought well to know the great treasury 
Of St. Andrew the apostle, who true friend of God 
Is named and worshipped by ail Albanie ; 
The pope gave his relies in gift 
Before the province, or any one of the country, 
Was converted to the right belief 
And tliereupon thy royalty ought to be warned, 
'How an archbishop of York formerly 
Sought to visit, through his presumption, 
As metropolitan, Scotland and the clergy. 
The clergy appealed in strong contradiction 
In our court of Rome, the cause was settled 
By one of the bishops, who said in his subtlety : 
" Remember thee, sir pope, of thy great trust, 
*' We are ail thine, do not désert us ; 
" The honour of thy name, give it not to another/ 
In trutli this statement shows sufRciently 
That Albanie ought to be in our lordship, 
By the évidences which thou hast now îieard. 

And that large style or long document 
Be not wearisome to thy mind, 
Edward, son very dear in God Almighty, 
AVe tell thee again, as one ought to tell a son, 


Ton sen examinez, ton quoer enterement, 

Qe à nul estut duter, ne penser altrement, 

Qe la seignorie d'Escoce pleinement 

A nous e nostre se par lei e drei[t] apent, 

Par les évidences dount nés un ne ment. 

Cil qe autre die, e fet destourbement, 

A Dieu e seinte Père trop durement mesprent. 

La tere est malmené par toi e par ta gent, 

Countre ton deveir, torcenousement. 

Qar tu n'as dreit à tere ne tenement 

Qe li rei d'Escoce ad tenu par descent 

De nous e nostre seë, puis le comencement 

Qe foi en Albanie vint par precliement. 

Come par dit de leaus à nous est moustrez 
De comune famé parmi les régnez, 
Crioise en comune des tiels adversitez, 
Les dites évidences as-tu mis sutb pés ; 
A nous et multz des autres, par foie voluntez, 
Tort apertement as-tu comencez, 
E fet en grant partie, à tes regautez, 
Conqueraunt par force les teres e les feez 
Qe sunt appendanz à nous e à nos seez ; 
Destrut la tere d'Escoce parmi les cuntrez, 
E nos dous evesqes as-tu enprisonez ; 
Clers e lais sans numbre en fer as-tu liez, 
Dount les uns sunt mortz par tes iniquitez ; 
Les cbastels as-tu pris, le pople malmenez, 
Tant cum la tere estoit sanz lier confermez ; 
Plusours autres choses qe ci ne sunt nomez, 
En le oflfence de Dieu e sez m aj estez, 
En despit de nous e nos dignetez, 
En hounte e reproce du rei corounez, 
En tort de chescun dreit e des equitez, 
Au pople en esclaundre, qe veit veritez. 

Pur les dites choses te voloms prier, 
E cum père dei fere, desore amonester, 


Examine thy minci and thy heart entirely, 

That none ought to doubt, or think otherwise, 

That the lordsliip of Scotland fully 

Belongs by law and right to us and our see, 

By the évidences of wliich not one is false. 

He who says difFerently, and labours to the contrarj^, 

OfFends very seriously against God and St. Peter. 

The land is oppressed by thee and by thy people, 

Contrary to thy duty, by violence. 

For thou hast no right to land or lordship 

Which the king of Scotland lias held by descent 

Of us and our see, since the beginning 

That the faith came into Albany through preaching. 

As by report of loyal men is shown to us 
As of common famé through the kingdoms, 
Sufferers in common by thèse adversities, 
The said évidences hast thou trodden under foot ; 
To us and many others, by mad wilfulness, 
Wrong openly hast thou begun, 
And in great part done, to thy royalties, 
Conquering by force the lands and the fées 
Which are appendant to us and to our see, 
Laid waste the land of Scotland through the countries, 
And our two bishops hast thou imprisoned; 
Clergy and laity without number hast thou bound in 

Of whom some are dead through thy injustice ; 
The castles hast thou taken, tyrannized over the people, 
As long as the land was confirmed without heir ; 
Many other things which are not named hère, 
In offence of God and of his majesty, 
In despite of us and our dignities, 
In shame and reproach of the crowned king, 
* In wrong of every right and of equity, 
In slander to the people, who see the truth. 

For the said things we will pray thee, 
And, as a father ought to do, henceforth admonish, 


Ton erroiir retrere, ton trespas amender, 

Nos clers e nos evesqes de prison deliverer. 

A counte e baron, e à chivaler, 

Citain e burgeis, sergant e esquier, 

Lonr teres e lour rentes quites rebailler, 

Rendre les cliastels, e meson e maner, 

A ces qe de dreit le deivent governer, 

E à la comune qnitemeiit clamer 

Totes les fraunchises qele soleit a ver, 

Balifs e ministres de tut facez onster 

Qi sunt en les offices mis par ton poer. 

E si tn en Escoce as dreit à chalenger, 

Homage, ou service, qe te sunt arer, 

Venez ou maundez certein messap^er 

A Rome devant nous, en la court seint Père,. 

Qe à nul fitz de mère dreiture deit vier, 

E avérez jugement, sanz plus appeller. 

En ceo mandement te voiliez si porter, 

Qe Dieu pur tes meritz te pusse gré saver, 

E la court de Rome te seit tenu valer. 

Purveiez nous meyntement, qe tu face maunder 

A nous dedenz vj. mois qe fesoms nuncier 

A toi cest mandement, e facez nous moustrer 

Totes vos évidences, qe purrunt testmoigner 

Si tu as nul dreit Escoce approprier. 

E nous les quereles e pleez en sèment, 
E par toi e toens, sentence o jugement 
A nous e nostre seë remenomes pleinement 
E quassoms desore qe fet est altrement. 
E sur ceo serroms prest fere à tote gent 
Quanqe à dreiture e à reson apent. 
La kalende quinte de Julii doneé, 
A Vienne, en l'an quinte de nostre evesclié. 


To retraet tliine eiTor, to amend tby ofFence, 

To deliver from prison our clergy and onr bisliops, 

To earl and baron, and to knight, 

Citizen and burgess, serjeant and esquire, 

To restore quit tlieir lands and tlieir rents, 

Give back tlieir castles, and house and manor, 

To those who by right ought to govern it, 

And to the commons quit claim 

Ail the liberties wbicli they used to hâve, 

To cause to be withdrawn everywhere the bailiffs and 

Who are in the offices established by thy authority. 
And if tliou hast right to claim in Scotland 
Homage, or service, whicli are in arrear to thee, 
Corne or send authenticated messengers 
To Rome before us, in the court of St. Peter, 
Which ought to deny right to no son of mother, 
And you shall hâve judgment without further appeal. 
In this message conduct yourself in such nianner, 
Tliat God may be thankful to thee for tliy merits, 
And the court of E-ome may hold thee in esteem. 
Provide for us now, that thon cause to be sent 
To us v/ithin six months after we cause to be delivered 
To thee this command, and cause to be shown to us 
Ail your évidences, that they shall sliow 
If thou hast any right to appropriate Scotland. 

And we of the quarrels and pleadings oqually, 
Both by thee and thine, sentence and judgment 
Take back fully to us and our see, 
And annul frora this time what is done otlierwise. 
And thereupon we shall be i-eady to do to ail people 
Whatever belonors to rio^ht and reason. 
Given on the fifth kalend of Jul}^ 
At Vienne, in the fifth year of our episcopacy. 



Hescriptio régis Edivardi, ad dominura Bonefacium 
papam transmissa, 

Au père tresseict en Dieu le pape sire Boniface, 
Evesqe plus soverein desoutz Dieu par grâce, 
Li rei Engleis Edward, par la grâce de Dé, 
Salutz e bouche as piez de sa seinteté. 
Sire, n'en figure n'en fourme de jugement 
Vous mandoms ceste lettre, qe nul mot ne ment, 
Sur vos mandemenz à nostre dreit défendre 
Par nos évidences, sanz jugement attendre. 
Li surveour de tut, en qi rien est ublie, 
A nous e nostre pople part fet certefie, 
Qe nous e nos auncestres le règne de Albanie 
Tut temps avoms hieu en garde e baillie, 
Cum seigneur soverein, sanz cliescon countredit. 
Tut temps de rei en rei, cum nous trouvoms escrit, 
Homag^es e services resceu beni;^nement 
De touz les reis d'Escoce pur Jour tenement, 
E feauté des countes, des barons ensement, 
Od tote la liaunce qe fet est par serment, 
E reis remuez, e donez à talent, 
Countes e barons forfet par jugement. 
Car en le temps Heh^e e Samuel jadis, 
Quant proplieter aleient à gent du pais, 
Un sire renomé du sank Eneas, 
Qe Troien estoit, ariva par cas 
En l'isle de Albion, qe Brutus fu nomé ; 
Qe ore est région e nostre hérité, 
Bretaigne fu jadis, de Brut le noun avoit. 
Les geauns qe le tindrent Brutus touz tueit. 
En lung un braz de mer un cité fundeit, 
E Trinovant par noun Brutus l'apelloit, 


Rescript of hing Edward, transmitted to the lord 
pope Boniface. 

To the very holy father in God lord Boniface the 
By grâce the most sovereign bishop under God, 
The Engiish king Edward, by the grâce of God, 
Salutations, and mouth at the feet of his holiness. 
Sire, neither in figure nor in form of judginent 
Do we send y ou this letter, which is false in no word, 
Upon your commands to défend our right 
By our évidences, without waiting judgment. 
The Surveyor of ail, in whom nothing is forgotten, 
Certifies by fact to us and our people, 
That we and our ancestors the kingdom of Albany 
Hâve always had in ward and power. 
As sovereign lord, without any contradiction, 
At ail times from king to king, as we find it written, 
Received homages and services benignly 
Of ail the kings of Scotland for their lordship, 
And fealty of the earls, of the barons likewise, 
With ail the liance (right over vassals) which is made 

by oath, 
And the kin^s removed, and given at will, 
Earls and barons forfeited by judgment. 
For in the time of Ely and Samuel formerly, 
When they went to prophecy to people of the country, 
A lord of renown of the blood of ^neas, 
Who was a Trojan, arrived by chance 
In the isle of Albion, who was named Brutus, 
Which is now a kingdom and our inheritance, 
It was formerly Britain, had the name from Brut. 
Brutus slew ail the giants who held it. 
A long an arm of the sea he founded a city, 
And Brutus called it by name Trinovant, 

c c 2 

4-04' APPEXDTX T. 

Qe Lounclres est ore dit, de Lond le noiui aveit, 

Qe de Bretaigne jadis reis estoit, 

Après qe Breton mansion aveit. 

Sire Brut e ses enfanz sa tere deviseit, 

A Loqerin Engietere, qe lors fu Bretaigne ; 

Escoce à Albanak, qe dit fii Albanie ; 

A Kamber dona Gales pur sa porcion, 

Qe dit fu Kambria, du Kamber prist-i] noun. 

A ses enfaunz pusneés dona son tenement 

De Guales e d'Escoce heritablement, 

Solunc la lei de Troie, à tenir en feë 

Pur homage e service de lour frère eyné. 

En l'an secunde après, Brutus de Bretanie 

Mort estoit à Loundres en sa seio-norie. 

Humbert rei de Hunes vint en Albanie, 

E Albanak en champ occist par espeie. 

Quant Lokerin l'oit, sur li fîst sa sute ; 

Humbert li vit venir, se prist à la fute 

A un braz de mer, où il fust naeé, 

Qe pus cel houre en sçà Humber est nomë ; 

Par quel tut Albanie en possession 

A Lokerin s et à ces heirs reverti par reson. 

Vers Dounewal, rei jadis de Bretaigne, mesprit 

Stater, rei d'Escoce, qe son service desdit. 

Dunwal en bataille le rei Stater occist, 

Et la tere d'Escoce en sa mein seisist. 

Belin fitz Dunwal, après la mort son père, 

Dona la tere d'Escoce à Brennius son frère. 

Par la lei de Troie à tenir en feé, 

Par homage e service, cum de frère aynë. 

De Tuede jesqe à Dovere tote la grant tere 

Tint Belyns cum seigneur en temps de pes e guère. 

E li rei Arthur, prince renomè, 

Destrueit Albanie pur lour adversetë. 

A sire Augusele Escoce après doneit, 


Which is now called London, it had the nanie froiii 

Who was formerly king of Britain, 
After the Briton had his dwelling hère. 
Sir Brut to his children bequeathed his land, 
To Locrine England, which was then Britain ; 
Scotland to Albanac, which Avas called Albany ; 
To Camber lie gave Wales for his portion, 
Which was called Cambria, froni (Janiber it tuok ils 

To his younger childreu he gave his lordship 
Of Wales and Scotland by inheritance, 
Accordinp; to the law of Trov, to hold in fee 
By homage and service of their elder brother. 
In the second year after, Brutus of Britain 
Died at London in his lordship. 
Humbert, king of the Huns, came into Albany, 
And siew Albanac with sword in the field. 
When Locrine heard it, he made his pursuit upon hini ; 
Humbert saw him come, took to flight 
To an arm of the sea, vvhere he was drowned, 
Which from that time to this is named Humber ; 
Whereby ail Albany in possession 
Reverted by riglit to Locrine and to his heirs. 
Towards Dunwal, formerly king of Britain, oftended 
Stater, king of Scotland, who refused his service. 
Dunwal slew king Stater in battle. 
And seized the land of Scotland into his hand. 
Belin son of Dunwal, after the death of his ftither, 
Gave the land of Scotland to Brennius his îjrother, 
To hold in fee by the law of Troy, 
By homage and service, as of his elder brother. 
Ail the g]'eat land from Tweed to Dover 
Belin held as lord in time of peace and war. 
And king Arthur, a prince of nown, 
Destroyed Albany for their rébellion. 
Afterwards lie gave Scotland to sir Augusele, 


E qe les services au rei Arthur feseit. 

A Kerlion après Arthur tint sa feste, 

Où tretouz ses reis lour services aveit preste ; 

Le rei Auguisele l'espeie Arthur porteit, 

Pur le service d'Escoce, qe à li deveit. 

Puis cel houre en sceà le reis de Albanie 

Unt touz este sus^et au reis de Bretanie. 

Edward le veuz, après prince des Bretons, 

Fist mander le reitels de ses régions, . 

De Comberland, d'Escoce, e touz les Norreis, 

Qe fei li deveient, ovesqe les Westreis ; 

Il rescut les homage e les services en soun, 

Cum seignour soverein. de chescone regioun. 

Le rei Athelstan après Edward regneit, 

Constantin d'Escoce rei south li feseit, 

E dit plus est glorie e plus est honeur 

Rei fere qe rei estre en tere de valour. 

Avint après par cas desdit li esteit 

Le service d'Escoce q'il aver soleit. 

Sa guère sur Escoce le plus tost comenceit, 

Seint Johan de Beverlé en eide requereit, 

E passeit en Escoce, le pople outreieit, 

De touz enemis la mestrie aveit, 

Empriant de consail seint Johan de Beverlie, 

Feseit sa volunté parmi tut Albanie. 

Cil ferist espeie en la roche dure 

Une aune profound, par miracle pure ; 

Emprès du Dunbar puit home ver cornent 

Le rei Athelstan ferist si noblement. 

Ensint en l'église Johan de Beverlé 

Par verrai escripture le fet est testmoignë. 

Constantin d'Escoce, e Eugène ensement 

Rei de Coraberland, od tere e tenement. 

Au rei Athelstan se rendeient après. 

Le rei Athelstan les granta sa pes. 

Le fitz Constantin, en signe de pardoun, 


And who performed the services to king Arthur. 

At Caerleon, subsequently, Arthur held his feast, 

Where ail his kings had yielded their services ; 

King Augusele carried Arthur's sword, 

For the service of Scotland, which he owed to him. 

Since that time to the présent the kings of Scotland 

Hâve ail been subject to the king of Britain. 

Edward the Elder, afterwards prince of the Britons^ 

Sent his summons to the kinglets of his kingdoms, 

Of Cumberland, of Scotland, and ail the Northerns, 

Who owed him fidelity, with the Westerns; 

He received the homages and the services together, 

As sovereign lord of each kingdom. 

King Athelstan reigned after Edward, 

He made Constantine king of Scotland under him, 

And said it is more glory and more honour 

To make a king than to be a king in land of worth. 

It happened afterwards, as it fell out, was denied him_ 

The service of Scotland that he used to hâve. 

He immediately began war against Scotland, 

Asked John of Beverley to be in aid to him, 

And passed into Scotland, reduced the people, 

Had the mastery over ail his enemies, 

Beseeching the counsel of St. John of Beverley, 

Did his will through ail Albany. 

It was he who struck his sword into the hard rock 

A yard deep, by pure miracle ; 

Near Dunbar yon may see how 

King Athelstan struck so nobly. 

Thus in the church of John of Beverley 

The fact is testified by true writing. 

Constantine of Scotland, and likewise Eugenius 

King of Cumberland, with land and lordship, 

Submitted afterwards to king Athelstan. 

King Athelstan granted them his peace. 

The son of Constantine, in token of pardon, 


Lors leva de fnitnte e doua son noun. 
Edred, frère Athelstan, en Engletere régnait, 
Herice rei d'Escoce ser\âce qe li doneit^ 

E touz ceaus d'Escoce fesoient sanz desceit. 

Rei Engleis après, Edgar, frère Edrede, 

Rei soutli li avoit Kynaid delà Tuede, 

E YJ. altres des isles rei soutli li nome, 

De Comberland, de Wente, de Galeweie clamez, 

De Mau, de Fritherhide, e de Loudenie, 

Qe an rei Edgar aleient à grant noblie, 

A rendre lonr homage qe à li deveient ; 

En la rivere de Dee en nief li troveient. 

Edojar les reo*ard, e dit en son lanoaoe, 

" ]Mult fet à preiser prince de parage, 

" E ses successours se purrunt loer, 

" Qe de tanz de reis service deit aver." 

En divers cronicles le dit est testmoynë, 

Qe par le rei Edgar illoqes estoit parlé. 

Après la mort Edgar regneit en Engletere 
Chescon après autre iiij. reis sanz guère ; 
Edward le martir estoit le primer, 
Elred le secunde, le tierz oi nomer 
Edmon Irenside, le quarte appeller 
Knout, père Hardknout, à queus lour régner 
Touz les reis d'Escoce feseient lour dever, 
Forpris le quinzime an ke Knout fri coroiiné, 
Malcolme rei d'Escoce encountre li fri levé'. 
Quant Knout la pursut, tost sur li aloit, 
E parmi Escoce sa voluntë fesoit." 
Harald e Hardknoud les fitz Knout esteient, 
A queus le rei d'Escoce, tant cum ele regneient, 
Assetz sollempnement obligez jureient 
A fere lour services sicum ils deveient. 

' A line is omitted, and a blank left, in the manuscript 


He then raised froni the font, and gave him bis nanie. 
Edred, brother of Athelstan, reigned in England, 
Eric king of Scotland the service which he owed him 

And ail those of Scotland performed without deceit. 

The king of England next, Edgar, brother of Edred, 

Had Kynaid king under him beyond Tweed, 

And six others of the isles naraed kings under him, 

Of Cumberland, of Went, of Galloway proclaimed, 

Of Man, of Fritherhide [? Hébrides], and of Lothiau, 

Who went to king Edgar with great nobility, 

To render their homage which they owed to him ; 

Thy foimd him in a sbip in the river of Dee. 

Edgar contemplâtes them, and says in bis langiiage, 

" Much cause to be praised bas a prince of kindred, 

" And bis successors can take glory from it, 

" Who claims the service of so many kings." 

The saying is recorded in divers cbronicles, 

Which was there spoken by king Edgar. 

After the death of Edgar reigned in England 
Eacli after other four kings without war ; 
Edward the martyr was the iirst, 
Elred the second, the tbird I heard named 
Edmund Ironside, the fourth called 
Cnut, the ffxtber of Hardacnut, to wbom during their 

AU the kings of Scotland performed their duty, 
Except the fiftb year after Cnut was crowned, 
Malcolm kino; of Scotland rose a<xainst him. 
Wben Cnut was aware of it, he immediately went 

against him, 
xVnd did bis will tbi'ougbout Scotland. 
Harald and Hardacnut were the sons of Cnut, 
To wbom the kings of Scotland, as long as they reigned, 
Very solemnly swore to their obligations 
To do their services as thev owed. 



Après la mort Harald e Hardkiioud son frère, 
Resceut seint Edward la monarchie entere. 
Tant cum il regneit en gTant humilité, 
Morust le rei d'Escoce sanz fitz en hérite. 
Le rei de Comberland, Malcolme, un fitz avoit, 
A qi le règne d'Escoce seint Edward doneit, 
De li e ses heirs à tenir en feé, 
Fesaunt les services dues e les coustomé. 

En Engietere regneit après seint Edward 
Un son cosin Normaund, Wiliam le bastard, 
A ki le rei Malcolme vint e dit de gréé 
Pur la tere d'Escoce homage e feauté ; 
E à Wiliam le rous son fitz après li 
Fist Malcolme homage pur tut Albani. 
Wiliam le rous après housteit de son seé 
Dunwal, rei d'Escoce, pur sa iniquité, 
E Dunkan fitz Malcolme rei d'Escoce fist; 
De li pur son reaume homage e feauté prist. 
Dunkan après estoit par treson tué, 
E Dunwal en la tere par poer fu entré. 
Le rei Wiliam le rous le rei Dunwal ousteit, 
Edo-ar fitz Malcolme rei d'Escoce feseit. 
Son frère Alexandre après Edgar regneit/ 
Le rei Henri son frère, à qi de gré feseit 
Le rei Alexandre quanqe fere deveit. 

Maud l'emperice fu fidle e fitz Henri ; ^ 
David rei d'Escoce fist homage à li ; 
E quant le rei Estevene en Engietere regneit, 
Henri le fitz David homage à li feseit. 
Henri fitz l'emperice coronez estoit, 
Escoce e Engietere en pes governeit ; 
Chivaler pruz e sage un fitz Henri avoit, 
Qe rei de son reaume à Loundres coroneit ; 
Wiliam rei d'Escoce, e David son frère, 

^ There is perhaps a line wanting 
hère, which stated that William 
Rufus was succeeded by his brother. 

- This liue is apparently corrupt 
or imperfect. 


After the death of Harald and Hardacnut his brother, 
St. Edward received the entire monarchy. 
While he reigned in great humility, 
The king of Scotland died without son to inherit. 
The king of Cumberland, Malcolm, had a son, 
To whom St. Edward gave the kingdom of Scotland, 
To hold in fee of him and his heirs, 
Doing the services due and the customs. 

In England reigned after St. Edward 
A Norman cousin of his, William the bastard, 
To whom king Malcolm came and said voluntarily 
Homage and fealty for the land of Scotland ; 
And to William Rufus, his son, after him 
Malcolm did homage for ail Albany. 
William Rufus afterwards expelled from his throne 
Dunwal, king of Scotland, for his iniquity, 
And made Duncan son of Malcolm king of Scotland ; 
He took of him homage and fealty for his kingdom. 
Duncan afterwards was slain by treason, 
And Dunwal was entered into the land by force. 
King William Rufus expelled king Dunwal, 
Made Edo-ar son of Malcolm kinp- of Scotland. 
His brother Alexander reigned after Edgar, 
King Henry his brother, to whom voluntarily per- 

King Alexander ail that he ought to perform. 

Maud the empress was daughter and Henry the son ; 
David king of Scotland did homage to him ; 
And when king Stephen reigned in England, 
Henry son of David did homage to him. 
Henry son of the empress was crowned, 
Scotland and England he governed in peaee ; 
He had a son Henry, a gallant and wise knight, 
Whom he crowned at London king of his kingdom ; 
William king of Scotland, and David his brother, 


Les liautz homes cVEscoce, uncle, ûtz, e père, 
A li feseient homage, e ceo li jureient, 
Sauve la feauté qe à son père deveient. 
Le fitz morust après, cum Dieu out ordiuë, 
E survesquit le père en sa regautë. 

En l'an vintisme après Henri fîtz l'emperice, 
Le rei William d'Escoce, par mult grant malice, 
Encontre son serment, od son foie sute, 
Hast par coup d'espeie Northumberland destrute. 
Les Norreis de sçà countre li comljateient, 
A Alnewike li pristrent, au rei Henri meueient. 
L'an après, en Marce, par condicion, 
Estoit le rei William deliveré de prison. 
En cel an en Septembre plus prochein après 
Vint li rei Wiliam en bon amour e pes 
En la mère église à Everwik nome. 
Par sa patente lettre se obliga de gréé. 
Pur li e pur ses heirs, à touz les reis Engieis 
Qe après vendrunt, e testmoignance de treis, 
La chapel de sa teste, sa seal, e sa leaunce, 
Sunt en cel église pur verraie remembrance. 
La comune d'Escoce au rei Henri assure, 
Si ceste co venant ne teigne, le rei Wiliam destrure. 
E Gregorie la pape, qe none est nome, 
Conferma la liaunce par lettre enbullé. 
En Engle[te]re e Escoce par divers escrit 
Put home ver e lire la vérité parfit. 

E al dit Henri Clément le pa])e escrit 
Pur Johan l'esvesqe de Seint Andreu, dit 
Qe le rei d'Escoce l'aveit engeté, 
E qe le rei Henri par sa regauté 
Wiliam auionesteit restorer de gréé 
Au dit Johan evesqe la dite evescheé. 
Le mandement le pape par tant certefie 

APPENDTX 1. 418 

The high mon of Scotland, uncle, son, and fatber. 
Did liomage to hhn, and swore it to hiin, 
Save the fealty which they owed to liis father. 
The son died afterwards, as God had ordered it, 
And the father survived in his royalty. 

In the twentieth year after Henry son of the em- 

King William of Scotland, throngh very great malice, 
Against his oath, with his mad followers, 
Has destroyed Nortlmniberland with the sword. 
The northerners on this side fought against him, 
They took him at Alnwick, and carried him to king 

The year following, in Mardi, by treaty, 
Was king William delivered from prison. 
Tn that year in September nearest following 
Came king William in good love and peace 
Into the mother church at York, 
Bound himself voluntarily by his letter patent. 
For himself and for his heirs, to ail the English kin^s 
Who shall corne after, in witness of three things, 
The hat from his head, his seal, and his spear. 
Are in that church for true remembrance. 
The commonalty of Scotland made assurance to king 

To destroy king VViUiam, if he liold not this covennnt. 
And Gregory the pope, who is called ninth, 
Confirmed the sovereignty by his letter with bnll, 
Tn England and Scotland by divers writings 
May a man see and read the perfect truth. 

And Clément the pope wrote to the said Henry 
For John bishop of St. Andrews, said 
That the king of Scotland had expelled him, 
And that king Henry by his royalty 
Sliould admonish William to restore voluntarily 
The said bishopric to the said bishop John. 
The pope's mandate therefore certifies 

41 4- APPEXDTX T. 

Qe au reis Engleis estoit la seignorie. 
En la dit église vindrount autre feez 
A Henri e Wiliara, reis avant nomez, 
De la tere d'Escoce countes e barons, 
Evesqes e gardeins de religiouns, 
E cum au seigneur lige illoqes li feseient 
Homage e feauté, sicome il deveient. 
Le rei Wiliam après, od mesmes cel gent, 
A Norhamptoun au rei vint à parlement, 
Autre foiz ailleurs à son mandement. 

E au rei Richard, après Henri son père, 
Wiliam le rei d'Escoce, pur sa tere entière, 
Tut dreit à Caunterbire son homage fi st. 
E le rei Richard soUempnement le prist. 
Après le rei Richard, son frère Johan regneit, 
A ki son homage li dit Wiliam feseit 
A Nichole sur un mount hors de la cité. 
Sur la croice Hubert, ercevesqe sacrée 
Au se de Canterbire, Wiliam là jureit 
Au rei Johan e ses heirs qe leaus li serrait. 

Après le rei Wiliam, desutz nous regneit 
Son fitz Alexandre, ke nostre- sorour esteit; 
Homage à nostre père e à nous ensement 
Pur le règne d'Escoce fist devautement. 
Morust Alexandre, un soûl soer aveit. 
Par noun Margarete, qe nostre nièce estoit. 
Celé sanz heir de sel sa vie quant finist, 
Escoce sanz gardein lors south nous remist. 
En cel vacacion, à nous vindrent de gréé 
Les hautz homes d'Escoce, nés un accepté, 
Come à chief seigneur e guiour souverein. 
Citez, burgs, e viles, cum à lour gardein, 
Chastels, tours, e teres, sanz retenement, 
A nus e à nos gens rendirent pleinement, 
Feaubé nous fesoient sur livere par serement, 
E par lour seals pendanz, dount tes tm oigne ne ment, 


That tbe sovereignty belonged to the Englisli king. 

In the said church came another time 

To Henry and William, the kings before named, 

Earls and barons of the land of Scotland, 

Bishops and wardens of abbeys, 

And, as to their liège lord, there performed to him 

Homage and fealty, as they ought. 

King William afterwards, with those same people, 

Came to the king at Northampton to the parliament, 

At another time elsewhere at his summons. 

And to king Richard, after his father Henry, 
William king of Scotland, for his entire land, 
AU the way at Canterbury did his homage, 
And king Richard took it in ceremonious form. 
After king Kichard, his brother John reigned, 
To whom king William performed his homage 
At Lincoln on a hill outside the city. 
On the cross of Hubert, consecrated archbishop 
To the see of Canterbury, William there swore 
That he would be loyal to king John and his heirs. 

After king William, under us reigned 
His son Alexander, who was our brother-in-law ; 
Homao-e to our father and to us likewise 
He performed devoutly for the kingdom of Scotland. 
Alexander died, he had an only sister, 
By name Margaret, who was our nièce, 
When she ended her life without heir of her body, 
Scotland without ruler then remained under us. 
In this vacancy, came to us voluntarily 
The high men of Scotland, not one excepted. 
As to their chief lord and sovereign ruler, 
Cities, boroughs, and towns, as to their keeper, 
Castles, towers, and lands, without réservation, 
They fully surrendered to us and to our people, 
Did fealty to us on book by oath, 
And by their seals attached, of which witness lies not, 

41 () APPEXDTX T. 

Nous mesDies e nos ministres la tere qe gardeient, 
A queus les Escoz tretonz enclineient ; 
E nous cuni seigneur e dustre honureieut, 
E sanz countredire pleinement feseient 
Quanqe à seignur lige en tel temps deveient. 

Après tiels afFeres sourda contencion 
En la tere d'Escoce pur la région, 
Par quel les parties à nous cum à seignuv 
Yindrent e se mistrent de lour o-rant clamoni* 
En certeines persones e trier lour descent, 
E sur ceo resceivere nostre jugement. 
En celé enqueste prise, le triour troveit 
Qe Jolian de Bailliol heir plus près esteif. 
Nous, par la vertue de nostre seignorie, 
Al dit Johan douâmes le reorne d'Albanie, 
E là li vestimes de la regautë, 
A tenir par liomage de nous e noz enfeez, 
Fesaunt les services à nos mandemenz, 
Venir en Engietere à noz parlemenz 
A nous e nos lieirs, sanz collusion, 
E leaument receiver la subjectioun. 
Le rei Johan de Bailliol, un poi de temps après, 
Enfreint son serment, debrusa nostre pees, 
E ausint feseient countes e barons 
Qe odvesqe li leveient en conspiraciomi, 
Tindrent nos ministres cum fous e felouns, 
A nous e nos beirs en desheritisoun. 

Nous par la plein t oie meintenant alames 
En la marche d'Escoce, au rei Johan mandâmes 
Qe à nous venist en fei qe nous deveit, 
E tretter des choses qe nous e li tocheit. 
E-esponant nous redist en rien fu tenuz, 
Mes son service à tort avoit-il conuz. 
Sanz plus fere à nous, cil e ses félons 
Curuut sur nos teres e nos possessions, 


Our selves and our officers wlio liad charge of the 

To whom ail tlie Scots subniitted ; 
And honoured us as lord aud leader, 
And witliout contradiction performed fully 
What tliey owed to a liège lord on such an occasion, 

After tliese afFairs arose contention 
In the land of Scotland for the kingdom, 
Wherefore the parties to us as to the lord 
Came and placed themselves with their great claims 
In certain persons, and to try their descent, 
And upon that receive our judgment. 
In this inquest taken, the trier found 
That John de Bailiol was the nearest heir. 
We, by virtue of our seignory, 
Gave to the said John the kingdom of Albany, 
And there we invested him with the roj^alty, 
To hold by homage of us and ours in fee, 
Performing the services at our summons, 
To come into England to our parliaments 
To us and to our heirs, without deceit, 
And loyally receive the subjection. 
King John de Bailiol, a little time afterwards, 
Broke his oath, transgressed our peace, 
And so did earls and barons 
Who rose in conspiracy with him, 
And held our officers like madmen and félons, 
In disinheritance of us and our heirs. 

We, on hearing the complaint, went now 
Into the March of Scotland, we summoned king John 
To come to us on the fidelity which lie owed us, 
To treat of matters which touched us and him. 
He returned us a reply that he was bound in nothing, 
But he had wrongfully acknowledged his service. 
Without more ado with us, he and his félons 
Invaded our lands and our possessions, 



Abbeies, burgs, e viles, manoirs, en Engletere 

Ardrent, destrurent, trop dure fa la guère, 

Qar femmes e enfanz mistrent à l'espeie, 

Ne grant ne petit suffreient aver vie. 

Tant fu li rei devez, tant fu sa route foie, 

Qe dous cenz des clergeons ardèrent en l'escole. 

Nos niefs sur la rive en furent arivez 

Ai^deient, e tueient les genz dedenz trovez. 

Treis de nos countez wasteient pleinerement. 

Homages e feautés pur eaus comunement 

Qe avant nous feseient, lors à nous rendirent, 

E nous defieient, cum fous qe plus ne virent. 

E, sire, quant nous veimes sur nous tiel damage, 

E sur nostre pople tiel tortz e tiel outrage, 

Tielz fetz de félons, e tiel diffiaunce. 

Sur nous e nos heirs en desheritaunce, 

Reson nous chasça refréner la folie 

De ces qe si blemeient nostre seignorie, 

E par les leys usez touz jours sçà en arere, 

Tant nous despiseient, sanz eus joustisere 

Le reaume d'Escoce, qe tant fu plein de mal, 

E come avant est dit nostre féodal. 

Par counsail de nos clers, nos countes, e barons, 

Par poer chastiames tiels mesprisons 

Du dit rei Johan e de sa compaignie, 

Qi feimentuz feseient treson e trecherie. 

Escoce fu perdu e forjugé de dreit 
Par la prodicion qe li rei Jolian feseit. 
Nous lors reseisimes la tere pleinement, 
Od citez, burgs, e viles, sanz retenement. 
Li dit Jolian Bailliol à nous approcheit, 
E à nous e noz de grée conoisseit 
Trestut son trespas, quitement clameit 
A nous e nos heirs tut le cleim e dreit 
Q'en le dit reaume en nul temps avoit, 
Nous rendi son homage qe avant nous fist; 


Abbeys, burgbs, and towns, and manors, in England 
Tbey burn and destroy, very cruel was tbe war, 
For tbey put to tbe sword women and cbildren, 
Suffered neitber great nor little to bave life. 
So insane was tbe king, so mad was bis army, 
Tbat tbey burnt two bundred little scbolars in tbeir 

Our sbips wbicb were arrived on tbe coast 
Tbey burnt, and slew tbe people found in tbem. 
Tbey completely laid waste tbree of our counties. 
Tbe bornages and fealties generally by tbem 
Wbicb before tbey performed to us, tbey gave back to us, 
And defied us, like madmen wbo saw no furtber. 
And, sire, wben we saw sucb damage upon us. 
And upon our people sucb wrongs and sucb injury, 
Sucb félons' acts, and sucb bostility, 
In disinberitance upon us and our beirs. 
Justice drove us to put a cbeck to tbe folly 
Of tbose wbo tbus mutilated our lordsbip, 
And by tbe laws used always down to tbe présent, 
Tbey despised us so mucb, witbout tbem to govern 
Tbe kingdom of Scotland, wbicb was so full of evil, 
And as before is said our fief, 
By counsel of our clergy, our earls, and barons, 
By force we cbastised sucb oâfences 
Of tbe said king Jobn and of bis company, 
Wbo breaking tbeir faitb did treason and treacbery. 

Scotland was lost and confiscated rigbtly 
Tbrougb tbe treason wbicb king Jobn did. 
We tben resumed tbe land fully, 
Witb cities, burgbs, and towns, witbout reserve. 
Tbe said Jobn Bailiol came to us, 
And to us and ours voluntarily acknowledged 
Ail bis trespass, quit-claimed 
To us and our beirs ail tbe claim and rigbt 
Wbicb be bad at any time in tbe said kingdom, 
And rendered us bis bornage as be did before ; 

D D 2 


Son fet est testmoigné par verrai escrit. 

Nos haiiiz homes de la tere touz communément 

Homages nous feseient pur lour tenenient, 

Cum de seigneur lige, sanz mené à tenir, 

A nous e nos lieirs duement servir. 

Lour fet est escrit qe ne puit faillir ; 

Chescon seal i pent, qe ne puit mentir. 

Sire, ta sentence prioms devoutement, 
Le droit de nous e nos, recordë tant sovent, 
Cum tu as oie en ceste escripture. 
Toun quoer enfourmer voiliez par figure 
En voie de vérité, ke hors de dreit ne veit, 
Ne à ditz contraries légèrement otreit. 
Ne à nos enemis, sire, ne voiliez crere, 
Qe volent nous e nos déshériter de tere. 
Mes voiliez pur Dieu, come à père apent, 
Nous e nos reaumes, od l'apurteinement. 
Sauver sanz blemure pardurablement. 
Ta vie sauve e garde Dieus omnipotent. 
Bone à Kelleseie, 'par commun agard, 
En Fan xxix. de nostre règne, Edivard. 

Mandatum communitatis Angliœ domino papœ trans- 
missum pro jure régis Angliœ, factum per viij. 
comités, et xxiii/'\ barones, et xi\ vexillares, pev 
verha Gcdlica quœ immédiate sequantur. 

Sire Boniface, par Dieu e sa grâce pape consecrez, 
Li counte a li baroun d'Engleterre par noun, salutz 

e bouche à peez, 
La seinte mère église de Rome renomé, 
Par qi nostre fei deit estre governë, 
Tiel est en ses feez, cum avoms entendu, 
Qe nuli droit par li deit estre perdu ; 


His act is witnessed by true writing. 

Our magnâtes of the land ail commonly 

Performed homage to us for tlieir lordship 

As to the liège lord, without summons to hold, 

To serve diily us and our heirs. 

Their deed is put in writing that it cannot fail ; 

The seal of each hangs to it, that it cannot be false. 

Sire, we devoutly pray thy judgment, 
The right of us and ours, recorded so often, 
As thou hast heard in this writing. 
Be wiDing to inform thy heart by figure 
In way of truth, that it go not away froni right, 
Nor yield lightly to contrary statements, 
Nor, sire, be willing to believe our enemies, 
Who seek to disinherit us and our heirs of land. 
But be willing, for God's sake, as becomes a father, 
Us and our kingdoms, with the appurtenance, 
To save without mutilation for ever. 
May God Almighty save and guard thy life. 
Given at Kelsoe, by common award, 
In the year twenty-nine of our reign, Edward. 

Message of the commonalty of England sent to the lord 
the pope for the right of the king of England, made 
by eight earls, and tiuenty-foiir barons, and fifteen 
bannerets, in French ivords luhich inimedAately 

To sir Boniface, by God and his grâce consecrated 

The earls and barons of England by name, salutations 

and mouth to foot. 
The holy mother church of Rome renowned, 
By whom our faith ought to be governed, 
Is such in her acts, as we hâve heard, 
That nobody's right ought to be lost by her ; 


Mes cum chief de touz fere doit équité 

A touz, cum à li mesmes, par voie de vérité. 

Nostre sire Edward n'ad guers plus pleinement 

A Nichole sa cité tint son parlement, 

Où nous touz venimes par comun assent, 

E là à très oimes vostre mandement 

Sur choses qe touchent nostre rei Engleis, 

Pur les genz d'Escoce, qe sount hors de peez. 

Ton mandement oi e bien escouté, 

Chescon de nous estoit mult emerveilé. 

En temps de nos ancestres unqe ne fu parlé 

Qe au rei Edward par toi fust nuncié, 

Qe querele oie ne pleinte ne clamour, 

De la seignorie dount il est seignour. 

Beau père, nous savoms assez certeinement 
De la tere d'Escoce, e quanqe à li apent ; 
En temps des Bretons, des Engleis ensement, 
Ad tut temps esté soutz le governement 
De touz les auncestres nostre rei Edward, 
En lour seignorie, quites sanz reward, 
Sire, jesqe l'autreher, qe tu as nous chalengé, 
A tort, qar tu n'as dreit, ne nul autre estrange. 
Qar unqes en nul temps pus le comencement 
Qe Escoce fu doné pur tere e tenement 
Au rei Albanac, dount Albanie fu dit, 
N'aveit home en vie qe soverein se fîst 
Sur la tere d'Escoce, les genz justiser, 
Si noun les reis Engleis, parmi lour poer ; 
Ne les reis Engleis aillours pledeient 
Pur choses qe d'Escoce à eus appendeient. 
Ne de temporals aillours respundirent 
Pur chose qe soutz eaus lour subjetz mesurent 
Ne à l'église de Bome ren apurteneit ; 
Mes touz jours à nos reis féodal esteit. 

Sire, pur tiel chose en vostre mandement 
Continue estoit, en nostre parlement 

APPENDIX 1. 423 

But as chief of ail she ought to do equity 

To ail, as to herself, by way of truth. 

Our lord Edward not long ago very fully 

At Lincoln liis city held his parliament, 

Where we ail came by common assent, 

And there we heard attentively y our message 

On things whicL touched our Englisli king, 

For tlie people of Scotland, who are out of peace. 

Thy message heard and well listened to, 

Each of us was much astonislied. 

In time of our ancestors never was said 

"What to king Edward was announced by thee, 

Nor claim heard, nor complaint, nor clamour, 

Of the sovereignty of which he is lord. 

Fair father, we know certainly enougb 
Of the land of Scotland, and ail that belongs to it ; 
In times of the Britons, of the English likewise, 
It has always been under the government 
Of ail the ancestors of our king Edward, 
In their lordship, quit without fee. 
Sir, till the other day, when thou hast challenged us, 
Wrongfully, for thou hast no right, nor no other 

For never at any time since the beginning 
When Scotland was given for land and lordship 
To king Albanac, from whom it was called Albany, 
Was there a man alive who made himself sovereigTi 
Over the land of Scotland, to judge the people, 
Except the English kings, as part of their power ; 
Nor did the English kings plead elsewhere 
For afFairs of Scotland which belonged to them. 
Nor of tempérais were responsible elsewhere 
For thing in which under them their subjects erred, 
Nor did anything belong to the church of Rome ; 
But it was always féodal to our kings. 

Sire, for such thing as in your message 
Was contained, in our parliament 


Esteimes e serroms trestouz d'un assent, 
Par aide e consail de Dieu omnipotent, 
Eider à nostre rei en sa regautë, 
Q'en balaunce ne mette seignorie ne fée, 
Ne avant toi ne altre mette en jugement 
Qe à sa coroune de tant temps appent ; 
Ne procuratour i mande à toi ne à ton sëe, 
Par quei sa coroune soit déshérité, 
Encountre vieuz usages e leis des auncestres, 
En citez, viles, e burgs, e teres champestres. 
Queles leis e quel usages du rei e sa coroune 
Nous jurez à défendre, qi unqes cointresoune. 
Mes qe li rei Edward de tiel chose n'eit cure, 
Défendre le voloms tantqe vie nous dure. 
A nous serroit esclaundre e notarié huntage, 
Qe nostre reis Edward perdesist homage 
Qe nous pussums défendre e sauver par espeie, 
Assez serroms digne de Dieu aver maugré. 

Par quei ta sentence prioms devoutement, 
Qe nostre rei Edward voiliez benignement 
Sustenir en son droit sanz desturbement, 
Cum un des reis du munde qe plus sollempnement 
Se porte e se meine vers Dieu omnipotent; 
E pur la bounté voiliez sanz blemure 
Ses teres e ses feez sauver sanz destrure. 
Si tu seiez son père, tiel estre deit ta cure. 
Te comandoms à Dieu, j&tz la Virge pure. 
En testmoigne à ceste lettre penduz sunt nos seals, 
Pur nous avant nomez e pur touz iceaus 
Qe sunt de la tere dount nous sûmes neez. 
Doné à Nichole devant noz parentez, 
En mois de Februare, le jour pur veir duzisme, 
En Tan le fitz Marie mil e trescentisrae. 

APPENDIX 1. 425 

We were and shall be ail of one assent, 
By aid and counsel of God Almighty, 
To assist our king in his royalty, 
That he put in risk neither lordship nor fee, 
Nor before thee nor other put in judgment 
What belongs to his crown since so long a time ; 
Nor send proctor to thee or to thy see, 
Whereby his crown may be deprived of héritage, 
Contrary to old usages and laws of our ancestors, 
In cities, towns, and burghs, and country lands. 
Which laws and which usages of the king and his crown 
We are sworn to défend, whoever may attack them. 
But that king Edward may hâve no fear of such thiug, 
We will défend him as long as our lives last. 
It would be scandai and notable shame to us, 
That our king Edward should lose homage 
Which we could défend and save with the sword, 
We shall be very worthy to hâve God's enniity. 
Wherefore we pray thee devoutly thy sentence, 
That thou wilt benignly our king Edward 
Sustain in his right without impediment, 
As one of the kings of the world who most solemnly 
Bears and conducts him self towards God Almighty ; 
And for goodness, do thou décide without diminution 
To save his lands and his fées from destruction. 
If thou be his father, such ought to be thy care. 
We commend thee to God, the son of the pure Virgin. 
In witness our seals are hanged to this letter, 
For us before named and for ail those 
Who are of the land of which we are born. 
Given at Lincoln in présence of our kindred, 
In the month of February, the day for truth the 

In the year of the son of Mary one thousand and 
three hundred. 



Poems ascrihed to Pierre de Langtoft, im- 
An Allegorical Romance on 

Un rois jadis estait qe avait un amye, 
Laqnele plus ama qe ne fist sa vie. 
Ceo apparust bien quant par gelusye 
La mort en prist pur lye à seison establye. 
S'amie out close en un chaustel fort, 
Où ele out assetz de solace e de comfort. 
Là vint un traitour, et par un acord 
Ouf ly la mena, si fist al roy grant tort. 
Ly rois, qe fust geluse de sa cliier amye, 
Sont qe par descort ust fet la folye; 
De ly se vont venger qe fist la gylerye, 
E celé remener qe estoit de ly fuie. 
Par power de son liost ust liu sa voluntë, 
Saunz venir à bataille à chivale ou à pée, 
Mes pur attreer le quer de celé alopé, 
Par soi vont desrener son drait en ly clame 
Tant fu de pruesce son noun renomé, 
Qe sa chevalerie de tyrant fut doté ; 
Dont jà ne ust en chaumpe al rois encontre', 
Si le roy ses armes en bataille ust porte. 
Mes cointement le fist li vaillaunt chevaler ; 
Kar il prist les armes un son bacheler, 
Qe Adam out à noun, si les fitz rouler, 
E par un damoisele ce fist de ceaux armer. 
Il entra en la chaumbre celé damoisele, 



onediately following the Ghronicle in M 8. A, 
THE Death of Christ, (fol. 172 r».) 

There was formerly a king who had a love, 
Whom lie loved more tlian he did his life. 
That appeared clearly when througli jealously 
He took death for her at the season ordained. 
He had shut up his love in a strong castle, 
Where she had enoiigh of solace and comfort. 
There came a traitor, and by an agreement 
Led her away with him, and did great wrong to the 

The king, who was jealous of his dear love, 
Knew that through discord she had done the folly ; 
Sought to avenge himself upon him who did the deceit, 
And bring her back who had fled from him. 
By power of his army he wonld hâve had his will, 
Without coming to battle on horseback or on foot, 
But to draw the heart of that eloped one 
He would prove by himself his right claim in her. 
His name was so renowned for prowess, 
That his chivalry was feared by the tyrant ; 
Wherefore he would never hâve met the king in the 

If the king had carried his arms in battle. 
But cunningly the valiant knight did it ; 
For he took the arms of a bachelor of his, 
Whose name was Adam, and caused them to be rolled, 
And caused himself to be armed with them by a damsel. 
He entered into the chamber of that damsel, 


Qe de totes altres estoit la plus bêle. 

Il entra si suef, saunz noise e favele, 

Qe nul homme le sont, fors qe soûl celé. 

La damoisele l'arma de mut estraunge armure ; 

Pur aketoun li bailla blaundre chare e pure ; 

Pur cadace e cotouu, saunk mist en cochure ; 

Pur quissocz e mustilers. ly dona la furcliure ; 

Pur chances de fere, de nerfs mist la jointure. 

Ses plates furent de os, qe sisterent à mesure ; 

La gaumbeysoun de say, la pelé par desure. 

De tôt partz assist les veynes pur urlure ; 

Pur bacyn à la test, li planta anapele ; 

Pur la tour de bacin, dedeinz mist la cervele. 

La ventaile de Thauberk estoit la face bêle, 

Qe privément en chaumbre lascea la pucele. 

Quant li rei fust armé, de chambre s'en issist, 

De combatre al tyran t fraunchement se profrit. 

Le tyrant bien l'avisa, si le out en despit, 

E par grant engrèes devers ly roy se mist. 

Maint dure assout le tyrant dune ly fist, 

Et le duz chevaler un poy de temps suffrit. 

L'autre fii egre, et tant le surquist, 

Qe homage e service du chevaler enquist. 

" Avay, sire Belial, tu queres grant utrage," 

Dist le chevaler, ke fut de fere curage ; 

" Unqes ne fust oye qe serfs de seignurage 

" Par poer demandast servise e homage." 

" Où est ta seignurie ? " dist ly féal tyrant, 

" Unqes ne vis roy aler pain querant, 

" Mes i pert cj^e sortz de linage graunt, 

" Par ma curtoisie, si vous frei taunt, 

" Rendez vous ore à moy, et jeo vous seiseroy 

" De teres e tenementz qen ma bailli ay, 

^' E mes en ceste vie ne vous greveroy, 

" Par si qe vous facez ceo qe dist vous ay." 

" Uncore di, Belial, uncore vous difi ; 


Wlio was tlie most handsome of ail others. 

He entered so softly, witliout noise and talk, 

Tliat no man knew it except lier alone. 

The damsel armed liim witli very strange armonr ; 

For acketon she gave him very white and pure flesli ; 

For worsted and cotton, she put blood in layers ; 

For cuisses and mustilers, she gave him the fourchure ; 

For iron chausses, she put the juncture of tlie nerves. 

His plates were of bone, which fitted him exactly ; 

Th.e gambeson of silk, the skin over it. 

On ail sides she laid the veins for hemming ; 

For bacinet on the head, she placed him a skull ; 

For the round of the bacinet, she put the brain within. 

The vent aille of the hauberk was the fair face, 

Which privately in the chamber the maiden laced. 

When the king was armed, he issued from the chamber, 

Freely offered him self to combat the tyrant. 

The tyrant looked at him well, and held him in contempt, 

And with great insolence took his place against t]ie 

Many a hard blow the tyrant then gave him, 
And the gentle knight suffered it a little while. 
The other was fierce, and treated him so disdainfully, 
That he demanded of the knight homage and service. 
" Aha, sir Belial, thou seekest great wrong," 
Said the knight, who was of high courage ; 
" It was never lieard that serfs from lordship 
" By force demanded service and homage." 
'' Where is thy lordship ? " said the wicked tyrant, 
" I never saw a king go begging his bread, 
" But it appears that you are sprung from great lineage. 
" By my courtesy, I will do so much for you, 
'^ Yield you now to me, and I will give you seisure 
'' Of lands and lordships which I hâve in my power, 
" And I will no more grieve you in this life, 
" On condition that you do what I hâve told you." 
" Again I say it, Belial, again I defy you ; 


" De tere ne tenement rien ne vous pri. 

'' Pur ma eliier amye su-jeo venu ci, 

*' Qe vous malepastes, dont jeo vous défi." 

" M'avez ore defië ?" dist sire Belial, 

" De eeo jour en avant vous garderay par maie. 

" Asseetz ore un jour, où pople comunal 

" Poës veer la bataille en montaigne u en vale." 

Le jour fu assis par un Venderdi, 

Et leu fu pris en un mount auxi, 

Où le chevaler de soen enemy 

Desrener dust s'amie, cum promis out à Xy. 

Au roi fast amené un cheval sojornë, 

De quatre manere de pail si estoit veirë. 

De cypresce fu le corps, de cèdre le pëe, 

L'eschine fa de olive, de palme haut cr^Tië. 

E ly rois mounta tout à son a}Ti degrë, 

Pur monstre q'il out drait en chose chalengë. 

Sa sele fu trop dure, et moût l'ad anguisë, 

Mes pur l'amour s'amye la payne ad ublyë. 

Ly tyraunt environne le roi de son host ; 

Le roi ben apercent lour bobaunce e lour bost; 

La baner de ces braz en encountre eaux desclost, 

E boute avant l'escu qe ahai tôt cel host. 

Son esku fu blaunk, estencellë de goules ; 

En chef sa coroune de verges espinouses ; 

Blieue la bordure, ouf quatre signes custuses, 

En un leu la fountayne, of les veines e woses : 

Un heaume out à la teste de chevus rubrichez ; 

Un hauberk endosë d'escorges maellez ; 

Un espei en poigne de un clow de fere forgez ; 

E un launce de pacience fort e ben ferrez. 

Ly tyi'ant le regard, si out grant dedeigne. 

E le roi le suffrit travailler en vaine, 

Ben attendist houre de lever la mayue. 


Neitlier of land nor tenement do I ask you anytlii ng. 
I am corne hère for my dear love, 
Whom you illtreated, for whicli I defy you," 
Hâve you now defied me ? " said sir Belial, 
Erom tliis day forward I will hold you in ill-will. 
Fix now a day, where people of the commonalty 
Can see tlie battle on mountain or in vale,'' 
The day was fixed on a Friday, 
And the place also was chosen on a mount, 
Where the knight from his enemy 
Was to rescue his love, as he had promised. 
To the king was brought a war-horse, 
And it was vairy with four sorts of hair, 
The body was of cypress, of cedar the foot, 
The back was of olive, high maned with palm, 
And the king mounted ail at his own will 
To show that he had right in the thing claimed. 
His saddle was very hard, and lias caused him much 

But for the love of his lady he has ignoredthe pain. 
The tyrant surrounds the king with his army ; 
The king perceives well their pride and their boast, 
He displays the banner of his arms against them, 
And thrusts forward the shield which that army 

His shield was white, stencilled with gules ; 
In chief his crown of thorny rods; 
The bordure blue, with four costly signs, 
In one place the fountain, with the veins and .... ; 
A helmet he had on his head of red hairs ; 
A hauberk on his back enamelled with scourges ; 
A sword in his hand forged from an iron nail ; 
And a lance of patience strong and well pointed with 

The tyrant looks at him, and had great disdain. 
And the king suffered him to labour in vain, 
He waited patiently the time for raising his hand. 


L'autre le siirquert de malencolye pleine, 

Si tloiin au roi du launce, e perce ses escu ; 

Le coupe fu si fort dont ad le roi féru, 

Qe sink lues de corps saunk en espandu. 

Lors quide l'autre avoir le roi venku. 

Fort fu cel estour quant si assemblèrent, 

Qe la tere trembla, e peers debruserent. 

La gent de tôt partz le roi tant surquerent, 

Qe tôt à la mort en chaumpe le lesserent. 

Cy poet l'em dire où estoit son host, 

Qe dust au rois entendre encontre l'autre liost ? 

Là vous respondrai brevement en un mot, 

Il out si ordené qe nul luy fust de cost, 

Kar soûl volait avoir l'amur de s'amye, 

Qe soûl emprist pur ly tel mescheve sanz aye ; 

Si altre li ust aide, lors fust departye 

L'amur antre plusours, qe soûl ad deservye. 

Par tant se mist soûl le rois encontre touz ; 

Et pur ceo qe soûl se mist encontre multz. 

Le tyraunt quide veindre le clievaler pruz ; 

Mes il par sa pruesce si les venquist touz. 

Il leva sa launce qe suffraunce est dist. 

L'un main au tyraunt plainement tollist. 

L'autre mayn par vaidie se mist en respit 

Tant q'il ust parfait ceo qe il establist. 

Par tant ne lessa mie cy tremalvais leer. 

Tôt drait par la cote prist le clievaler, 

Trestot la descire devant e derere ; 

Jà pur ceo ly rois ne cliaunga sa cliere. 

Quant la cote estrange du roi degisé 

Par la main au tyrant fu ci desciré. 

Lors estoit ly rois desuz bien armé 

En sa armour demayne, qe ensi est devisé ; 

De joye e de vie tutdroit quartilé, 


The other looks fîerce at him, full of clioler, 

Tlien stvikes the kiug with his lance, and pierces bis 

sliield ; 
The blovv was so great with which he has struck the 

That it has shed blood in five places of his body. 
Then the other thinks he has vanquished the king. 
Hard was the battle when they thus came together, 
That the earth quaked, and the rocks were broken. 
The people from ail sides pressed so upon the king, 
That they left him in the fîeld on the point of death. 
Hère one might say where was his army 
Which ought for the king to contend against the other 

army ? 
There I will reply to you briefly in a word, 
He had so ordered that none should be with him. 
For he sought to hâve alone the love of his lady, 
Who alone nndertook for her the danger with ont aid ; 
If another had aided him, then would hâve been divided 
The love between several, which he alone had earned. 
Therefore the king offered himself alone against them ail ; 
And because he placed himself alone against many, 
The tyrant thinks to vanquish the brave knight ; 
And y et he by his prowess vanquished them ail. 
He raised his lance which is called suffrance, 
Took from the tyrant one hand fully, 
The other hand by subtleness waited its time 
Until he had completed that which he d(-signed. 
Then the very wicked thief hesitated not, 
Straiglitway he seized the knight by the coat, 
Tears it ail before and behind ; 

Never for that did the king change his conntenance. 
When the foreign coat of the disguised king 
Was thus torn by the hand of the tyrant, 
Then was the king underneath well armed 
In his own armour, which is thus devised ; 
Entirely quartered with joy and with life^ 



De puissaunce e de saver e de draiture fretté, 

En le chef un saicture de haut dignité, 

Une bende en belif de immortalité. 

Quant ly tyrant le vist qe ceo fu ly i*ois, 

Lors out le corage trop à malehis ; 

Il le out vu avant en son grant palais. 

Et conisçoit son power, e les droit lais. 

Luy chaitif s'en fuist à grant confusioun, 

E ly roi descendist en un bas dongoun, 

Là trova s'amie en grant chaitivesoun, 

Qe mercy li requist de sa mesprisioun. 

" Sire," dist-ele, '' mercy, chevaler allosé, 

'' De cest lase cheitif prenge toi pité ; 

" Jeo ai tant mefifait encontre vostre grëe, 

^' Ne vous ose regarder, de hounte enfrountë. 

" Vous me faistez riche, là où pover estoi, 

" De robe me vestites qe valust qe sai ; 

" La curtoisi fu vostre, la vilanie fa moy, 

" Quant ouf le tyrant alai de vous ma vai. 

" Sire, en vostre verger, où jadis m'en juai, 

" Par un fause clef le tyraunt quist sa pray, 

" Entra en parole, e tant me donay, 

'' Qe à ly me senty par promesse de nobleye. 

" Ouf ly m'en aloi à malhoure le mien, 
" Qe, si tost cum entroi la tere qe claime soen, 
'' En prison si me mist, si com vous veez bien. 
'' Unqes pus ne avoi solace ne joye de nul rien. 

" Gentyl quer de roi, mercy vous requer, 
" De ma foie emprise me volez pardoner." 
Doucement respount ly curtoise chevaler, 
" E jeo le vous pardonne fraunchement de qoer. 

" Vous me avez costë mut chier huy ceo jour ; 
'' Unks fitz pur peer entra teel estour. 
" Puis qe vous ai conquis par saunk e suour, 
'' Ne vous poies refuser, en aietez de moi socour. 


Fretty witli power and with knowledge, and with 

In the cliief a flllet of higli dignity, 
A bend in belief of immortality. (?) 
When the tyrant saw that it was tlie king, 
Then he had his courage very much abated, 
He liad seen him before in his great palace, 
And knew his power and the just laws. 
The wretch fled thence in great confusion, 
And the king descend ed into a low dungeon, 
There he found his love in great captivity, 
Who sought pardon of him for lier offence. 
" Sire," she said " mercy, noble knight, 
" On this wretched captive take pity ; 
'' I hâve so much misdone against your will, 
" I dare not look on y ou, overwhelmed with shame. 
" You made me rich, there where I was poor, 
" You clothed me with a robe which was better than silk ; 
" The courtesy was y ours, the wickedness was mine, 
'' When I went with the tyrant away from you. 
'^ Sir, in your garden, where formerly I solaced myself 
'' The tyrant sought his prey with a faise key, 
^' He entered into talk, and gave me so much, 
" That he drew me to him by promise of nobility. 
'' With him I went to my misfortune, 
" Who, as soon as he entered the land which he claims 

*' as his, 
" Threw me into prison, as you see well. 
" Never after had I solace or joy of anything. 
" Gentle heart of a king, I solicit your mercy, 
'* Deign to pardon my mad conduct." 
The courteous knight replies gently, 
" And I pardon you freely from my heart. 
" You hâve cost me very dear this day ; 
'' Never did son for father undertake such a battle. 
'' Since I hâve won you by blood and sweat, 
'^ I cannot refuse you, hâve succour of me. 

E E 2 


" Si vous avez hount de auncien folye, 
" Ore vous alîez en ma gelousie, 
" Quant pur l'amour de vous abaundona ma vie, 
" Pur vous remener, qe estaitz de moy fuie. 

" Rescardez ma face com est demao-lë, 
" Regardez mon corps, cum est pur vous plaie, 
" Avisetz mon esku cum est deberdisé, 
" E ne quidez jà qe soiez refusé. 

" Jadis vous donay fiance en privé, 
" Soulement ma amye fustes dunk rîomëe ; 
" ]\Iès ore ma espouse serrez appelle 
" De touz qe sevent e saveront de la sollempneté." 

Lors prent ly roi sa espouse de prisoun, 
Si la meigne ouf ly en bon salvacioun, 
Deraorir," dist-iJ, " cy une bref seisoun, 
Tant com jeo rethorne pur mener vous à mesoun. 
E qe soiez plus sure encountre li adverser. 
Vers vous retenez, en lu de baner, 
Ma cliemis de Chartres et ma mort amer, 
E ceo vous sauvera du diable encombrer. 
A l'entré de la port mon destrer alowez, 
A l'entré de la chaumbre mon escu pendez, 
Enprès de vostre lit ma launce fichez, 
Si n'avérez garde de nul adversité z. 
E si vous gardez bien ceo qe ci vous doun, 
E me volez amer sicum voet resoun, 
Jeo vous fra rayne^ e porterez corun 
En ma riche tere, qe tut vous abandoun. 
E quant vostre mené ert tôt assemblé, 
A vous revendroi en tens bien seisoné, 
Si vous ameneroy à ma grant cité, 
Où vous troverez solace et tôt biens à plenté." 
Jeo pri Dieus, nostre roys, chevaler alosée, 
Qe conquist en bataille tôt humayne ligné, 
Nous garde nuit e jour du tyraunt et maufée, 
E nous meigne en joye entre sa mesné. 



^' If y OU bave shame of your old folly, 

" Now put your trust in my jealousy, 

" Since for love of you I gave up my life, 

'' To bring you back, who was fled from me. 

'' Look at my face, how it is bruised ; 

'■' Look at my body, how it is wounded for you ; 

" Regard my shield how it is bruised, 

" And no longer suppose that you are rcfused. 

^' Formerly I gave you my faith in private, 
" You were then only named my lover; 
" But now you shall be called m}^ spouse 
" By ail who know and shall know of the solemnity." 

Then the king takes his spouse from prison, 
And leads lier with him into a good place of safety, 
" To remain," says he, " hère a short season, 
" Until I return to take you home. 
" And that you may be more safe against the enemy, 
" Keep with you, in place of banner, 
" My shirt of prison (?) and my cruel death, 
" And that will protect you from the devil's persécution. 
" Leave my steed at the entrance of the gâte, 
" At the entrance of the chamber hang my shield, 
" Fix my lance near your bed, 

" And then you will hâve no fear of any adversity, 
'' And if you keep well what I hère give you, 
'' And will love me as reason requires, 
" I will make you queen, and you shall carry a crown 
" In my rich land, whicli I give up entirely to you. 
" And when your household shall be ail assembled, 
" I will return to you in time con veulent, 
" And I will lead you to my great city, 
" Where you will find solace and ail good in plenty." 
I pray God, our king, the noble knight, 
Who won in battle the whole human race, 
That he guard us night and day from the tyraiit and 

And lead us in joy among his household. 


438 appendix ii. 

The Lament of the Virgin Mary. 
(fol. 174, v°.) 

Dame corouné, floure de Parays, 
De haut chose emprendre me fu eniremys, 
Quajit paroge ouf ma dame qe fu tant chaitifs ; 
Mes un foie baudure m'ad le qoer suppris. 
Dame, jeo vous pri, pur vostre grant genterise, 
Si ma parole seit de folie enprise, 
Escotez ma folie e grantez seint église 
Qe la chose qe pri par vous nous soit aprise. 
Mustrez nous la processe cum Jhesu fu peine, 
Quant la mort emprist pur humaigne ligne, 
E quel fust la dolure dont fu ton quere percé. 
Quant vaistez vostre fitz à la mort liveré. 
Vous empernez, dist-ele, mult grant hardement, 
Qe me priez ore rehercer cel torment, 
Pus qe fu en joye et nul mal ne sent ; 
Assets avez oye par escrit sovent. 
Dame, bien ay trovë ceo q'est escrit, 
Qe de tuz ses privez ton fitz Jhesu Crist 
Nul ne vist la fine, car chescon s'en fuist, 
Fors seulement vous e Johan TEwangelist. 
E si tôt le mound ust esté présent, 
Bien soi qe vous soûle maistes plus de entent 
De savoir qe l'em fait à cel innocent ; 
Pur ceo countez nous le processe bonement, 
Volunters, fet la dame, e bien le puis faire, 
Kar ore me torne à joye trestut cel afaire, 
E fra tregrant bien à plusours gentz en tere, 
E lour dorra matere de péchez eaux retrere. 
Le jour ke mon fitz fu jugez à la mort, 
Jeo fu en la cité, et ceo me fut mut fort, 
Quant jeo oy sa crie qe amené fust à mort ; 
Jeo suy après com celé ke n'out confort. 

Lors vi mon fitz cum laron amené, 


Lady with the crown^ flower of Para dise, 
I had undertaken to interfère in liigh things, 
When I who was such a ^vretch conversed witli my 

lady ; 
But a wild joy had taken my heart by surprise. 
Lady, I pray you, for your great gentleness, 
If my talk be presumptuous, 
Listen to my folly, and grant holy church 
That the thîng I ask may be taught us by you. 
Show us the proceeding how Christ was tormented, 
When he took upon him death for the human race, 
And what was the pain with which thy heart was 

When you saw your son delivered to death, 
You assume, she said, very gi*eat boldness, 
Who pray me now to repeat that sufFering, 
Since I was in joy and feel no hurt ; 
You hâve heard enough often by writing. 
Lady, I hâve learnt well that which is written, 
That of ail his private friends, of thy son Jésus Christ 
No one saw the end, for every one fled away, 
Except only you and John the Evangelist. 
And if ail the world had been présent, 
I know that you alone gave more attention 
To know Avhat they did to that innocent ; 
Therefore relate to us the proceedings exactly. 
Willingly, saj'-s the lady, and I can well do it. 
For now ail that affair turns to me to joy. 
And it will do very great good to many people on earth, 
And will give them matter to withdraw them from sin. 
The day that my son was condemned to death, 
I was in the city, and it was very grievous to me. 
When I heard his cry as he was led to death ; 
I follow after as one whom nothing comforts. 
Then I saw my son led like a thief, 


E pur cel amour q'en lui oi ficclië, 

Ne ne me sovent pas q'il out ordenë 

De mettre soi à mort pur humayne ligne. 

Tiel doel me prist qe rien ne pou penser, 

Fors ceo qe vi mon fitz si vilement treter. 

Jeo ne soi qe fere ne quel part tourner ; 

Vers ly m'adrescai, mes ne poai aider. 

Mult gentz ly suirent, et les uns plorauntz ; 

Vers euz se tourna, e dit en suspiraunz, 

" Ne plorez pas pur moy, mes pur vos enfauntz, 

" Qe comprent ma mort après ceo jour c. aunz." 

Les uns par la voie avant li saqerent, 
Ly altre de lour mayns vilement boterent ; 
Plusours de la bowe en sa face getterent, 
E, qe plus me greva, en ly eschacherent. 
Qi est ore en vie qe purra ceo pas lire, 
Qu'il des ouez ne plorge ou de quer suspire, 
Quant sa bêle face, dont tut le celé se mire. 
Si dejetté estoit com fondrez est de cire. 
La croice, ke fust sa mort, ne fu pas donk à quere, 
Devant ly fu mys sur la nue tere ; 
A ren qe l'em ly fet jà ne fu contreire, 
Einz estoit pliaunt à quanqe volaint fere. 
E cyl saunz pitë ount pris mon fitz Jhesu, 
Si Tount despullië le corps tretut nue, 
E sur la croice cochèrent mon duz fitz estendu. 
Ha ! dolur q'en mon quer à cel lioure fu 1 
Le corps avait grant, de beel estature, 
Dont il avaint perce la croice fors de mesure, 
E sakent donc le cors estendu par desure, 
Pur feer à mayns et pëes acorder la par cure. 
De trois clowes de fere trop démesure tz 
Li doune[n]t donk parmy les mains et le peez, 
E pus ount la croice of son cors levez, 
E en la ferme tere mult tresferme ficchez. 


And for the love I had fixed in him, 

I did not bear in mind that lie had ordained 

To give himself to deatli for mankind ; 

Such grief seized me that I can think of nothing, 

Except that I saw my son so vilely treated. 

I know not what to do or to what side to turn ; 

I addressed myself towards him, but could not aid. 

Many people followed him, and some weeping ; 

Towards them he turned, and said sighing, 

" Weep not for me, but for your children, 

" Whom my death includes a hundred years after 

Some pulled him forwards along the way, 
Others pushed him rudely with their liands ; 
Many threw mud into his face. 
And, what grieved me most, they spat upon him. 
Who is now alive who can read that passage, 
That he does not plunge hito tears or groan from 

his heart, 
When his handsome face, which ail heaven reflects, 
Was ail disfigured like melted wax. 
The cross, which was his death, was not then to seek, 
It was laid before him on the bare ground; 
He made no résistance to whatever Avas done to him, 
But was yielding to whatever they would do. 
And they without pity hâve taken my son Jésus, 
And hâve stripped his body entirely naked, 
And they laid my gentle son down stretched on the cross. 
Ah ! the grief that was at that time in my heart ! 
He had a large body, of handsome stature, 
For which they had pierced the cross out of proportion. 
And therefore stretch the body extended upon it, 
To make the holes fit to the hands and feet. 
With three iron nails of very great size 
They then strike him through the hands and feet, 
And afterwards they hâve raised the cross with his body, 
And fixed it very firmly in the solid earth. 


Quant la croice levèrent, par charge de son corps 

Les vaines se debrisaint et se launcent hors, 

Les neerfs poet homme et numbrer touz les os ; 

Nul ne seet la paine qe Jhesu suffry lors. 

Unqes chare en tere ne suffrit payne greindre 

Qe ne fist son corps, qe tant fu duz e taindre. 

Jeo pri la mort qe me vousist prendre ; 

Mes ceo me fu pur ren, ne vont à moy entendre. 

Jeo regard mon fitz en la croice pendaunt, 

Et vi de ses jDlaies le saunk tôt boillaunt 

Descendre par ses coustes en la tere rovaunt; 

De si riche tresour mist largement avant. 

Ha î sa bêle chare, qe fu si blaunk e pure, 

Jà devent si bief cum la marbre dure ; 

La vow qe out si clere, jà devent oscure ; 

La chalur de son cors chaunga en fraidure. 

La payn de mon fitz me peerça tôt le qoer, 

Quant jeo vi sa chare si ferment refraider. 

Ore chai avale, e ore vou relever. 

Mes ne avay pëe qe me poet porter. 

Allas ! jeo dolourouse, qe avendra de moy ! 

Pendre en la croice pur tortinuy l'ai, 

Qe de ren mesfait, entre larons voi. 

Allas ! desconfit ! où devendroi ? 

Tretut mun solace ore perdu ai; 

Ma vie si est langour, jeo mais en assai 

Tantost demorir saunz mettre en delay. 

La mort me serra duz, la vie m'est amere; 

Jeo pierk cy ma joie qe tant me fu chère. 

Pur qoi estes, mort, si cruel e fiere ? 

Qe ne pernez ouf le fiz celé dolent mère? 

Allas ! vous chaitifs, trop cruel gentz, 

Quele chose vous mist encontre le innocent, 

Qe tantz des biens ad fait à plosure gents ? 

Ceaus qe furent malades, il les sana; 


When they raised tlie cross, by weight of his bocly 

The veins broke and fly out, 

The muscles may man count and ail the bones ; 

No man knows the pain which Jésus sufFered then. 

Never did flesh on earth sufFer greater pain 

Than did his body, which was so soft and tender. 

I prayed death that he would take me ; 

But it was to no purpose, he would not listen to me. 

I look at my son hanging on the cross, 

And saw from his wounds the blood ail boilino; 

Descend along his sides, running to the ground ; 

Of such rich treasure he made large display. 

Ah ! his fair flesh, which was so white and pure, 

Already became as blue as the hard marble ; 

The countenance which he had so clear, now became 

dark ; 
The heat of his body changed to cold. 
The sufFering of my son pierced ail my heart, 
When I saw his flesh become so entirely cold. 
Now I fall down, and now I will rise, 
But I had not a foot which would carry me. 
Alas ! me unhappy, what will become of me ! 
I hâve seen him wrongfuUy hang on the cross, 
Him who sinned in nothing, between robbers. 
Alas ! disconsolate ! what will become of me ? 
AU my solace I hâve now lost ; 
My life now is sufîering, I seek earnestly 
To die soon without making delay in it. 
Death will be sweet to me, life is to me bitter ; 
I lose hère my joy which was so very dear to me. 
Wherefore are you, death, so cruel and so savage? 
Why do you not take with the son this sorro"\vful 

mother ? 
Alas ! ,you wretches, too cruel people, 
What thing set you against the innocent, 
Who has donc so many benefits to many people ? 
Those who were ill, he cured them ; 


Ceuz qe furent dolentz, il les conforta ; 

Ceaux qe furent mort, il les resuscita ; 

E maie encountre bien vous ly rendez jà. 

Si nul soit ici q'ait le qoer pitons, 

Abreo'o'etz ma dolure entre vous touz, 

Aracez mon qoer du corps dolour[u]s, 

Si me lessez paiser ouf mon iitz si douz. 

Allas ! jeo gwerpi ! ha ! jeo dolorus ! 

Tiel amur me lye à chose preciouse, 

Qe ceste departye m'est si anguissouse, 

Qe mort me serrait vie sur tôt rien joyouse. 

Beaus tredouz fitz, q'en la croice pendez, 

Mettez ore consaille qe soi confortez ; 

Pur la joie qe avoy quant vous fustez neez, 

Ne suffrez ore qe soi si ferement esgaretz. 

Nul ne seet la joye q'en mon quer conqu, 

Quant vostre deité deinz mon cors rescu ; 

Ne nul ne seet le doloure dont jeo su esmu, 

Quant si noble fitz par mort ay perdu. 

Ma joie fu mult grant tant cum vous portoi, 

Mes uncore greignoure tant coni vous letoi, 

Et touz jours me crust tant com vous aloi, 

Mes ore est ma joie t ornez en affray. 

Mon fitz me regard de moût pitous oille, 

E pus ly grieve al queor qe jeo face tel doel, 

Qe ne fet la pejme q'il suffre en tel toelle ; 

" Suffrez," dist-il, " mère ; pur homme morir voille. 

" Bêle mère," dit-il, '' tout seiez-vous moût nett, 

" Vous avez mester qe la mort me met ; 

" Il n'i ad nul autre q'aquiter poet la dett 

'•' De celé forfeture qe Dieuz à homme arett. 

" E si ne soit aquitë, jà bounté n'avéra lu, 

" Q'en la joie de ciel homme soit resceu, 

" Mes tretouz s'en irront en cel oscure lu 

*' Où jeo ne vendra ne Dieu ne serra veu. 


Those who were in grief, lie comforted them ; 

Those wlio were dead, be restored them to life ; 

And now yon render him evil in return for good. 

If tbere be any one bere wbo bas a compassionate beart, 

Abridge vay grief among y ou ail, 

Tear my beart from tbe dolorous body, 

And let me pass away witb my so gentle son. 

Alas ! me abandoned ! ab ! me filled witb grief! 

Sucb b)ve binds me to a precious object, 

Tbat tbis séparation is so painful to me, 

That deatb would be to me life above everytbing joyful. 

Fair and very gentle son, wbo bang on tbe cross, 

Take now counsel tbat I be comforted ; 

For tbe joy wbicb I bad wben yon were boni, 

SufFer not now tbat I be so cruelly tormented. 

No one knows tbe jo}^ wbicb I conceived in my be'art, 

Wben I received your godsbip in my body ; 

Nor no one knows tbe grief witb wbicb I am agitated, 

Wben I bave lost by deatb so noble a son. 

My joy was great wbile 1 bore yon. 

But still greater wbile I gave you milk, 

And always it increased as long as I nourisbed you, 

But now my joy is turned into terror. 

My son regards me witb very compassionate eye, 

And tben it grieves bim to tbe beart tbat I make sucb 

lament, ' 
More tban does tbe pain be sufFers in sucb torment ; 
" Bear witb it," be said, "motber ; it is my will to die 

for man. 
'' Fair motber," said be, " tbougb you be altogetber 

" very sinless, 
'' You bave need tbat deatb take me ; 
" Tbere is no otber wbo can pay off tbe debt 
'' Of that forfeit witb wbicb God charges man. 
" And if it be not paid, goodness will never bave ])lace, 
" Tbat man be received into tbe joy of beaven, 
" But tbey will ail départ into that dark place 
'' Wbere I sball not come nor God be seen. 

44(5 APPEXDix ir. 

'' Pur ceo, bêle mère, ue seez pas esmu ; 

" Kar ceo l'acheson pur quo vous eslu, 

" Qe par cest cliare qe de vous rescu 

" Homme soit reformé, qe fut corrumpu." 

Lors chai paume quant oy mon fitz parler, 

De qi la voice fti quasé q'avant fut si cler : 

E de ceo si pris si grant doel en quoer, 

Ke langue ne seet dire, ne homme deviser. 

Quant jeo recovery mon entendement. 

Vers mount regardoi, e plorou tendrement ; 

Gettai les suspires trope pitousement, 

Et rechai à tere et là geu longement. 

De ceo out mon fitz moût tregrant pitëe, 

E dist à soen disciple qe Johane es apellë, 

" Veez cy vostre miere, la servez tôt à grëe, 

" E vous, beele mère, pur fitz vous soit countë." 

E pus devant sa mort à haute voice si dist, 

" Ore ai-jeo parfait quanqe reison dist, 

" E si ai amende ceo qe Adam forfist," 

Et jetta donke un cry, si rendist l'espirit. 

Mon douz gardain Johan garde emprist de moy ; 

Mes si ne feust esperaunce q'avoi bon en moy, 

Qe mon fitz releveroit par vertu de soi, 

Jeo fuse mort à Thoure de fin doel, jeo croy. 

Mes le terce jour après mon fitz releva, 

Si m'a parust vif et me conforta, 

Qu'il out la victoire me dist e moustra ; 

Lors me torne à joye q'avant me greva. 

Prioms cely Dieus qe seet en trinitë, 

Qe suffrist tiel peyne pur humayne ligne, 

Q'il nous garde et g"auve de mortel pecchë, 

E pur l'amour Marie nous meigne en sauvetë. 


Artus scriptoris careant gravitate cloloris. 
Serono de Bruto fit suh dictamioie tuto; 
Guipa datuT Petro déficiente onetro. 


" Therefore, fair motlier, Le not distressed; 

" For tliis is tlie reason for wbicli I chose yoii, 

" That through this flesli wliich 1 received froni you 

" Man may be reformed, wlio was corrupted." 

Then I fell in a swoon when I heard my son talk, 

Whose voice was broken wbich before was so clear : 

And of tliat I took so great grief in heart, 

That neither tongue can tell nor man devise. 

When I recovered mv understandino-, 

I looked towards the mount, and wept tenderly ; 

I uttered sighs very piteously, 

And fell to the ground again and lay there long. 

Of that my son had very great pity, 

And said to his disciple who is named John, 

" See there your mother, serve her ail at lier will, 

" And you, fair mother, let him be counted for yonr 

" son." 
And then before his death he said with a loud voice, 
'^ Now hâve I completed ail that reason required, 
" And so hâve I made the amend for Adam's sin ; '' 
And then he uttered a cry, and gave up the ghost. 
My gentle guardian John took charge of me ; 
But had it not been the hope I had good within me, 
That my son would rise again by virtue of him self, 
I should hâve been dead at the time of extrême grief, 

I believe. 
But the third day after my son rose again. 
And has appeared alive to me and comforted me, 
That he had the victory he told and showed me ; 
Then turned to joy for me what before grieved me. 
Let us pray that God who sits in trinity, 
Who suffered such pain for mankind, 
That he keep and save us from mortal sin. 
And for the love of Mary lead us into salvation. 




Latin verses on tlie Scots from M S. B. 
(fol. 139, r<\)' 

Reojnum Scotorum fuit inter cœtera reo-ua 


Terrarum quondam nobile, forte, potens. 
Keges magnifici Bniti de stirpe regebaiit 

Fortiter egregie Scotia régna prius. 
Ex Albanacto trinepote fortis Ene?e 

Dicitur Albania, litera prisca probat. 
A Seota nata Pharaonis régis Egypti, 

Ut veteres tradunt, Scotia nomen habet. 
Post Britones, Danatos, Dacos, Piscosque repulsos, 

Nobiliter Scoti jus tenuere suum. 
Fata ducis celebris super omnia Scotia flebit, 

Qui loca septa sato viget ubique sibi. 

Mes sur toutes choses Escoce 2^^ora la destinée du 
niohle 'prince le rei Echuarcl, qi altre houncle ne ^)?'e7i- 
clra fors le mer pur joindre tut à li. 

Principe magnifico tellus viduata vacabit 
Annis bis trinis mensibus atque novem. 

Cest à dire qe la terre cV Escoce serra vefve après la 
mort le rei Alexandre vj. anz e ix. mois. 

Antiquos reges, justos, largos, locupletes, 
Formosos, fortes, Scotia mœsta luget. 

Ut Merlinus ait, post reges victoriosos, 
Régis more carens regia sceptra geret. 

Serviet Angiini régi per tempora qusedam. 

Merlin dit qe, après le reis victorious avant nomez, 
un rei serra en Escoce qe ne savera raie estre rei, e 
celi fust Johan Bailliol, e il servira au rei Engleis 
par ascon temps. 


Pro (loJor ! Albania fraude subacta sua. 

Ceo ed à dire, Allas! .Escoce, cwn vous estes destruz 
pur vostre fet demeine. 

Quod respirabit post funus régis avari, 

Ceo est à dire, qe vous avérez à recoverer après la nnort 
le rei avers. 

Versus Sihillœ. 

Cum fuerint anni completi mille ducenti 
Et decies déni, post partum virginis almae, 
Bis sex et bini, navigabunt sequora remi, 
Inter saxosum fontem castrumque nodosum 
Corruet Anglorum gens perfida fraude suorum, 
Vix erit in terra binis annis sine guerra, 
Versibus antiquis prisca Sibylla canit. 

Sihylla dicit. 

Rex borialis erit numerosa classe potitus, 
Affligens Scotos ense, furore, famé. 

C'est à dire, q'il avéra un rei norreis qe avéra 
nnultitiide des niefs, e il turmentra. les JEscoz par espeie, 
deverie, e faim. 

Extra gens tandem Scotorum fraude peribit, 

C'est à dire, gens aliens qe sunt en Escoce perirotmt 
'par fraude d'Escoce. 

In bello princeps notus ipse vel ense cadet, 
Gallica quem genuit, qui gazis régna replebit, 
Proh dolor ! o gremitus ! fratris ab ense cadet. 

C'est à dire, qe U rei surreis charra par espeie en 
hataile, lequel Fraunce engend,ra, cdlas ! qe iinqes fu 
née, qe par Vespeie son frère charra, e tut par malice 
son frère. 

Oandidus Albanus, patriotis causa ruinas, 
Traditione sua Scotia régna teret 

C'est à dire, hlaunche Albanie, as gens de vostre pais 
à garder de ruine, e par ceau.9 serrez tenuz soutz pez. 



Bruti posteritas, Albanis associata, 

Anglica régna teret peste, labore, nece. 
Kegnabunt Britones, Albanice gentis amici, 

Antiquum nomen insnla tota feret. 
Ut profert aquila, veteri de terra locuta, 

Cum Scotis Britones régna paterna gèrent. 
Regnabunt pariter in prosperitate quieta, 

Hostibus expulsis judicis usque diem. 

Gallorum levitas Germanos justificabit ; 
Italiee gravitas Gallos confusa necabit ; 
Succumbet Gallus, aquilse victricia régna 
Mundus adorabit, erit urbs vix prsesule digna, 
Milleque ducentis, nonaginta sub tribus annis, 
Merlini dictis consurget aquila grandis. 
Terraemotus erunt, quos non procui auguror esse, 
Constantini csedes, et equi de marmore facti, 
Et lapis erectus, et multa palatia Romse. 
Papa cito moritur, Cœsar regnabit ubique, 
Sub quo tune vana cessabit gloria cleri. 

Isti versus immédiate praecedentes inventi fuerint in 
ecclesia Pétri et Pauli sub petra marmorea. 

Versus de Prophetiis Merlini} 

Ecce dies veniunt, Scoti sine principe fiunt, 
Regnum Balliolus perdit, transit mare solus. 
Defendi bello Scotus mucrone novello^ 
Sperans Gallorum, vires expectat eorum. 
De guerra tuti Gallorum viribus uti, 
Congaudent Scoti, currunt ad prselia moti. 
Gallia de parvo Scotus profecit in arvo,^ 
Cur in conflictu Scotus ter corruit ictu ? 

^ A more correct text of the fol- 
lowing Unes is given in MS. A. 
(fol. 2 r°.), from which I hâve cor- 
rected the text hère. 

~ duello, B. 

■^ Scotus mucrone duello, B. 



Conflictu quarto Scoti poiientur in arto. 
Quales sunt et erunt, carmina plura ferunt ; 
Carmina qui didicit,^ Trojam per prselia vicit, 

Ovidius docuit ^ qusG sibi causa fuit. 
Percussis bellis, sterilis fit Troja puellis ; 
Finitis motis, sic fiet Scotia Scotis. 
Vastantur guerra Trojani de prope terra, 
Castrorum plena cum finibus est aliéna. 
Urbibus et villis proies dominatur ^ Achillis ;~; 
Pyrrhus vastat eas, Priamum ploravit * Eneas ; 
Merlinus scribit quod turba superba peribit. 
Latrans exibit canis et bos profugus ibit. 
Tune nemus Eutherium ^ pennata fronte carebit, 
Et genus Albanium sua régna perire videbit.^ 
Scote miser, plora, tibi flendi jam venit liora, 

Nam regnum patruum desinet^ esse tuum. 
Principe privaris, campo sic subpeditaris, 

Quod meritis miseris semper asellus eris. 
Vox de profundis Cambini te vocat undis, 
Torquendum clade, quam non novit genus Adae. 
Illuc tende vias, et^ demonis assecla fias; 
Amplius^ Andréas ducere nescit eas. 

Ces sunt les countes âJEscoce. 

De Stratherne. 

De Rosse. 


De Boulian. 

De Lovenaie. 

De Archetil. 
De Carrik. 
De Fif. 
De Mar. 
De Catenesse. 

De Anegos. 
De Mentest. 
De Sutherland. 
De Murreve. 

1 Quem carmen dlcit, B. 

2 Quidjus docuit, B. 

' Virihus et villis proies dominan- 
tur, B. 
'* pîorahat, B. 

•'' Ethereum, B. 

•^ This line is oinitted in B, 

' desinit, B. 

^ ne, B. 

^ Implius, B. 

F F 2 



A Prophecy IX ExGLiSH Rhymes 

From MS. A. 

Als y yod on ay Moiinclay 

bytwene Wyltinden and Walle, 
Me ane aftere brade waye, 

ay litel man y mette withalle, 
The leste tliat evere I, sathe to say, 

oithere in bonre oithere in lialle ; 
His robe was noithere grene na gray, 

bot aile yt was of riche palle. 

On me he cald and bad me bide ; 

wel stille y stode ay litel space ; 
Fram Lanchestre the parke syde 

y cen he corne, wel faire his pase. 
He hailsed me with mikel pride, 

ic haved wel mykel ferly Avat he was ; 
I saide, " Wel mote the bitj^de ! '' 

that litel man with large face. 

I biheld that litel man 

bi the stretes als we gon gae, 
His berd was syde ay large span, 

and glided als the fethere of pae ; 
His heved was wyte als any swan, 

his hegehen ware gret and grai alsso ; 
Brues lange wel I the can 

merke.^ it to fize inches and mae. 




(fol. 180, l'O.). 

As I went on a Monday 

between Wiltinden and Wall, 
Me alone along the broad way, 

a little man I met witbal 
The least tbat I, to tell the truth, 

[saw] either in chamber or in hall ; 
Ilis robe was neither green nor grey, 

but it was ail of rich palle {a fine cloth). 

On me he called, and bade me stay ; 

I stood quite still a little while ; 
From the parkside at Lanchester 

I know he came, very fair his pace. 
He saluted me with great pride, 

I had very great wonder what he was ; 
T. said, '' Well may thee betide !" 

that litle man with broad face. 

I beheld that little man, 

by the roads as we began to go, 
Ilis beard was a broad span wide, 

and shone like the peacock's feather ; 
His head was white as any swan, 

his eyes were great and grey also ; 
Brows long well I thee can 

mark it to five inches and more. 


Armes scort, for sothe I saye, 

ay span semed thaem to bee ; 
Handes brade, vytouten nay, 

and fingeres lange lie scheued me. 
Ay s tan he toke op thare it lay, 

and castid forth that I mothe see. 
Ay merke soote of large way, 

bifor me strides he castid three. 

Wel stille I stod als did tlie stane, 

to loke him on thouth me nouthe lange ; 
His robe was aile golde bigane, 

wel craftlike maked, I underestande, 
Botones asurd everlkes ane, 

fra his elbouthe on til his hande ; 
Eldelike man was he nane, 

that in myn herte icke onderestande. 

Til him I sayde fui sone on ane, 

for forthirmare I wald him fraine, 
" Glalli wild I wit thi name, 

" and I wist wat me mouthe gaine ; 
" Thou ert so litel of flesse and bane, 

'' and so mikel of mithe and mayne, 
" Ware vones thou, litel man, at hame, 

*'- wit of their walde fui faine." 

'' Thoth I be litel and lith, 

" amy nothe wytouten wane. 
*' Fferli frained thou wat I hith, 

*' that thou sait noth with my name, 
" My wonige stede fui wel es dygh, 

'* nou sone thou sait se at hame." 
Til him I sayde, " For Godes mith, 

" lat me forth myn erand gane/' 

" The thar noth of thin errand lette, 
" thouth thou come ay stonde wit me, 


Arms short, for trutli I say, 

a span they seemed to be ; 
Hands broad, without déniai, 

and fîngers long he showed. me. 
A stone he took up where it lay, 

and cast it forth that I might see. 
A mark . . . . of broad way 

before me he cast three strides. 

Very still I stood as the stone did, 

to look upon him seemed to me not long; 
His robe was ail formed of gold, 

very artistically made, I understand, 
Buttons azured every one, 

from his elbow down to his hand ; 
Old-like man was he none, 

that in my heart I understand. 

To him I said full soon singly, 

for furthermore I would him interrogate, 
" Gladly would I know thy name, 

" if I knew what I might gain ; 
^' Thou art so small of flesh and bone, 

" and so great of might and main ; 
'' Where dwellest thou, little man, at home, 
. " know of thee I would full gladly." 

" Though I be small and supple, 

*' am I not without dwelling. 
" A wonder asked thou, what I am named, 

" that thou shalt not know my name. 
" My dwelling place full well is arranged, 

" now soon thou shalt see at home." 
To him I said, " For God's might, 

" let me forth my errand go." 

" Thou needest not fail of thy errand, 
" though thou come a while with me ; 


" Forthere sait thon noth bisette 
" bi miles twa noythere bi three." 

Na linger durste I for him lette 
bot forth ij fundid wyt that free ; 

Stintid us broke no becke, 

ferlicke me thoutli hu so montli bee. 

He vent forth, als ij you say, 

in at ay yate, ij nnderestande ; 
Intil ay yate, wundouten nay, 

it to se south me nouth lange ; 
The bankers on the binkes lay, 

and fair lordes sette ij fonde ; 
In ilke ay hirn ij herd ay lay, 

and levedys south me loude sange, 

Lithe, bothe yonge and aide, 

of ay worde ij wil you saye, 
A litel taie that me was tald, 

erli on ay Wedenesdaye. 
A mody barn that was fui bald, 

my frend that ij frained aye, 
Al my thering he me tald, 

and y atid ijie als we went bi waye. 

" Miri man, that es so wythe, 

'' of ay thinge gif me answere, 
" For him that mensked man wyt mitb, 

" wat sal worth of this were ? 
" And eke our folke hou sal thai fare, 

'' that at ère by northen non ? 
" Sal thai hâve any contré thare, 

'^ other wether hande sel ave the prou V 

'' Ay toupe," he sayde, " es redy thare, 
" agayn him yitte es nane that don ; 

'' On yondealfe Humbre is ay bare, 
'' be he sped salsides son ; 


" Further slialt thou uot go 

" by miles two nor by three." 
No longer durst I to him object, 

but forth I went with tliat man ; 
Neither brook nor stream stopped us, 

it seemed to me wonderful how it might be. 

He went forth, as I tell you, 

in at a gâte, I understand ; 
In at a gâte, without déniai, 

in to see seemed me not long ; 
The coverings lay on the benches, 

and I found fair lords seated ; 
In each a corner I heard a lay, 

and ladies truth to me loudly sang. 

Listen, both young and old, 

of a word I will you tell, 
A little taie that was told me, 

early on a Wednesday. 
A moody man that was very bald, 

my friend whom I interrogated ever, 
At my . , . . he told me, 

and .... me by the way. 

" Merry man, who art so knowing, 

" of one thing give me answer, 
" For him who adorned man with might, 

" Avhat shall become of this war? 
" And also our people, how shall they fare, 

" that are now in the north ? 
" Shall they hâve any country there, 

" or which hand shall hâve the superiority." 

" A mole/' he said, " is ready there, 
" against him yet is none that do ; 

'^ On yond side Humber is a bear, 
" be he sped .... soon, 


" Bi he hâve sped als sal thai sped, 

" and redi gâtes on to fare, 
*' And man be raeusked for liis mede, 

" and stablestat foi- evermare. 

*' And sethen thon fraines, ij wille the say, 

*' and sette tlii state in stabilité. 
'' Rymitte reith als thon may, 

" for ay skill ij tellit the, 
*' And warn em wel wytouten nay, 

" a tyme bifor the Trinité, 
" Thare sal deye on ay day 

" a folke on feld, fui fa sal flee. 

" Wa so fiées sal duelle in care, 

" for thare may naman time tyde ; 
*' A toupe sal stande agayn ay bare, 

'' he es fui bald, him dar habide." 
" Miri man, ij prai the, yif thou maye, 

" vif that thi wille ware, 
" Bathe thair names thou me saye, 

" wat hâte the toupe and wat the bare ? '* 

Am he sayde, '' Outen nay hâte the tane, 

" trou thou my lare. 
" Ar thou may that other say, 

" that sal be falden wyt that fare." 
" The wiser es ij notli of that, miri man, 

" wat may y s bee ? " 
" Nou hâve ij sayde the wat thai hat, 

^' forther wites thou nothe for me. 

" So lange the lebard loves the layke, 
" wit his onsped your sped ye spille, 

" And lates the lion hâve his raike, 
" wit werke in werdl als he wille ; 



'' By the time he has sped as shall they speed, 
" and ready to go on the way, 
And man be lionoured for his désert, 
" and establislied for evermore. 

" And since thou askest, I will say to thee, 

*' and put thy state in stability. 
" Kemit right as thou may, 

'' for a reason I tell it thee ; 
^' And warn them well without contradiction, 

" a while before the Trinity, 
" There shall die on a day 

" a people in field, very few shall âee. 

" Whoever fiées shall dwell in care, 

*' for there may no man time wait ; 
" A mole shall stand against a bear, 

*' he is full bold, he must abide." 
" Merry man, I pray thee, if thou may, 

'' if it be thy will, 
" Both their names, thou me tell, 

" What is named the mole and what the bear?" 

And he said, ^' Without nay, is called the one, 

" believe thou my teaching. 
" Before thou may est say the other, 

" that shall be folded with that proceeding." 
" The wiser am I nought of that, merry man, 

'' What may- it be ? " 
" Now hâve I said to thee what they are named, 

^' further knowest thou not from me. 

" So long the léopard loves the game, 
" with his unspeed your speed ye spoil, 

^' And let the lion hâve his course, 
" with work in world as he will ; 


" The bare es bonden hard in balte, 
'' wit foies that wil folies tille ; 

" The toupe in tonne your werkes vvayte, 
" to bald his folke he bides stille. 

" Bide wa bide, he sal habide^ 

" thar foies for thaire false fare, 
" Fa fra feld theen sal ride, 

" the land sal lene wit the bare/' 
'' Forther mare ij wille the frein, 

••' my frend, ^df that thi wille ware, 
*•' Sal ij telle it for the or layn, 

" or thon sal telle me ani mare ? " 

" Rymith reeth, als ij the sayn, 

" als sal thon redi fîndit tliare, 
** And fel be of thi tithinges fain, 

" wen lives liggen on holtes hare ; 
" Bot onte sal ride a chivauchë, 

" wyt febel fare on ay inche ; 
" So false sal thaire waytes be, 

" that deye sal many a dougty knythe. 

'^ Knythe and stother bathe sal deye, 

" that other moren biyond ma. 
" Thouche thay be never so sleeche, 

'' wyt schrogen snetes fra lives ga. 
" The bare es bone to tyne the tonre, 

" but bald sal be of bataille swa ; • 
" Wa bides hini on hard and herth, 

" that day sal deye and duelle in wa. 

" Wyt foies sal the fold be leest, 
" a poeple liest fol neghe biside, 

" Sal corne ont of the souther west 
'^ wyt reken routes fui on ride ; 


" The bear is bound hard in pasture, 
'' with fools who Avill perform follies ; 

" The mole in town watches your work.s, 
" to embolden his people he abides still. 

" Abide who abides, he shall abide, 

" where fools go for their falseness ; 
" Few from field then shall ride, 

" the land shall remain with the bear." 
" Furthermore I will thee ask, 

" my friend, if it were thy will, 
'' Shall I tell it forth or conceal it ? 

"■' or shalt thou tell me any more ? '^ 

" Rhyme right, as I thee say, 

'' as thou shalt fînd it ready there, 
" And many he of the tidings eager, 

" when lives lie in the grey woods ; 
" But out shall ride a cavalry expédition, 

" with feeble progress on an island ; 
^' So false shall their watchmen be, 

'^ that die shall many a doughty knight. 

'' Knight and steed both shall die, 

" the other morning beyond more, 
" Though they be never so sly, 

'' with .... from lives go. 
" The bear is ready to lose the tower, 

" but bold shall be of battle so ; 
'' Who waits for him on hard and hearth, 

" That day shall die and dwell in woe. 

" With fools shall the fold be left. 

" a people lies full nigh beside, 
'' Shall come out of the south-west, 

" With hasty routs full in riding ; 


" Tbare sal tlie foies dreege is paine, 

" and folie, for bis false fare, 
" Lie opon the feld slayne, 

" and lose his live for evermare. 

" And wyt sal winne the lande agayn 

*' a day fra Clide on to Clare, 
" And fa be of tliair frendes fain, 

" and toures stande als tbai did are, 
" And simple men, that wil bave dede, 

" thare sal tbai fui redi finde, 
" Tbat mester affe to wynne tbeem mede, 

" for faute sal notbe stande bibinde. 

" Ther bare es broutbe out of bis denne, 

'^ the léopard haldes hym so lange, 
" That we wate never swa ne swenne, 

" na wilke of them sal woldye lan . . . . 
'^ Amange ay hondre no fynd ij tenue, 

" that tbai ne fald als a wande. 
'* Bj reson may thou know and kenne, 

" that be fui fêle has wroth aile wi^ange. 

" Wrangwis werkes sul men se 

" be flemed for thaire fais willes, 
" And after them sal wip ay be, 

" and outemont of aile thaire wyles/' 
*' Miri man, ij beseke the, 

'' yif that thi wille ware, of a tything telle 
" me mare, 
" Hou hendes aile ys folke to there ? 

" suilke qualme no saith ij never are/' 

'^ So comeli so men deyen hère, 

'' povere na riche is nane to spare." 

'^ Liche," he sayd, ^'ij sal the 1ère, 
'' bave thou no ferly of that fare. 


'' There shall tlie fool suffer his punishment, 
" and foolishness for his false proceeding 

^' Lie opun tlie field slain, 

" and lose his life for evermore. 

" And wit shall win the land again 

" one day from Clyde unto Clare, 
" And few be of their friends glad, 

" and towers stand as they did before ; 
" And mean men, who will hâve deeds, 

" there shall they fuU ready find, 
" They who need hâve to win them reward 

*' for fault shall not stay beliind. 

" The bear is brought ont of his den, 

" the léopard holds him so long, 
" That we know ne ver how nor when 

" nor which of them shall . . . 
" Aniong a hundred find I not ten, 

'* that they bend not as a rod. 
" By reason may thou know and recognize 

" there are full many who hâve worked ail 
" wrong. 

'' Wrongous works shall men see 

" be banished for their false wills, 
'' And after them shall weep a bee, 

" and ont them of ail their wyles/' 
^' Merry man, I beseech thee, 

'' if that thy will were, of one tiding tell me 
" more, 
^' How endes ail this people to there? 

" such slaughter saw I never before. 

'' So commonly as men die hère, 
" poor nor rich is none to spare." 

'' Like," he said, *' I shall teach thee, 
" hâve thou no wonder of that business. 


'' For twenti souzand mot tliou say, 

'' that deyed totlier day on tliis half Twede, 

" Sal falle by thon on ay da}^ 
" so lives lithe sal aile that lede. 

" In my sathe southe ij say, 

'' lierkens aile of a tyme 
" That sal be aftere neueyers day, 

" lat clerkes se the nexte prime 
" The terme es werde, soethe to say, 

" and twelve es comen after .... 
" To led him forthe a lange waye, 

" his wonyng stede es on yondalf Tyne. 

" On southalf Tyne sal he wone, 

" wyt thou wel it sal be swa. 
" Fra siith sal blessed brether comen, 

" and dele the lande even in twa. 
'' Wen dômes es doand on his dede, 

" sal na mercy be biside, 
'' Na naman hâve mercy for ua mede, 

" na in hope thair hevedes hide. 

" Bot soffid sal be mani of stede, 

" for res that thai sal after ride, 
*^ And seen sal leautë falsed lede 

" in râpes sone after that tyde. 
'• Fra twa to three the lande es liest, 

" bot nameli sal it fra the twa ; 
" The lion thare sal fare to fexit, 

" the lande til the bare sal ga. 

'' Wel galli wald ij understande, 

" to telle theem hon so moxiste be, 
'' Welke of theem sald weld tlie lande, 
for wel thou spake of the three. 


" For twenty thousand might tliou see 

'' that died the other day on this side Tweed, 

'^ Sliall happen by them on a day, 

'' so lose their lives shall ail that people. 

" In my saying truth I tell, 

" hearken ail of a time 
'' That shall be after new-year's day, 

" let clerks see the next morning, 
" The term is fated, truth to say, 

'' and twelve is corne after .... 
^' To lead him forth a long way ; 

'' his dwelling place is on yond side Tyne. 

" On south side Tine shall he dwell, 

" know thou well it shall be so. 
" From south shall blessed brethren corne, 

'' and share the land even in two. 
■' When judgment is doing on his deed, 

" shall no mercy be beside, 
" Nor no man hâve mercy for no bribe, 

'^ Nor in hope to hide their heads. 

" But cast many shall be off horse, 

'' for deeds after which they shall ride, 
'' And shall see loyalty lead falseness 

" in ropes soon after that time. 
" From two to tliree the land is left, 

" But especially shall it from the two; 
*' The lion there shall go to fetch it, 

" the land to the bear shall go. 

" Well gladly would I understand, 
" to tell them how so must it be, 

'^ Which of them shall govern the land, 
'' for well thou speakest of the three. 



'^ A T. biside an L. ij fonde, 
" cliese thi selven sege and see, 

" An Ed. tlie thred wyt hope and liande, 
" tlie baillifs bee. 

" Bot non of tbeem hat loves tbe lede, 

" that es so bald that dar liabide, 
" That theem ne sal reu pf ij can rede, 

" on ay Friday on est halfe Clide ; 
'^ For Avel tliai wen liour lande to winne. 

" to fêle that may finde biforin, 
'* Thai sal bee blonked ar thai blinne, 

" thair folis that hâves ben forthorin. 

" Many be dampned to daye tharinne, 

" that riden heck wit' hond and horin, 
'' Wen yonge sal falle for ald synne, 

" and lose the lyf and be forthorin. 
" Wrange werkes wil away, 

" it sal be als God hâves sette ; 
'^ Of thair biginnynge can ij say, 

*^ sal na frend of other rêve. 

" Dougty sal daye on the feld, 

" to wyt theem be ne ver so wa, 
" And falsed under halles held, 

'' in fi'ith sul men the foies ta. 
'' Leaute men hâves ben fui seld, 

'' it sal be sette wyt mirthes ma, 
" And marchant hâve the werld to weld, 

" and capman wyt thair packs ga. 

'^ And than sal reson raike and ride, 
" and wisdome be ware es best, 

" And leauté sal gare leal habide, 

'' and sithen sal hosbondmen af reste." 


" A T. beside an L. I found ; 

" chuse thyself, man, and see 
'' An Ed. the tliread witli liope and liand^ 

" are the bailifs. 

" But now of tliem that love the people, 

" that are so bold they dare abide, 
" That it shall not rue them if I can telle, 

'^ on a Friday on the east side Clyde ; 
" For well they expect our land to win, 

" to many that may find before, 
" They shall be disappointed before they cease, 

" their fol] les that hâve been condemned. 

" Many are damned to-day therein, 

" That ride high with hound and horn, 
" When youth shall fall for old sin, 

" and lose the life and be condemned. 
'( Wrong Works will away, 

" it shall be as God has fîxed ; 
" Of their beginning can I say 

'^ shall no fiiend of another rob. 

" Doughty shall die on the fîeld, 

" to know them be never so woe, 
'' And falsehood be held under halls, 

" in wood shall men to the fools. 
" Loyalty men has been full rare, 

'' it shall be set with more mirths, 
" And merchants hâve the world to govern, 

" and chapmen go with their packs. 

" And then shall reason go about and ride 

'' and wisdom be where is best, 
" And loyalty shall cause the loyal to abide, 

" and afterwards shall husbandmen hâve rest." 

G G 2 




Acre, siège and capture of, by king Richard, 
ii. 78-84. 

taken by tbe Saracens, ii. 188. 
Adroenus, king of Britany, 1. 92. 
Alan, king of Britany, i. 262. 
Alan, Eichard Fitz, ii. 12. 
Alba, built by Ascanius, i. 4. 
Alban, St., bis martyrdom, i. 76. 
Albanac, fii'st king of Scotland, i. 24. 
Albemarle, William, earl of, i. 476, 478, 

480, 484. 
Albemarle, earl of, slain, ii. 340. 
Albemarle, William de, ii. 8. 
Albion, the isle of, i. 20. 
Alclud, in Scotland, built, i. 30. 
Aldred, archbishop of York, i. 410, 412. 
Aldulph, earl of Boulogne, i. 326. 
Alexander, bisbop of Lincoln, i. 482, 484. 
Alfdene, i. 318. 
Alfred, made king of Wessex, i. 316. 

bis war with Gunter the Dane, i. 318. 

his death, ih. 
Alfred, son of king Ethelred, murdered, 

i. 374. 
Algar, earl of Kent, i. 390. 

rebels against the king, but is recon- 
ciled, i. 392. 
Allectus, the usurper, i. 72. 
AluTvick, taken by prince Edward, ii. 152. 
Ambrosius AureHus, made king of Britain, 
i. 116. 

defeats Hengist, i. 118. 

his good Works, i. 122. 

raises Stonehenge, i. 124. 

poisoned by Eopa, i. 128. 
Amis, duke of Guisnes, i. 466. 

Androgeus, the British king, i. 58. 
Anjou, given by king Arthur to sir Kay, 
i. 168. 
war in, i. 466. 
Anjou, earl of, husband of the empress 

Maude, his death, i. 484. 
Anlaf, king of the Danes, i. 330. 

electedking of Northumberland, i. 332. 
Anlaf, of Norway, invades England, i. 348, 

Anlaf, bishop of London, i. 358. 
Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, i. 450, 

452, 456. 
Anthony, bishop of Durham, ii, 198. 

Edward's adviser against the Erench, 

ii. 200. 
his advice, ii. 202. 
sent as one of the ambassadors to Ger- 

many, ii, 204. 
his energy in the war against Scotland, 

ii. 260. 
intercèdes with the barons who refused 
to accompany king Edward to Elan- 
ders, ii. 292. 
his exertions to restore peace, ii. 296. 
Aquitaine, William of, ii. 22. 
Armorica, settlement of the Britons in, i. 84. 
Arthgallo, king of Britain, deposed, i. 52. 
restored to the crown through his 
brother's affection, i. 56. 
Arthur, king, his birth, i. 140. 
made king of Britain, i. 146. 
defeats the Saxons, i. 150, 152. 
invades Scotland, i. 154. 
marries Gainovere, and conquers Ire- 

land, i. 158. 
conquers Norway, i. 160. 
invades France, i, 162, 
kills EloUo in single combat, i, 164, 166. 



Arthur, king — cont. 

his great feast at Caerleon, i. 168. 
his coronation, i. 172. 
his expédition against Rome, i. 178. 
starts for Italy, leaving his kingdom in 

charge of Modred, i. 184. 
his adventure with the giant on Mont 

St. Michel, i. 186. 
receives news of Modred's treason, i. 

returns to Britain, i. 218. 
makes war upon Modred, i. 218, 220. 
wounded and carried to the isle of 
Avalon, i. 224. 
Arthur, count ofBritany, ii. 46. 

his deatb, ii. 124. 
Artois, Charles, count of, ii. 200, 
Artois, the count of, slain in Flanders, 

ii. 340. 
Arundel, the earl of, his marriage, ii. 368. 
Arriragus, the British prince, i. 62. 

becomes king of Britain ; and marries a 
daughter of the emperor Clandius, 
i. 64. 
Ascalon, a river in Greece, i. 8. 
Ascanius, son of Eneas, i. 4. 
Asclepiodotus, king of Britain, i. 72, 74. 

his death, i. 76. 
Asketil, earl of, liberated, ii. 310. 

executed, ii. 372. 
Athelard, king of Wessex, i. 284. 
Athelmar, earl of Devonshire, i. 356. 
Athelstan, king, i. 322. 
his wars, i. 324. 
receires an embassy from the king of 

France, i. 326. 
defeats the Scots and Danes at Bru- 

nanburgh, i. 330. 
his death, i. 332. 
Augusele, king of Scotland, i. 1.58, 202, 

218, 220. 
Augustine, St., comes to Britain, i. 232. 

converts the Saxons, i. 234. 
Austria, duke of, quai'rel between him and 
Richard I., ii. 84. 
leayes Syria, ii. 96. 
Avenues, Jacques de, ii. 98, 100. 
slain, ii. 102. 


Baldwin the Lçper, kiug of Jerasalem, ii. 
; Baldwin, count of Flanders, receives earl 
' Godwin and his sons, i. 384. 

Baldulf, brother of Colgrim, invades Bri- 
tain, i. 148. 
slain, i. 152. 
Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, ii. 26. 
BaldM'in, a hospitalier, slain, ii. 102. 
Baliol, Guy de, slain at the battle ot 

Lewes, ii. 146. 
Baliol, John, made king of Scotland, 
ii. 192. 
his homage, ib. 

throws off allegiance to king Edward, 
and pleads that Scotland was held 
of the Pope, ii. 222. 
Bangor, the numbcr of monks in it, i. 
slaughter of them, i. 236. 
Bar, count of, ii. 295. 
Bardolf, Hugh, ii. 34. 
Basset, Ralph, ii. 146. 
Bassianus (the emperor Caracalla), i. 70. 
Bath, the city of, founded by king Bladud, 

i. 32. 
Beauchamp, James de, ii. 282. 
Becket, Thomas, archdeacon of Canterbury ; 
his historj-, ii. 4. 
made archbishop, ih. 
his quarrel with the king, ii. 4, 6. 
slain in his church, ii. 6. 
Buckingham, Elis de, ii. 186. 
Beduer, sir, receives Normandy from king 
Arthur, i. 168. 
kiug Arthur's butler, i. 186. 
slain in battle, i. 206. 
Bedwer, Baldwin de, banished, i. 470. 
Belesme, Robert de, rebels against Henry I., 

i. 452, 458. 
Belinus, king of Britain, i. 42. 

makes the four great roads across the 

island. i. 44. 
his expédition to Italy, i. 48. 



Berald of the March, i. 304. 
Berengaria, queen of Richard I., ii. 54. 

her marriage in Cyprus, ii. 60. 
Bernard, bishop of Bayonne, accompanies 
king Richard to the Crusade, ii. 34. 

commander of the fleet, ii. 60. 
Bernewolf, king of Mercia, slain in battle, 

i. 296. 
Bertric, king of Mercia, i. 292. 

poisoned by his queen, i. 294. 
Berwick-on-Twede, taken by Edward I., ii. 

Berwick, John de, ii. 274, 334. 
Bigot, Hugh, quarrels with king Stephen, 

i. 492. 
Bigod, sir Hugh, escaped from the battle of 

Lewes, ii. 142. 
Bigod, William, i. 564. 
Biliingsgate, origin of the name, i. 48. 
Bladud, king of Britain, i. 32. 
Blancmount, the lord of, ii. 278. 
Blois, Theobald of, ii. 10. 
Boemond, count of Tripoli, ii. 60, 112. 
Bohun, earl Ilumphrey de, ii. 246, 316. 

his death, ii. 318,342. 

Boniface VIII., pope, his judgment on the 
question of Gascony, ii. 334. 

at enmity with the king of France, 

ii. 346. 
sequel of his history,ii. 350. 
Bouillon, Godfrey of, i. 458, 459. 
Boulogne, the count of, marries the daughter 
of William king of Scotland, ii. 130, 
Boso, earl of Oxford, i. 192, 202. 
Brabant, John duke of, ii. 280. 
Brabazon, Godfrey de, ii. 340. 
Brennius, king of Northumberlaud, i. 42. 
becomes duke of Burgundy, i. 44. 
makes war upon his brother Belinus, 
but they are l'ieconciled by their 
mother, i. 46. 
their expédition to Italy, i. 48. 
Brette, Emery de la, ii. 344. 
Brian, nephew of Cadwallo, his dévotion to 
his uncle, i. 244. 
sent to England to murder Pellitus, 
i. 248. 

Brain, nephew of Cadwallo — cont. 

gathers the army of Wales in Oxford, 
i. 250, 
Britain, origin of the name, i. 2, 20. 

Britain ravaged by the Huns and Picts, 

i. 86, 88. 
the five wounds of Britain, i. 286. 
Britany, occupied by settlers from Great 

. Britain, i. 84. 
Britany, Arthur duke of, claims the earldom 

of Richmond, ii. 372. 
Britany, John of, ii. 214. 
Brunanburgh, battle of, i. 330. 
Brus, Alexander de, excutcd,ài. 374. 
Brus, Robert de, i. 476, 478. 
Brus, Robert de, faithful to king Edward, 

ii. 234. 
Brus, Robert de, slays John Comyn, ii. 
makes himseîf king of Scotland, ii. 366. 
attacks sir Aymer de Valence, ii. 370. 
his sufferings, ii. 372. 
Brus, Thomas de, executed, ii. 374. 
Brutus, circumstances of his birth, i. 4. 
he goes from Italy to Greece, i. 6. 
his voyage to Britain, i. 10, 12. 
arrives in Aquitaine, i. 14. 
arrives in Britain and dcstroys the 

giants, i, 20. 
his death, i. 22. 
Brutus Green-shield, king of Britain, i, 30. 
Bruyère, William de la, ii. 34. 
Burgundy, Hugh duke of, made commander 
of the Erench army in Syria, 
ii. 96. 
at Cœsarea, ii. 100, 104. 


Cador of Cornwall defeats Baldulf, i, 148. 
and Cerdic, i. 154. 

his speech against the Romans, i. 178. 
attackod by the Romans, i, 200. 
commands in Arthur's army, i. 202. 



Cadwallader, the last Britisli king, i. 260. 
retires to Britany, i. 262. 
and thence to Rome, wherc he dies, 
i. 262, 278. 
Cadwallo, kiug of Northumberîand, his 
story, i. 238. 
deprived of the kingdom by Edwin, 

i. 242. 
escapes to Britany, i. 244, 246. 
raises tlie siège of Oxford, i. 250. 
defeats and slays Edwin at He^-enfeld, 

i. 252. 
dies; his singular mode of burial, 
i. 258» 
Cadwan made king of Northumberîand, 

i. 236. 
Cadwan, king of Scotland, slain, i. 252. 
Csesar, Juhus, arrives in Britain, i. 58. 
defeated by king Cassibelan, i. 60. 
Ceesarea, battle of, ii. 98-104. 
Calaphcs Durin, a Saraeen warrior, ii. 100. 
Caliburn, king Arthur's sword, i. 152, 166, 

190, 212, 214. 
Camber, first king of "Wales, i. 24. 
Camville, Eichard de, accompanies king 

Richard to the Crusade, ii. 34. 
Canterbui-y biiilt by king Hiidibras, i. 32. 
Canterbury, Robert archbisliop of, refuses 
the aid to the Crown on the part of 
the church, ii. 270. 
consents to pay the tenth of the goods 

of the clergy, ii. 302. 
marries Edward I. to Margaret of 
Erance, ii. 320. 
Canute, son of Sweyn, ravages the north of 
England, i. 354. 
chosen king by the Danes, i. 360. 
he is made king of England, i. 364. 
becomes king of ail England, i. 366. 
his death, i. 370. 
Caradoc, duke of Cornwall, i. 80, 
Careticus made king of Britain, i. 228. 
Carausius, his history, i. 72. 
Carlisle, built by king Leil, i. 30. 
Carlisle, bishop of, pronounces excommu- 
nication against breakers of the 
charter, ii, 308. 
Carrick, the earl of, déserts the Scots, ii.343. 

Cassibelan, king of Britain, i. 58. 
Celestine V., pope, espouses the cause of 

Scotland, ii. 222. 
Cerdic, the Saxon, ii. 104. 

taken prisoner and put to death, i. 154. 
Cheldric, a " duke " of Germany, invades 
the north of England, i. 148. 
is defeated and Aies, i. 152. 
retm-ns to Britain to aid Modred, i. 

slain, i. 224. 
Chester, Ralph earl of, reconciled with 
king Stephen, i. 492. 
attacks Lincoln, i. 494. 
Cirencester taken and destroyed by king 

Gormound, i. 228. 
Clare, Gilbert de, joins prince Edward 
against Simon de Montfort, ii. 144. 
quarrels with the king, ii. 152, 368. 
Claudius, emperor of Rome, makes war 

upon Britain, i. 62, 64. 
Clifford, Roger de, drowned in the Welsh 

expédition, ii. 178. 
Cloten, king of Comwall, i. 40. 
Coel, duke of Colchester, father-in-law of 

the emperor Constantine, i. 76. 
Coillus, king Df Britain, i. 68. 
Coinage, reform of, by king Edward L, ii. 

Colbrand the Dane, i. 330, 332. 
Colgrim, a German " duke," invades Bri- 
tain, i. 146. 
slain, i. 152. 
Colman, king of Ireland, i. 154. 
Colonnas, the, their feud with pope Boni- 
face, ii. 350. 

Compiegne, the abbot of, cornes to Eng- 
land, ii. 336. 
Comyn, John, ii. 142. 
Comyn, John, lord of Badenagh, ii. 348, 

murdered by Robert de Brus, ii. 364. 
Comyn, Richard, ii. 10. 
Com}-n, earl Robert, i. 412. 

killed, i. 414. 
Conan, i. 80. 

made king of Britany, i. 84. 
Conan, king of Britain, i. 226. 



Coniers, Robert de, ii. 28. 
Constans, son of Constantine, a monk at 
Winchester, i. 94. 
made king of Britain, i. 96, 
Constantine, the emperor, i. 76, 78. 
Constantine, king of Britain, i. 94. 

slain by Vortiger, i. 96. 
Constantine, son of Cador, made king of 
Britain, i. 224, 226. 
slain by his nephew Conan, i. 226. 
Conwenna, the motker of Belinus and 

Brennius, i. 46. 
Coradin, lord of Damascus, ii. 100. 
Cordeille, daughter of Leil, her story, i. 34, 
becomes queen of Britain, and is after- 
■wards deposed, i. 38. 
Corineus joins Brutus, i. 14. 
defeats the Poitevins, i. 18. 
gives his name to Cornwall, i. 20. 
his wrestling match with Gogmagog, 
i. 22. 
Cornwall, origin of the name, i. 20. 
Cornwall, Kichard de, slain, ii. 232. 
Cospatric, earl, joins the party of William 
the Conqueror, i. 420. 
deprived of his earldom, i. 424. 
Courtrai, battle of, ii. 340. 
Cradoc, son of Grifîyth king of Wales, 

destroys Harold's houses, i. 396. 
Craucombe, John de, ii. 204, 214. 
Cressingham, Hugh de, made treasurer of 
Scotland, ii. 260, 298. 
slain, ii. 300. 
Crispin, William, i. 458. 
Crusades of the French and Germans, and 

of the poor men, i. 494, 
Cunedag, king of Britain, i. 38. 
Cursal, earl of Chichester, i. 204. 

slain, i. 210. 
Cuthbert, St., his body carried away from 

Durham, i. 418. 
Cuthred, king of Wessex, his wars with 

Mercia, i. 290. 
Cymbeline, king of Britain, i. 60. 
Cynewulf raised to the kingdom of Wessex, 
i. 290. 
his character, i. 292. 


Danegeld abolished, i. 382. 

Henry I. swears to abolish it, i. 468. 
Danes invade England, i. 294, 310. 

imder Justin and Guthmond, i. 344, 

massacre of the, i, 350. 
Danius, king of Britain, i. 52. 
Dardan, a Danish chieftain, invades North- 
umbria, i, 300. 
slain, i. 304. 
David, uncle of king Arthur, made bishop 

of Caerleon, i. 176. 
David, king of Scotland, refuses his homage 
to king Stephen, i. 470. 
invades Northumberland, i. 474. 
David, prince of Wales, ii. 172. 

rebels against king Edward, ii, 176, 
taken and put to death, ii. 180. 
Despenser, Hugh le, i. 146, 204, 214, 240, 

274, 334. 
Despenser, Hugh, son of Hugh, married, ii. 

Dey ville, John, ii. 148. 
Diocletian, the emperor, his persécution 

reaches Britain, i. 74. 
Dinoot, abbot of Bangor, i. 234. 
Dinotus, king of Cornwall, i. 84. 
Dipplyn, Wilham of, ii. 356. 
Doldan, king of Gothland, i. 160. 
Domesday survey made, i. 432. 
Donald, brother of Malcolm, made king of 
Scotland, i. 440. 
deposed and restored, i. 442. 
driven out of Scotland by William 
Eufus, i. 444. 
Douglas, William de, ii. 234. 
Dover, attack upon, by the Normans, ii. 

Dublin, archbishop of, one of Edward's 
ambassadors, ii. 204. 
dies, ii. 214. 
Dubricius, bishop of Caerleon, i, 152. 
turns hermit, i. 176. 



Dunbar taken by the Scots, ii. 238. 

battle of, ii. 246. 

songs upon it, ii. 248, 252. 
Dimcan, king of Scotlaud, i. 442. 
Dunstan cro^rns Edward, i. 342. 

and Ethelred, i. 344. 

his death, i. 346. 
Dunstan, son of Atbelneth, i. 396. 
Dunwallo, king of Britain, i. 40. 

his actions and death, i. 42. 
Durham, the body of St. Cuthbert rcmovcd, 
i. 418. 

favour showu to the church by William 
the Conqueror, i. 424. 


Ebissa, the Saxon, i. 104. 

Ebrac, king of Britain, biiilt York, i. 28. 

Ebric, " duke " of Demnark, invades Eng- 

land, i. 294. 
Edburga, queen of Ina, i. 282. 
Edgar raised to the crown, i. 338. 

his great power, i. 340. 
Edgar Athelmg, i. 408. 
Edgar, son of king Malcolm, claims the 

crown of Scotland, i. 444. 
Edith, daughter of earl Godwin, queen of 

Edward the Confessor, i. 388. 
accused of the death of Gospatric, i. 

carried by Edwiu and Morcar to Caer- 

leon, i. 403. 
Edmund, king of the East Angles, martyr- 

domof, i. 312. 
Edmund, brother of Athelstan, king, i. 332. 
his wars with the Danes, and death, i. 

Edmund Ironside chosen king by the Lon- 

doners, i. 366. 
shares the kingdom with Canute, his 

death, ih. 
Edmund, brother of Edward I.,ii. 208, 218, 

Edi'ed, king of England. i. 334. 

Edric, the earl, his treachcrous counsel to 
king Ethelred, i. 352, 354. 

Edmund Ironside's hostility towards 
him, i. 362. 

hanged by order of king Canute, i. 
Edward the Elder, king, his reign, i. 320. 

his death, i. 322. 
Edward the MartjT, king of England, i. 

Edward, son of Ethelred, (the Confessor,^ 
sent to Normandy, i. 356. 

sent to England as his father's mcs- 
senger, i. 360. 

cornes to England with his brother 
Alfred, i. 372. 

retums to Noi*mandy, i. 374, 

visits the court of king Hardeknut, 
i. 380. 

becomes king of England, i. 382. 

is reconciled with Earl Godwin, i. 388. 

déclares his nephew Edward his suc- 
cessor, i. 390. 

his death, i. 398. 
Edward, son of Edmund, adopted by Ed- 
ward the Confessor, i. 390. 

Edward, son of Heni'y HT. (Edward L), his 
father's counsellor, ii. 136. 

gives hiraself as hostage for his father, 
after the battle of Lewes, ii. 142. 

escapes fi'om prison and raises au 
army, ii. 144. 

gains the battle of Evesham, ii. 146. 

goes to the East, ii. 154. 

stabbed by a Saracen assassin, ii. 158. 

married to Eleanor, daughter of the 
king of Spain, ii. 160. 

crownedking of England, ii. 164, 166. 

quaiTels with Llewellyn, prince of 
Wales, ii. 170. 

invades Wales again, ii, 172, 176-180. 

his expédition to Gascony, ii. 182. 

queen Eleanor dies, ii, 190, 

proposes to mari'y Blanche of France, 
ii, 196. 

the French obtain possession of Gas- 
cony, ii, 198,200. 

Edward prépares for war, ii. 202-208, 



Edward (Edward I.) — cont. 

disasters in Gascony, ii. 21 G. 
insurrection in "VVales, ih. 
Edward subdues Wales, ii. 218. 
négociâtes with France for pcace, ii. 

marches against John de Baliol, ii. 230. 
gains the battle of Dunbar, ii. 246. 
puts Scotland under his own ministers, 

ii. 258. 
his parliament at St. Edmunds, ii. 268. 
his quarrel with the church, ii. 270, 276. 
négociations for peace with France, ii. 

274, 276. 
disasters in Aquitaine, ii. 280. 
his quan-ei with his barons, ii. 286. 
proceeds to Flanders, ii. 292. 
is reconciled with his barons and 

clergy, ii. 306. 
proceeds into Scotland, ii. 312. 
marries Margaret of France, ii. 316. 
enters Scotland with his amiy, ii. 324. 
invades Scotland in 1303, ii. 348. 
proclaims peace in Scotland, ii. 354. 
his death, ii. 380. 
Edward, prince, afterwards Edward II., 
boru, ii. 324. 
created prince of Wales and earl of 

Chester, ii. 336. 
great feast when he was knighted, ii. 
■ goes to the war in Scotland, ii. 370. 
Edwin, king of Northumberland, his story, 
i. 238, 242. 
slain by Cadwallo, i. 252. 
Edwin, brother of king Athelstan, drowned 

in the Thames, i. 324. 
Edwin and Morcar attempt to make Edgar 
Atheling king, i. 408. 
they take queen Edith to Caerleon, ih. 
Edwy raade king, and then deposed, i. 336. 
Egbert, made king of Wessex, i. 294. 
his severity to the Danes, i. 296. 
makes war upou the Welsh, i. 298. 
proceeds to Northumberland against 

the Danes, and is defeated, i. 300. 
defeats the Danes, i. 302, 304. 
his death, i. 306. 

Eldaldus, bishop of Gloucester, i. 120. 
Eldol, Earl of Gloucester, escapes from 
the slaughter at Ambresbury, i. 1 08. 
defeats Hengist, i. 118. 
Eleutherius, pope, sent missionaries to cou- 
vert the Britons, i. 68. 
Elidurus, king of Britain, his love to his 
brother, i. 54. 
deposed and restored, i. 56. 
EUendune, battle of, proverb relating to it, 

i. 296. 
Ely, isle of, taken by the army of Henry III., 

ii. 152. 
Eneas, his adventures, i. 2, 4. 
Eopa, the assassin of Ambrosius, i. 128. 
Eosa, the Saxon, i. 132, 134, 140, 142, 144. 
Eric of Denmark, made king of Northum- 
berland, i. 336. 
Espec, Walter 1', a great founder of Abbeys, 
i. 476. 
commands Steph(;n's army against the 
Scots, i. 478. 
Estoteville, Robert de, i. 458. 
Estrilde, her story, i. 26. 
Ethelbald, king of Mercia, i. 290. 
Ethelbald, king of Wessex, i. 308. 
Ethelbert, king of Wessex, i. 308. 
Ethelbert, duke of Mercia, i. 256. 
Ethelfred, king of Northumbria, i. 236. 
Ethelred, brother of Ethelbert, made king 
of Wessex, i. 310. 
slain, i. 314. 
Ethelred (the Second), king of England, i. 
he buys peace of the Danes, i. 348. 
marries Emma, daughter of Richard 

duke of Normandy, i, 350. 
orders the Danes to be raassacred, ib. 
sends his sons to Normandy, i, 356. 
goes thither himself, i. 358. 
returns to England, i. 360. 
his death, i. 364. 
Ethelwolf, king of Wessex, i. 306. 

the first king who gave tithes, i. 308. 
Eu, count of, slain, ii. 340. 
Eustace, son of king Stephen, marries 

Constance of France, i. 482. 
Eustace Fitz-John, i. 484. 



Ever-wick (York), built by king Ebrac, i. 

Evesham, battle of, ii. 146. 


Falkirk, battle of, ii. 312. 
Fens, William de, ii. 340. 
Fereres, Robert de, ii. 148. 
Ferrex and Porrex, their story, i. 40. 
Flanders, seized by tbe Freucb, ii. 338. 
the French are defeated witb great loss, 

ii. 340. 
Flanders, Guy, count of, treacherously 

arrested by the king of France, ii. 

Flanders, Philip, count of, ii. 10. 
Flanders, "William, count of, sends an em- 

bassy to Edward L, ii. 278. 
Flollo, defeated by king Arthur, i. 162. 

slain, i. 164. 
Flote, Pierre de, ii. 340. 
Fortz, William de, lord of Oleron, ii. 36. 
Fraser, Eichard, ii. 234. 
Fresel, Simon, ii. 344, 351. 

condemned to exile, ii. 354. 
taken and executed, ii. 370. 
Frithebald, king of Northumbria, i. 298. 
Fulgentius, duke, defeats and slays the 

emperor Severus, i. 70. 


Gainesborough, William of, ii. 204. 
Gainovere (Gweneyer), queen of king 
Arthur, i. 158. 
marries Modred, i. 218. 
becomes a nun at Caerleon, i. 220. 
Galloc of Salisbury, slain, i. 210. 
Gallus made king of Britain by the Romans, 

i. 74. 
Garbodian, king of Britain, i. 56. 

Gaunt, Gilbert de, î. 416, 484. 
Gawayn, his speech, i. 194. 
kills Quintilianus, ih. 
holds a command in Arthur's arm)', 

i. 202. 
his exertions in the great battle with 

the Romans i. 212. 
slain by the Saxons, i. 218. 
Genevile, Geofîrey de, ii. 290. 
Genuissa, daughter of the emperor Claudius, 
man-ied to the British king Arvira- 
gus, i. 66. 
Geoffrey, count of Britany, ii, 12, 122. 
Gérard, archbishop of Auxienne, ii. 34. 
Germanus, St., preaches in Britain, i. 104. 
Gervaux, the abbey, founded, i. 426. 
Geta, the son of the emperor Severus, i. 70. 
Gilloman, an Irish king, i. 126, 128, 158. 
Ginderius, king of Britain, i. 62. 
Glasgow, the bishop of, i. 354. 

imprisoned, i. 372. 
Gloucester, named from the emperor 

Claudius, i. 64. 
Gloucester, earl of, ii. 218. 
Gobion, Randolph, i. 460. 
Godbold, king of Orkney, i. 252. 
Godfrey, duke of Louvaine, i. 464. 
Godwin, earl of Kent, i. 372. 

accused of the murder of prince Alfred, 

i. 374. 
reconciled with king Hardeknut, i. 

rebels against king Edward, and is 

banished, i. 384. 
returns, i. 386. 

is reconciled with the king, i. 388. 
Goffore, king of Poitiers, defeated by 

Corineus, i. 14, 16. 
Gogmagog, the giant, i. 20. 

bis wrestling match with Corineus, i. 22. 
Gontais, Walter de, i. 476. 
GorangoD, king of Kent, i. 104. 
Gorbodian, king of Britain, i. 54. 
Gorlois, duke of Cornwall, i. 118, 134, 138. 
Gormound, king of Africa, comes to Britain, 
i. 228. 
forms the Heptarchy, i. 230. 
retunis to France, i. 232. 



Gospatric, i. 396. 

Graham, Patrick de, slain at Dunbar, ii. 

Grauntsoun, Otho de, ii. 238. 

Griffez, Fulke de, ii. 120. 

Griffyth, son of Griâyth king of Wales, 
i. 390. 

Griffj-th, king of Wales, invades the bor- 
der, i. 392. 
subdued by earl Harold, and banished, 
i. 394. 

Guanius, king of the Huns, i. 86, 88. 

Guendolene, the wife of king Locrin, i. 26. 

Guerin, earl of Chartres, i. 180, 192, 202, 

Guethelin, archbishop of London, exerts 
himself to protect Britain against 
the invasions of the Picts, i. 90, 92. 

Guitard, king of Aquitaine, i. 166, 200, 

Gunfasius, king of Orkney, i. 160. 

Gunter the Dane invades England, but 
submits and is baptized, i. 318. 

Gurbodud, king of Britain, i. 40. 

Gurgunt, king of Britain, i. 50. 

Guthelin, king of Britain, i. 52. 

Guy, of AVarwick, i. 332. 

Guy, king of Jérusalem, ii. 60, 62, 104, 


Hacon Fitz-Hervey, i. 428. 

Haldan of Doncaster, i. 302, 304. 

Hamo, chief counsellor in Britain of the 

emperor Claudius, i. 62. 
Hampton (Southampton), origin of the 

name, i. 62. 
Hamundesham, Walter, made chancellor of 

Scotland, ii. 260. 
Hardeknut, son of Canute, made king of 
Denmark, i. 370. 
opposes his brother, i. 372. 
cornes to England, i. 374. 
becomes king, i. 376. 
is reconciled with Godwin, i. 378. 

Hardeknut, son of Canute — cont. 

his Quarrel with the people of Wor- 

cester, i. 380. 
his death, ib. 
Harold of Donnesmore, i. 304. 
Harold, son of Canute, becomes king of 

England, i. 370. 
opposed by his brother Hardeknut, 

i. 372. 
they are reconciled and share the 

Idngdom between them, ib. 
his death, i. 374. 
Harold, son of Godwin, carries away the 

abbess Elgiva, i. 382. 
retires to Ireland, i. 384. 
returns and plunders Dorset and 

Somerset, i. 386. 
sent with an army into Wales, i. 394. 
becomes king of England, i. 398. 
the battle of Stanford Bridge, i. 400. 
his visit and engagement to William 

of Normandy, i. 402. 

is slain at Hastings, i. 408. 
Harold Harfaager, king of Norway, invades 
Northumberland, i. 400. 
is slain, i. 402. 
Hastings, battle of, i, 406. 
Hastings, Henry de, ii. 150. 
Helenus, son of Priam, Aies from Troy to 
Greece, i. 2. 
is found there by Brutus, i. 6. 
his transactions with king Paudrasus, 
i. 8. 
Heli, king of Britain, i. 58. 
Helis de St. Omer, i. 490, 
Helys of Lindsey, i. 422. 
Henault, the count of, ii, 280. 
Hengham, Ralph de, ii. 186. 
Ilengist arrives in Britain with Horsus, i. 
assists in defeatîng the Scots, and is 

rewarded with lands, i. 100. 
obtains the whole of Kent, i. 104. 
his treason, i. 106, 108. 
becomes chief ruler in Britain, i. 110. 
defeated by Ambrosius and Eldol, i. 

put to death, i. 120. 



Henry I. cro-vmed, i. 448. 

marries Maude of Scotland, i. 450. 
invades Xormandy, i. 4.54. 
his son droT\-ned, i. 464. 
marnes Adelaide of Louvain, ih. 
his death, i. 466. 
Henry II., king of England, crowned, ii. 2. 
his quaiTel witli Thomas Becket, ii. 

4, 6. 
makes his son Henr)* king. ii. 6. 
pardons him, ii. 12. 
his will, ii. 14. 
visits the shrine of Thomas Becket, ii. 

his death, ii. 26. 
Henry, son of Henry H., crowned king, 

ii. 6. 
marries the sister of the king of 

France, ii, 10. 
makes war on his father, ih. 
reconciled with him, ii. 12. 
his death, ii. 22. 

Henry HI. crowned, ii. 134. 

marries Eleanor,daughter of the count 

of Provence, ih. 
commencement of the baronial wars, 

ii. 140. 
the quarrel submitted to the judgment 

of the king of France, ih. 
battle of Le-wes, ii. 142, 
his death, ii. 160. 
Henry, king of Scotland, performs his 

homage to king Stephen, i. 470. 
his courage in battle, i. 482. 

Henry of Almaine, ii. 144. 

Heptarchy of the Anglo Saxons, i. 230. 

Hereford, Humphrey, earl of, i. 306. 

Hiderus, son of Noun, i. 198. 

Hirelgas, nephew of Beduer, i. 208. 

Hilda, daughter of king Athelstan, married 

to king Charles of France, i. 328. 
Hoel, king of Amorica, i. 148, 154, 166, 

Holdin of Flanders, i. 204. 

slain, i. 210. 
Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, ii. 124, 


Hudibras, king of Britain, i. 30. 

Hugh Fitz-Baldric, ii. 426. 

Hugh, bishop of Durham, ii. 32. 

Humber, king, slew Alvanac, king of Scot- 
land, i. 24. 
drowned in the river Humber, which 
was named after him, ih. 

Huntingdon, David, earl of, ii. 190. 

Huntingdon, Henry of, the historian, i. 286. 


Igeme, the wife of duke Gorlois, i. 134. 

king Uther's intrigue with her, i. 138. 

Uther marries her, i. 140. 
Imbert, an Aquitanian chieftain, i. 16. 
Ina, king of Wessex, i. 278. 

chosen leader of the Saxons in the war 

against the Britons, under Ivor and 
Ini, i. 280. 

Ingant, earl of Leicester, i. 204. 
Inguar, the Dane, his invasions, i. 312. 

slain, i. 318. 
Ini, nephew of Cadwallader, i. 262, 278. 
Innogen, the wife of Brutus, i. 10. 
Irish, origin of the, i. 66. 
Isaac, king of Cyprus (the emperor), his 
behaviour to the crusaders, ii. 54. 
defeated by king Richard, ii. 60. 
résides "in the temple at Jérusalem, ii. 
Ivor, son of Cadwallader, i. 262, 278. 
Iwayn, nephew of Augiisele, made king of 
Scotland, i. 218, 220. 


Jai, Brian de, a Templar, slain at Falkirk, 

ii. 314. 
Jews, ill-treated at Lincoln, ii. 150. 

proceedings against them in the time 

of Edward î., ii. 186. 



Joan, queen of Sicily, sister of "Richard 

Coeur de Lion, il. 40, 44 
John, son of Henry II., his conduct duriug 
the absence of Richard Coeur de Lion, 

ii. 114. 
crowned king of England, ii. 122, 124. 
his quarrel with the clergy, ii. 126-132. 
his death, ii. 134. 
Jonathal, earl of Dorchester, i. 204. 
Judith, queen of king Ethelwolf, i. 308. 
marries her stepson, king Ethelbald, i. 


Kay, sir, receives Anjou from king Arthur, 

i. 108. 
king Arthur's seneschal, i. 186. 
wounded, i. 208. 
Kenilworth, besieged and taken by prince 

Edward, ii. 150. 
Kew, the lord of, ii. 278. 
Kilwardby, Robert de, archbishop of 

Canterbm-y, ii. 164. 
Kimar, king of Britaiu, i. 52. 
Kimarcoz of Trigeria, i. 210. 
Kinmark, king of Britain, i. 40. 


Lago, king of Britain, i. 38. 

Langton, Stephen, archbishop of Canter- 

bury, ii. 128. 
See Stephen. 
Langton, Walter de, ii. 274. 
Lavinia, daughter of king Latinus, married 

to Eneas, i. 4. 
Leicester, built by king Leir, i. 32. 
Leil, king of Britain, i. 30. 
Leir, king of Britain, i. 32. 

story of Leir and his daughters, i. 34,36. 


Léo, the duke, ii. 60, 112. 

Leofwin, sou of earl Godwin, banished, i. 

Leogecia, the island of, i. 10. 
Lewes, battle of, ii. 142. 
Lincoln, taken by the disinherited under 

Henry III., ii. 150. 
Lincohi, Heury de Lacy, earl of, ii. 214, 

218, 282, 334. 
Lindsay, William de, drowned in the Welsh 

expédition, ii. 178. 
Linlf, earl of Caunce, i. 430. 
Llewellyn, prince of Wales, origin of his 
war with Edward III., ii. 170. 
rises against the king, ii. 176. 
taken and beheaded, ii. 180. 
Locrin, king of Britain after Brutus, i. 24. 

his death, i. 26. 
London, founded by Brutus, i. 22. 

took its name from king Lud, ib. 
by whom it was rebuilt, i. 58. 
besieged by the Britons under Ascle- 
piodotus, i. 74. 
Lot of Lindsay, i. 142. 

Lothian given to him by king Arthur, 

i. 156. 
niade king of Norway, i. 160. 
commands a division of Arthur's army, 
i. 202. 
Louis VI. of France makes war upon Henry 

L, i. 460. 
Louis, St., king of France, his crusade and 

death, ii. 154. 
Lovel, Robert, dean of Exeter, i. 486. 
Lucius, king of Britain, the first who was 

baptized, i. 68. 
Lucius, empei\>r of Rome, sends a challenge 
to king Arthur, i. 176. 
opposes him at the river Aube, i. 192 
is defeated, i. 198. 
falls in battle, i. 216. 
Lucy, Lucas de, ii. 28. 
Lud, king, i. 22, 58. 
Ludgate, origin of the name, i. 22, 58. 

H H 




Macbeth, king of Scotland, i. 370, 388. 

is dethroned, i. 390. 
Macdowel, a serjeant of Galloway, arrests 
Thomas and Alexander de Brus, ii. 
Maddan, king of Britain, i. 28. 
Madoc, the Welsh prince, taken, ii. 218. 
Magadud, king of the Devonshire men, i. 

Malcolm, king of Scotland, dies, i. 370. 
Malcolm of Cumberland, made king of 
Scotland by Edward the Coufessor, 
i. 390. 
inrades Northumberland, i. 392. 
harbours earl Tosti, i. 398. 
invades Cumberland, i. 422. 
made prisoner, i. 424. 
suspicions against him, i. 432. 
rebels against William Rufus, i. 438. 
slain, i. 440. 
Malet, Robert, i. 422. 
Malet, William, i. 416. 
Malgo, king of Britain, i. 228. 
Manchester, Hugh of, ii. 206. 
Mankael, Roger, ii. 54. 
Mandeville, Geoffrey de, plunders the abbey 
of Ramsey, and his punishment, i. 
March, Patrick, earl of, i. 234. 
Marchadès, the French joker and warrior, 

ii. 120. 
Margan, king of Britain, i. 58. 
Margan, slain by Cunedag, i. 38. 
Margaret, queen of Edward I., arrives in 
England, i. 318. 
proceeds to the North, i. 322. 
Margaret, daughter of Geoffrey, count of 
Britany, ii. 124. 

Margaret, the heii-ess of Scotland, dies, ii, 

Marins, king of Britain, i. 66. 
Alarmion, Robert, plunders the chiirch of 

Coventry, i. 490. 

Marshal, Roger earl, deprived of his office, 
ii. 290. 
goes to serve the king, ii. 306, 316. 
discouraged, ii. 322. 
Marshal, William, ii. 34. 
Martel, William, ii. 488. 
IMaude, daughter of Hemy I., married to 
the emperor Henry, i. 462. 
marries Heni'y of Anjou, i. 465. 
an'ives in England to oppose king 

Stephen, i. 482. 
has king Stephen as her prisoner, 

escapes to Oxford, ih. 
thence to Wallingford, i. 488. 
her death, i. 494. 
]Maude of Scotland, queen of Henry I., 

dies, i. 462. 
Mauduit, Robert, i. 464. 
Maunsel, John, ii. 136, 146. 
Maurice, son of Caradoc, i. 80, 82. 
Maurice, bishop of London, crowns king 

Henry I., i. 448. 
Maxentius, the emperor, slain by Cou- 

stantine, i. 78. 
Maximian, sent into Britain by Diocletian, 
i. 74, 80, 82. 
obtains the kingdom of Britain, i. 84. 
his death, i. 88. 
Melchin, lord of Bandas, a Saracen com- 
mander in Saladin's anny, ii. 100. 

Melga, king of the Picts, i. 80, 88. 
>Iempricius, king of Britain, i. 28. 
Menteith, earl of, liberated, ii. 310. 
Menteith, sir John de, arrests William 

Wallace, ii. 362. 
Merlin, his history, i. 110, 

exhibits his knowledge before Vor- 

tigem, i. 112. 
his prophecies, i. 114. 
employed in rem ovin g the dance of 

the giants to Stonehenge, i. 124. 
explains the vision of the great star, i. 

assists Uther in his intrigue with 

Igerne, i. 138. 
the text of his prophecies, i. 266-267. 
his prophecy of Scotland, ii. 264. 



Methyfasin, lord of Galilée, ii. 100. 
Metingham, John de, ii. 186. 
Modred, cousin of king Arthur, i. 184. 

his treason, i. 216,218. 

retreats before king Arthur, i. 220. 
Montfort, Simon de, called to command 
the barons against Henry TH., ii. 

gains the battle of Lewes, ii. 142, 

slain at Evesham, ii. 146. 
Montfort, Pierre de, slain at Lewes, ii. 146. 
Montfort, Almeric de, ii. 147, 170. 
Monthermer, Kalph de, ii. 306. 
Morcar, son of Rikere, i. 396. 
Morgan, the Welsh prince, ii. 218. 
Mortagne, William earl of, i. 454, 458. 
Mortimer, Eoger de, ii. 136. 
Mortmain, statute of, ii. 1 74. 
Morvid of Gloucester, i. 214. 
Morvidus, king of Britain, i. 52. 
Morville, Richard de, ii. 10. 
Mount Morice, Mathy de, ii. 120. 
Mowbray , Robert de, rebels against William 
Rufus, i. 442. 


Navarre, the king of, dies in Sicily, ii. 

Nele, the two lords of, ii. 340. 
Nevile, Thomas de, slain, ii. 344. 
Newcastle-on Tyne, the castle built, i. 432. 
Norfolk, Roger earl of, imprisoned by 

William the Conqueror, i. 430. 
Normandy, given by king Arthur to sir 

Beduer, i. 168. 
subdued by the Northmen under Rollo, 

i. 316. 
Normans, war between them and the Cinque 

Ports, ii. 196, 


Octa, the Saxon, i. 104. 

permitted to settle with his cousin Eosa 
on the Scottish border, i. 122. 

excites war against king Uther, i. 132. 

defeated and captured, i. 134. 

escapes with his cousin Eosa, i. 140. 

they make war upon Uther Pendragon, 
and are slain, i. 142, 144. 
Octavius, i. 78, 80, 82. 
Odo, bishop of Winchester, i. 446. 
Offrid, son of king Edwin, i. 252. 
Olifard, sir WilHam, ii. 356 . 
Oliver, bishop of Lincoln, ii. 276. 
Oseg, king of Denmark, i. 312. 
Osrie, cousin of king Edwin, i. 252. 
Oswald made king of Northumbria, i. 252. 

put to death by king Penda, i. 254. 
Oswy, king of Northumberland, i, 254. 
Ottoboni, the papal legate, ii. 146, 150, 


Partholoim, the leader of the exiles from 
Spain who colonized Ireland, i. 50. 
Pascentius enters Britain, i. 128. 

slain, i, 130. 
Paulin, count, ii. 102. 
Pecché, Hugh, ii. 151. 
Pellitus, the augurer, i. 242. 

murdered, i. 250. 
Pembroke, Aymer, earl of, sent against 

Robert Bruce, ii. 366, 370. 
Penda, king of Mercia, besieges the Bri- 
tons in Oxford, i. 250. 
is defeated and taken prisoner by Cad- 

wallo, ib. 
slays king Oswald, i. 254. 
his treachery, ib. 
is slain by Oswy, i. 256. 



Perambulation, statute of, ii. 320, 322, 328. 
Percy, Henry de, ii. 258. 
Peter, Geoffry Fitz, ii. 34. 
Peverell, William, i. 476. 
Philip I., king of France, arbiter between 
William Rnfus and Robert Court - 
hose, i. 436. 
Philip II. (Auguste), king of France, ac- 
companies Richard Cœur de Lion to 
the Crusade, ii. 30. 
starts, ii. 38. 
disagreement between him and king 

Richard, ii. 92, 94. 
retums to France, ii. 96. 
defeated by king Richard at the bridge 

of Gisors, ii. 120. 
seizes Nomiandy ft-om king John, ii. 
Philip rV^., king of France, obtains posses- 
sion of Gascony, ii. 198. 
retains it falsely, ii. 200. 
his reply to king Edward's ambas- 

sadors, ii. 210. 
at enmity with pope Boniface, ii. 346, 
Poitiers, Gérard of, i. 466. 
Porrex, king of Britain, his history, i. 40. 
Priam, his death, i. 2. 
Pyngwers, king of Loegria, i. 40. 


Rainald, the marquis, ii. 104. 

Rainer, duke of Burgundy, i. 326, 328. 

Rainer of Picardy, one of the plunderers in 

Stephen's time, i. 492. 
Ralph, bishop of Orkney, i. 474, 476, 480. 
Ralph the cofferer slain, ii. 344. 
Randolph, bishop of Durham, i. 4.50. 
Raymond, prince of Antioch, ii. 60, 112. 
Raymond, count of St. Giles, marries the 

sister of Richard Coeur de Lion, ii. 

Rees ap Meredith makes war upon Edward 

I., ii. 184. 
taken and executed. ii. 188. 

Richard I. (Coeur de Lion), crowned, ii. 26. 
prépares for the Crusade, ii. 28. 
starts for the East, ii. 36. 
his proceedings in Sicily, ii. 40-52. 
his doings in Cyprus, ii. 54-70. 
arrives at Acre, ii. 74. 
quarrels with the duke of Austria, ii,84. 
disagreement with the king of France, 

ii. 92, 94. 
his Personal encounter with Saladin in 

the battle of Cœsarea, ii. 102. 
agrées to a. truce with Saladin and 

leaves S}Tia, ii. 110, 112. 
niade a prisoner in Austria, ii. 114. 
makes war upon the king of France, 

ii. 116, 118. 
dies of his wounds, ii. 122. 
Richard, king of Almaine, son of king 
John, ii. 132. 
taken prisoner at the battle of Lewes, 
ii. 142. 
Richarius of Pountif, i. 198. 
Richmond, archdeacon of, ii. 214. 
Riculfof Norway, i. 162. 
Ridel, Geoffrey, i. 464. 
Rival, king of Britain, i. 38: . 
Robert, duke of Normandy, aies, i. 372. 
Robert Courthose, i, 432. 

becomes duke of Normandy, i. 434. 
comes to England, i. 438. 
returns from the Holy Land, i. 448. 
invades England, i. 450. 
reconciled with king Henry L, i. 456. 
taken prisoner and dies in Corfe castle, 
i. 458. 
Robert de Kilwardby, archbishop of Can- 

terbury, ii, 164. 
Robert, John Fitz, drowued in the Welsh 

expédition, ii. 178. 
Roderic, king of the Picts, i. 66. 
Roger, archbishop of York, ii. 6. 
Rollo, the Northman. arrives in England, 
and then conquers Nonnandy, i. 
Ros, Robert de, of Wark, ii. 232. 
Rouland, lord of Galway, ii. 21. 
Rowena, daughter of Hengist, her story, 
1. 102-106. 



Kucy, Alan de, ii. 120. 
Rudauc, king of Wales, i. 40. 
Rupin of the Mountain, ii. 60. 


Sabul, Robert de, ii. 34. 

Sadberg, bought from the Crown by the 

bishop of Durham, ii. 30. 
SafFadin, the Saracen prince, ii. 100, 109. 
St. Andrews, the bishop of, negotiates a 
marriage between the daughter of 
king John Baliol and the brother of 
the king of France, ii. 252. 
thrown into prison, ii. 372. 
St. John, John de, ii. 214. 

taken prisoner at Belgarde, ii. 282. 
Saladin, king Richard marches against 
him, ii. 96. 
defeated in the battle of Cœsarea, ii. 

negotiates with king Richard, ii. 106. 
obtains n' truce for seven years, ii. 
110, 112. 
Salisbury, a castle built there by king Hu- 

dibras, i. 32. 
Saloman, king of Britany, i. 228, 242. 
Savoy, Earl Amery of, ii. 238. 
Savoy, the Earl of, ii. 334. 
Savoy, Laurence de, ii. 214. 
Saxons, arrivai of the, i. 98. 

différent branches of the race who 
settled in Brltain, i. 232. 
Say, Gilbert de la, i. 476. 
Scaffeld, patron of Pierre de Langtoft, ii. 

Scone, the abbot of, imprisoned, ii. 372. 
Scotland, disputed claim to the succession 
of, ii. ] 90. 
decided in favour of John Baliol, ii. 
Seaton, Christopher de, hanged, ii. 372. 
Sagrave, John de, ii. 322. 

surprised by the Scots, ii. 344. 
Seguin, duke of Burgundy, i. 44. 

Severn, origin of the namc of this river, i. 

Severus, the emperor, cornes to Britain, 

and is slain there, i. 70. 
Sibert, King of Essex, i. 280, 282. 
Sibert, king of Wessex, i. 290. 
slain dishonourably, i. 292. 
Sisilius, king of Britain, i. 38. 
Sisilius, son of Marcla, king of Britain, i. 


Siward, i. 16. 

Siward, Richard, his deceit, ii. 240, 242, 

Somerville, Robert de, ii. 298. 

Spoleto, the bishop of, cornes on a mission 

to Eugland, ii. 336. 
Stater, king of Scotland, i. 40. 
Statin le Nasé, ii. 66, 68. 

king Richard gives him the govern- 

ment of Cyprus, ii. 70. 
rébellion against him, ii. 74. 
Stephen of Blois, the successor of Henry 
I., i, 466. 
crowned king of England, i. 468. 
breaks his oath, i. 470. 
raakes war upon David, king of Scot- 
land, i. 472. 
proceeds to the Welsh border, ib. 
taken prisoner, i. 484. 
his accord with duke Henry, the son 

of the empress, i. 496. 
death of king Stephen, ib. 

Stephen Langton ma de archbishop of 
Canterbury, ii. 128. 
reconciled wlth king John. ii. 132. 
crowns king Henry IH., ii. 134. 
Stigand, archbishop of Canterbury, i. 410. 
Stirling Castle, siège and capture of, ii. 

356, 358. 
Stonehenge, the legeud of, i. 124. 
Stretton, Adam de, ii. 1 86. 
Surrey, John, earl of, il. 306. 
Sweyn, king of Denmark, Invades Eng- 
land, ii. 348. 
returns to England, ii. 350. 
ravages the south of England, ii. 354 



Sweyn, king of Denmark — cont. 

his oppressive tyranny, ii. 358. 

his death, ii. 360. 
Sweyn, son of Canute, made king of Nor- 
way, i. 371. 


Tancred, king of Sicily, ii. 40-48. 
Tannye, Lucas de, drowned in the Welsh 

expédition, ii. 178. 
Tenuancius, king of Cornwall, i. 58. 

becomes king of Britain, i. 60. 
Thadioc, archbishop of York, i. 230. 
Thangcaster, origin of the name, i. 102. 
Tlieobald, brotber of king Stephen, i. 460. 
Theobald, archbishop of Canterbiu'y, ii. 2. 
Theon, archbishop of London, i. 230. 
Thurston, archbishop of York, i, 474. 
Thweng, Marmaduke de, his bravery in 
Scotland, ii. 300. 
treacherously captui'ed by the Scots, 
ii. 804. 
Tintagel, castlg of, i. 134. 

besieged and destroyed by Uther Pen- 
dragon, i. 136, 138, 140. 
Tiptoft, Robert de, ii. 214. 
Tosti, earl of Northumberland, i. 396. 

invades England ou Harold's acces- 
sion, i. 398. 
invades Northumberland, i. 400. 
is slain at Stanford Bridge, i. 402. 
Tours, from whom named, i. 20. 
Tours, Amfrid de, ii. 60, 112. 
Trahern, the British prince, i. 78. 

slain, i. 80. 
Trailbastons, the proceedings against them, 

ii. 360. 
Troy, destruction of, i. 2. 
Turbeville, Thomas de, history of his 
ti'eason, ii. 226. 
his punishment, ii. 228. 
Turnham, Robert de, ii. 64, 66, 70. 
^t justiciary of Cyprus, ii. 72. 

Tumus, king of Tuscany, slain by Eneas, 

i. 4. 
Tumus, nephew of Brutus, slain in Poitou, 

i. 18. 
Tyrel, Walter, kOls William Rufus, i. 



Ubba, the companion of Inguar, i. 312. 
Uctred, lord of Cirencester, slain, i. 304. 
Umfi'avile, Gilbert de, ii. 234. 
Urbigen of Bath, i. 2 04. 

slain, i. 210. 
Urian receives Moray from king Arthur, 

i. 158. 
Ursula, St., Ihe legend of, i. 84. 
Uther Pendragon, i. 98. 

sent with Merlin to Ireland, i. 126. 

made king of Britain, i. 1 30. 

falls in love with the lady Igerne, 
i. 134. 

his intrigue with Igerne, i. 138. 

defeats the Saxons, i. 142, 144. 

is murdered, i. 144. 


Valence, Aymer de, ii. 370. 

See Pembroke. 
Valence, William de, ii. 136. 
Vavasor, Baldwin the, ii. 148. 
Vesci, John de, ii. 152, 180. 
Vesci, William de, ii. 230. 
Vespasian, oue of the officers of the em- 

peror Claudius, i. 64. 
Vortiger, usurps the crown of Britain, 
i. 96, 98. 

receives Hengist and Horsus, i. 98. 

marries Hengist's daughter, i. 102. 

carried prisoner to London, i. 108. 

his castle in Wales. i. 110. 



Vortiger — conf. 

conquered and slain by Ambrosius 
andUther, i. 116. 
Vortlmer, raade king in place of his father 
Vortiger, i. 104. 
murdered, i. 106. 
Vortiporius, made king of Britain, i. 226, 


Walcher, bishop of Durham, murdered, 

i. 430. 
Wales, invaded by earl Harold, i. 394, 
rises against king Edward, ii. 216. 
Edward's error in regard to Wales, 
Wallace, John, taken and executed, ii. 

Wallace, William, surprises and defeats 
the earl of Warenne, ii. 298. 
goes about robbing, ii. 350. 
offers terms of surrender to king 
Edward, which are refused, ii. 352. 
taken and executed, ii. 362. 
Waltlieof bebeaded, i. 430. 
Walwayn, son of Lot, i. 162. 

See Gawayn. 
Warren, John, earl of, ii. 240, 258. 

his death, ii. 360. 
Warren, John, earl of, his marriage, ii. 

Warren, Hugh, earl of, ii. 136, 142. 
Warren, William, earl of, ii. 368. 
Warwick, earl of, ii. 240. 
Westminster, statutes of, ii. 172. 
Weyland, Thomas de, ii. 186. 
Whitby abbey founded, i. 428. 
Wiglaf, king of Merci a, i. 298. 

slain, i. 302. 
William the Bastard becomes duke of 
Normandy, i. 372. 
visits England, i. 386. 
obtains a promise from Harold to 
secure to him the crown of England, 
i. 402. 

William the Bastard — cont. 
invades England, i. 406. 
gains the battle of Ilastings, and 

becomes king, i, 408. 
his coronation, i, 410. 
invades the north country, i. 414-424. 
his war in France, i. 428. 
devises his domains to his children, 

i. 432. 
his death, i. 434. 
William Kufus, commencement of his 
reign, i. 434. 
suppresses the rébellion of Robert de 

Mowbray, i. 442. 
invades Wales and Scotland, i. 444. 
circumstances of his death, i. 446, 
William, king of Scotland, invades England, 
and is taken prisoner, ii. 10. 
assists the young king Henry against 

his father, ib. 
makes his submission to king Henry, 

ii. 12. 
performs his homage at York, ii. 18. 
performs his homage to king Richard 

at Canterbury, ii, 82. 
and to king John at Lincoln, ii. 126. 
marries his daughter to the count of 
Boulogne, ii. 130. 
WilHam, bishop of Ely, ii. 34. 
Winchester, founded by king Hudibras, 

i. 32. 
Wollerton, Robert de, ii. 148. 
Worcester, ravaged by king Hardeknut, 

i. 378. 
Wounds of Britain, live, according to 

Henry of Huntingdon, i, 286. 
Wulfred, king of Mercia, i. 256. 


York, built by Brutus Green-shield, i. 30. 
rebuilt by king Arthur, i. 156, 
the abbey founded, i. 428. 


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